This study analysed the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles’(FCEVs’) life cycles. These included models running on hydrogen derived from coke oven gas (COG), which is a by-product of the coking process of coal and includes hydrogen, methane, and other gases. FCEVs and hydrogen have the potential to drive future mobility. Hydrogen can be separated from the COG in the process of pressure swing adsorption to obtain a purity of hydrogen that meets the requirements of a hydrogen FCEV. An environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) of FCEV powered by hydrogen produced from Polish COG was conducted. The direction of hydrogen production strategies in Poland was also presented. The analyses included the entire life cycle of FCEVs with the production of hydrogen from COG in a Polish coke plant. A comparative analysis of FCEVs and other alternative fuels was conducted, and the main determinants of GHG emissions of FCEV were given. Importantly, this is the first attempt at an environmental assessment of FCEVs in Poland.
In recent years, regarding the influence of the production processes and vehicles on the environment, new technical solutions for reducing air pollutions have been studied and developed. One of the new constructions is fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV). The production and running conditions of the vehicles are specific in different countries. Hence, a study of these conditions and fuel production process is needed. In this paper, a study of the FCEV efficiency, at different producing technologies of hydrogen (H2), is carried out. Life cycle assessment (LCA) method is used. A comparison, concerning fuel consumption and emissions as CO2 equivalent for the whole life cycle, is done for FCEV and conventional gasoline vehicle (GV). The influence of the energy mix and technology of production of hydrogen on spent energy and air pollution is analyzed. As the results show, in countries with CO2 emissions over 447 g per 1 kWh electricity, the technology of hydrogen production from natural gas is most effective. Now and in the near future, the ecological and financial advantages, connected to renovation of existing vehicle fleet with FCEV, are not absolutely verified.
The way of directive of the European Parliament and the Council in 2014/94 on October 22nd 2014 in the case of infrastructure development of alternative fuels which was specifically concerned with calls to reduce oil dependence on transport in European countries was imposed due to the necessity to formulate specific provisions in individual nations in the Union. In correlation to this, on the day of 11th January 2018 the act on electromobility and alternative fuels was passed, which came to be on the day of 1st September 2018 with changes implemented later on. The regulations mentioned above oblige public transport to partially replace their diesel engine-based rolling stock and introducing changes to alternative fuels (compressed hydrogen in gaseous form belongs to such fuels). Support systems in Poland are an important element in the implementation of modern and ecological technologies. Very often those solutions are much more expensive compared to the ones used so far. The financing provided by them enables the realization of such projects in our environment. In this work, the idea of emission-free public transport operating on the basis of electric vehicles (Battery Electric Vehicles) as well as hydrogen (Fuel Cell Vehicles) will be presented. Both of these variants will be compared and their working principle are going to be shown. The analysis of support systems for the development of emission-free public transport on a European, national and regional level will also be presented. All collected information will form a compendium of information essential to implementing the public transport project in Polish conditions.
The publication analyses the possibility of separating hydrogen from coke oven gas for further use in the transport sector in the FCEV segment (fuel cell electric vehicles). The construction of the separation installation using the PSA (pressure swing adsorption) method guaranteeing high purity of hydrogen was assumed, according to the requirements of ISO 14678-2:2012 and SAE J-2719 standards. The PSA technology is widely used in industrial gas separation processes, however, due to the composition of coal gas, which apart from hydrogen and methane consists of impurities in the form of hydrocarbons, sulphur compounds, chlorine, etc., it needs to be adapted to the needs of separation of hydrogen from coke oven gas. The study shows the total possible hydrogen production potential and then, in agreement with the JSW Group’s Coking Plants, limits were set for hydrogen production in PSA technology at Przyjaźń, Jadwiga and Radlin Coking Plants, without the negative impact of the separation installation on technological processes associated with coke oven battery firing, operation of existing power units, gas compression systems and taking into account securing the needs of external customers for coke oven gas. Additionally, in order to determine the Polish market demand for high-purity hydrogen, an analysis was carried out which indicates that in 2030 the share of FCEVs will be 2%, so the demand for hydrogen in this segment would be negligible compared to the supply of hydrogen produced in a large-scale installation. Due to the need to build such a market and adapt the parameters of the installation to the variable parameters of coke oven gas, the pilot scale of the installation and the target location of the installation at the Przyjaźń Coking Plant were indicated as the most optimal.
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Hydrogen can have great importance in seven areas of necessary changes in the transformation of the power system, including transport (especially motor transport), industrial processes, thermal and energy production in the construction industry and production processes. Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) do not cause local air pollution because they have zero “tailpipe” emissions. Essential are ecological and functional aspects of operating vehicles equipped with fuel cells. However, noteworthy is also the development of the refilling infrastructure. The functionality of FCEVs to a considerable degree depends on the functionality of fuel cells.
Wodór może mieć ogromne znaczenie w siedmiu obszarach niezbędnych zmian transformacji systemu elektroenergetycznego, w tym w transporcie (zwłaszcza w transporcie samochodowym), procesach przemysłowych, produkcji ciepła i energii w budownictwie oraz procesach produkcyjnych. Elektryczne pojazdy wodorowe z ogniwami paliwowymi (FCEV) nie powodują lokalnie zanieczyszczenia powietrza, ponieważ mają zerową emisję z „wydechu”. Istotnymi są ekologiczne i funkcjonalne aspekty eksploatacji pojazdów wyposażonych w ogniwa paliwowe. Jednak istotnym jest także rozwój infrastruktury ich tankowania. Funkcjonalność pojazdów (FCEV) w istotnym stopniu zależy od funkcjonalności ogniw paliwowych.