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EN
Purpose: The subject of this article is training and its impact on the motivation of public administration employees in tax offices. Design/methodology/approach: both secondary and primary research were conducted. Secondary research includes literature on the subjects of motivation, motivating, human resources management and employee training. However, the primary study includes a survey conducted in tax offices; in this case, the method was a survey, the technique was an online survey, and the research tool was a survey questionnaire. Findings: respondents almost unanimously answered that they mainly participate in training because the acquired knowledge will allow them to improve the performance of their duties. Training also motivates them to continue their professional development. The answer regarding job change is noteworthy: respondents do not connect the knowledge acquired during training with the possibility of changing jobs. The research shows that the most important form of motivation is material motivation. Next are the atmosphere and satisfaction with the duties performed. Originality/value: indicating how important it is to align employees' personal goals with the goals of the organization. In such a case, the system should take into account the individual needs of employees, but employees should also recognize the opportunities for their own development and the benefits that may accrue to the institution. In this way, professional goals can also become personal goals. The author drew attention to an important issue - respondents are aware of their needs, and employers should notice and meet their expectations. This will undoubtedly improve the functioning of many offices. In the era of artificial intelligence, employees' soft skills should be particularly valued because interpersonal skills, flexibility, the ability to cooperate, and creativity are becoming the key factors that distinguish people in the context of technological progress.
EN
Currently, the dynamic development of information technology contributes to the increasingly widespread application of Virtual Reality (VR) as modern and effective methods and training tools used in the process of self-education and/or training related to understanding the essence of the principles of operation and mastering the tasks of operating even complex systems or technical processes through simulating their actions. A significant argument for the use of virtual reality simulators in training uniformed services is the favorable cost-effect ratio and considerations of trainee safety. However, the use of VR simulators may be accompanied by the possibility of side effects or intensified symptoms of the so-called cybersickness. Bearing this in mind, the purpose of this article is to present the results of preliminary studies of adverse factors occurring during training using a VR simulator. The theoretical foundation for empirical research was provided by the results of a conducted review and analysis of literary content. Among the empirical methods, studies were conducted using a simulator sickness questionnaire and a research trial according to the parallel triangulation strategy scheme, involving the simultaneous use of quantitative and qualitative methods. The results obtained in this way can provide a valuable source of information about factors increasing the risk of adverse symptoms of cybersickness and ways of their mitigation, and can serve for further work on their development and application of VR simulators.
EN
The main purpose of dredging is to maintain the required depth of harbors and marine and inland waterways. Any investment work in port infrastructure should be planned in such a way as to minimize interference with the port operations and vessel traffic. The research aims to analyze work scenarios involving a proposed dredging fleet using a Navi-Trainer Professional 5000 navigational and maneuvering simulator connected to the Transas Navi-Sailor 4000 navigation information system. An analysis performed using these electronic chart display and information system (ECDIS) simulators allows the operational parameters of the dredging project to be determined. These parameters include driving time, time taken to fill a TSHD dredger to full capacity, scale of maneuverability of the dredger within the port area, and determination of the safe distance between dredging vessels and other ships. The proposed solution may be supplemented with additional computer-based programs, providing a valuable tool in the research and monitoring of planned and current dredging projects.
EN
In times of strong economic growth, one of the elements of a company's competitiveness is innovation. It determines a company's development and its success. Appropriate innovation management within a company is determined by specific activities in the areas of research, planning, implementation, diffusion and control. Innovation can relate to products, processes, organization and marketing. In the area of occupational health and safety, there are many innovations that improve the quality and productivity of work and have an impact on occupational health and safety. This paper presents the results of a study conducted using a survey of companies that use modern forms in the area of training to improve safety in their companies. The survey was conducted at the end of 2022 in 25 SME companies in the Silesian Voivodeship. The results of the survey were compared with trends in Poland and worldwide, based on publicly available reports and communications. The aim of the article is to highlight the level of training related to occupational health and safety and the demand for innovative forms of such training. Health and safety training is the cornerstone of creating safe work awareness in employees. Surveys of Polish companies indicate major problems in this area. According to Polish employees, training is boring, overloaded with theory and rarely deals with the practical side of work. This paper identifies modern forms of health and safety training and assesses the impact on safe employee behavior in the workplace. The results confirmed that there is a great need for modern training methods to improve the level of occupational safety in enterprises.
EN
Aim: The aim of the research was to verify the assumptions regarding the need to unify and standardize the design of tank vehicles in order to make it easier for rescuers from specialized chemical-ecological rescue groups (SRGChem) to make the right decisions at the scene. Ultimately, such unification is expected to allow the safe elimination of the threat by improving the rescue efforts of the groups in question. To carry it out, it is necessary to analyse rescue operations and draw conclusions, which should be made available to the manufacturers of tank vehicles, carriers and SGRchem rescuers. Project and methodology: In the first stage of consideration, an analysis of the literature was carried out, followed by a survey of the rescuers who are members of SRGChem in order to find out their opinions on the unification of the construction of tank vehicles. Questions included emergency unloading valves. Interviews were also conducted with experts familiar with the issues of the subject in question, in particular practitioners who perform command functions in the SGRchem on a daily basis. Results: A survey of emergency responders from specialized chemical and environmental rescue groups shows that the vast majority of this group sees a significant problem arising from the varied design of tank vehicles for transporting hazardous substances. An overwhelming number of respondents indicated that unification of the construction of tank vehicles transporting hazardous substances is feasible, but requires a lot of discussions with the manufacturers in terms of seeking new solutions, i.e., insurance relief for tank vehicles that would be certified for unified construction. Conclusions: The transportation of hazardous materials is a complex process that requires specialized knowledge. The organization of transport in accordance with current safety regulations and standards ensures not only the minimization of risks arising from the transport of hazardous materials, but also its full efficiency. It is important to remember that every participant in the transport of dangerous goods has certain responsibilities. The greatest scope is imposed on the carrier and the shipper. At the same time, it is necessary to pay attention to an indispensable element of transport safety – that is, training, which should be carried out for all employees who come into contact with dangerous goods. All these considerations lead to the conclusion that unification of the construction of tank vehicles would have a significant impact on improving the safety of transport and the effectiveness of ongoing rescue operations.
PL
Cel: Celem badań była weryfikacja przyjętych założeń na temat konieczności zunifikowania i ujednolicenia budowy cystern, tak aby ułatwić ratownikom specjalistycznych grup ratownictwa chemiczno-ekologicznego (SRGChem) podjęcie właściwych decyzji na miejscu akcji. Finalnie taka unifikacja ma pozwolić na bezpieczną likwidację zagrożenia poprzez usprawnienie działań ratowniczych wspomnianych grup. Do jej przeprowadzenia konieczne jest dokonanie analizy czynności ratowniczych oraz wyciągnięcie wniosków, które powinny być udostępnione producentom cystern, przewoźnikom oraz ratownikom SGRchem. Projekt i metody: W pierwszym etapie rozważań dokonano analizy literatury, następnie przeprowadzono badania ankietowe wśród ratowników będących członkami SRGChem w celu poznania ich opinii na temat unifikacji budowy cystern. Pytania dotyczyły m.in. zaworów do awaryjnego rozładunku. Przeprowadzono także wywiady z ekspertami znającymi problematykę przedmiotowego tematu, w szczególności praktykami, którzy na co dzień pełnią funkcje dowódcze w SGRchem. Wyniki: Z rozeznania przeprowadzonego wśród ratowników specjalistycznych grup ratownictwa chemiczno-ekologicznego wynika, że zdecydowana większość tej grupy dostrzega znaczny problem wynikający ze zróżnicowanej budowy cystern do przewozu substancji niebezpiecznych. Przeważająca liczba ankietowanych wskazała, że unifikacja budowy cystern przewożących substancje niebezpieczne jest możliwa do realizacji, lecz wymaga wielu rozmów z producentami w zakresie poszukiwania nowych rozwiązań, tj. ulgi w ubezpieczeniach cystern, które posiadałyby certyfikat potwierdzający zunifikowaną budowę. Wnioski: Przewóz materiałów niebezpiecznych jest skomplikowanym procesem wymagającym specjalistycznej wiedzy. Organizacja transportu zgodnie z obowiązującymi przepisami i normami w zakresie bezpieczeństwa gwarantuje nie tylko zminimalizowanie zagrożeń wynikających z przewozu materiałów niebezpiecznych, ale i pełną jego efektywność. Należy pamiętać, że każdy uczestnik przewozu towarów niebezpiecznych ma określone obowiązki. Największy zakres nałożony jest na przewoźnika oraz na nadawcę przesyłki. Jednocześnie trzeba zwrócić uwagę na nieodzowny element bezpieczeństwa w transporcie – czyli szkolenia, które powinny być przeprowadzane dla wszystkich pracowników mających styczność z towarami niebezpiecznymi. Wszystkie te uwarunkowania prowadzą do konkluzji, że unifikacja budowy cystern miałaby istotny wpływ na poprawę bezpieczeństwa transportu i skuteczności prowadzonych działań ratowniczych.
EN
Training an anti-aircraft soldier is expensive, complicated, and time-consuming. As a result, many countries, weighing the cost-effectiveness, opt to introduce solutions aimed at minimizing this trend. One of them is incorporating modern training devices such as simulators and trainers into the training. However, to make this happen, it is worth analyzing the effectiveness of training with their use by comparing it to that conducted in a traditional way. With this in mind, the purpose of this article is to present the results of research on the effectiveness of using a Virtual Reality (VR) simulator developed at the Military University of Technology in teaching the construction and basic activities of combat work in the area of conducting a selected check of the functioning of the SA6 Gainful missile launcher system. The theoretical foundation for the empirical research was provided by a method of analyzing literary content. By using the method of comparison and generalization, knowledge was obtained about the general construction and use of training devices in the training of the anti-aircraft defense forces of the Polish Armed Forces, and the features of the VR simulator were described. As regards the empirical methods, a study was conducted using a research sample which was conducted using a parallel triangulation strategy scheme involving the simultaneous use of quantitative and qualitative methods. The synthesis served in formulating the final conclusions and in determining the relationships between theoretical and empirical studies. The results obtained in this way can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of using training devices in training anti-aircraft defense forces and serve as a basis for further work on their development and application.
EN
The article deals with the equivalent courses for military rank in the Slovak Armed Forces. The aim of the article is to introduce the participation of Slovak, Czech, Polish and Hungarian soldiers in The Battalion Commander Course, which refers to the knowledge applicable and not applicable to the Slovak and Czech armed forces. The main part of this course deals with the developing leadership of the commanders, the goal is to train and educate the commanders, to set a personal example and to prepare the commanders for the deployement in wide scale of operations.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono szkolenia i kursy organizowane w Słowackich Siłach Zbrojnych, uprawniające do uzyskania poszczególnych stopni wojskowych. Omówiono szkolenie słowackich, czeskich, polskich i węgierskich żołnierzy na dowódcę batalionu (Battalion Commander Course) oraz wskazano różnice w zakresach wiedzy przekazywanej tym żołnierzom. W Słowackich Siłach Zbrojnych nacisk jest kładziony na rozwijanie umiejętności przywódczych dowódców, a także na takie wyszkolenie i edukację, by żołnierze stanowili przykład dla innych oraz byli przygotowani do udziału w różnego rodzaju operacjach.
EN
The article was aimed at studying the process of learning by the local difference threshold when filtering normal white noise. The existing learning algorithms for image processing were analyzed and their advantages and disadvantages were identified. The influence of normal white noiseon the recognition process is considered. A method for organizing the learning process of the correlator with image preprocessing by theGQP methodhas been developed. The dependence of the average value of readings of the rank CCF (RCCF) of GQPs of the reference andcurrent images, representing realizations of normal white noise, on the probability of formation of readings of zero GQP is determined. Two versions of the learning algorithm according to the described learning method are proposed. A technique for determining the algorithm efficiency estimate is proposed.
PL
Celem pracybyło zbadanie procesu uczenia za pomocą lokalnego progu różnicy podczas filtrowania normalnego białego szumu. Przeanalizowano istniejące algorytmy uczenia do przetwarzania obrazu oraz zidentyfikowano ich zalety i wady. Uwzględniono wpływ normalnego białego szumu na proces rozpoznawania. Opracowano metodę organizacji procesu uczenia korelatora z przetwarzaniem wstępnym obrazu przyużyciu metody GQP. Określono zależność średniej wartości próbek rangi CCF (RCCF) GQP obrazów referencyjnego i bieżącego, reprezentujących realizacje normalnego białego szumu, od prawdopodobieństwa utworzenia zerowych próbek GQP. Zaproponowano dwie wersje algorytmu uczenia opartegona opisanej metodologii uczenia. Zaproponowano metodę określania szacunkowej skuteczności algorytmu.
EN
Flexibility in workforce scheduling in services is necessary to reduce the impact of demand uncertainty, absenteeism, and desertion while maintaining high service levels. This paper studies the workforce scheduling problem, including multiple skill accumulation, training, and welfare, as well as flexibility for employees and the company. All these elements are modelled and included in a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) model that maximises their accumulated skill level. A real case study based on the scheduling of lab assistants to laboratory practices at a university in Colombia is used to generate numerical experiments. Different experiments were conducted, and the results show that the level of skill achieved is highly sensitive to the number of assistants and the number of allocations. The experiments also showed that, while keeping the same number of lab assistants, it is possible to include flexibility and welfare constraints. Finally, the proposed model can generate schedules that achieve high levels of skills and meet the different constraints of the model, including balance, accumulation, demand and welfare.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia przykładową implementację symulatora radiostacji RRC-9210 z użyciem wysokopoziomowego języka programowania Java oraz środowiska programistycznego NetBeans. Jego celem jest danie sposobności szkolenia operatorów danej radiostacji, w przypadku braku możliwości pracy na rzeczywistym sprzęcie. Rozwiązanie takie może okazać się pomocne podczas nauczania zdalnego, co również zostanie omówione w artykule.
EN
The article presents an example implementation of the RRC- 9210 radio simulator using the high-level Java programming language and the NetBeans development environment. Its purpose is to enable the operators’ training of a given radio, in the event of the inability to work on real equipment. Such a solution can be helpful during distance learning, which will also be discussed in the article.
PL
Do ważnych kierunków oraz trendów mających przeciwdziałać nasilającej się suszy, skutkom ocieplania klimatu oraz innym negatywnym zmianom w środowisku zalicza się realizacje z zakresu błękitno-zielonej infrastruktury na obszarach miejskich. W powyższym kontekście bez wątpienia wartościowym i zasługującym na uwagę przykładem konkretnych działań w tej dziedzinie była realizacja „Programu kaskadowych szkoleń dla pracowników samorządów terytorialnych w zakresie projektowania i gospodarowania zielenią w miastach”. Projekt wieńczyły konkretne realizacje z zakresu BZI w 18 miastach.
EN
The article was written under the framework of the project entitled “Helicopter Simulator for Police Aviation” DOB-BIO10/07/01/2019 of a value of PLN 50 068 639, funded by the National Centre for Research and Development under the contest 10/2019. The system is being implemented by the consortium involving: the Police Academy in Szczytno (the leader of the project), the War Studies Academy and ETC-PZL Aerospace Industries Sp. z o.o. Abstract An analysis of training needs for the crews of police multi-purpose Black Hawk S70i helicopters serving in Polish Police Forces has been an impulse to attempt the construction of the simulation system within the research and development project financed by the National Centre for Research and Development entitled “Helicopter Simulator for Police Aviation” consisting of three components, i.e. a training stand for a pilot (cockpit), a stand for a cargo handler, a training stand for the police officers practicing the air drop operations. The simulator is supposed to provide an opportunity to execute drills of various emergency situations, which consequently will allow preparing the crews and technical personnel in the full range to perform the tasks as far as theoretical knowledge and practical skills are concerned. Replacing real exercises by training held in a virtual environment is expected to contribute to a decrease in costs to be incurred by Police and enhanced safety for any persons participating in the actions remaining the subject of the said trainings. The article presents the design assumptions that arise, among other things, from multidisciplinary research performed over the determination of the detailed training needs and equipment requirements with regards to the Full Flight Simulator. The said research was conducted in collaboration with the officers of the Police Aviation Board in the High Command of the Police Headquarters as well as the operators of the counter terrorism sub-units of Polish Police Forces.
PL
Analiza potrzeb szkoleniowych załóg policyjnych śmigłowców wielozadaniowych Black Hawk S70i służących w polskiej Policji stała się impulsem do podjęcia próby budowy systemu symulacyjnego w ramach projektu badawczo-rozwojowego finansowanego przez Narodowe Centrum Badań i Rozwoju pt. „Symulator Śmigłowcowy Lotnictwa Policyjnego”, składającego się z trzech komponentów, tj. stanowiska szkoleniowego dla pilota (kokpit), stanowiska dla ładowacza, stanowiska szkoleniowego dla policjantów ćwiczących operacje zrzutu. Symulator powinien umożliwić przećwiczenie różnych sytuacji awaryjnych, co w rezultacie pozwoli na przygotowanie załóg i personelu technicznego w pełnym zakresie do wykonywania zadań w zakresie wiedzy teoretycznej i umiejętności praktycznych Zastąpienie ćwiczeń rzeczywistych szkoleniami w środowisku wirtualnym przyczyni się do zmniejszenia kosztów ponoszonych przez Policję oraz zwiększenia bezpieczeństwa osób uczestniczących w działaniach pozostających w zakresie przedmiotowym tych szkoleń. W artykule przedstawiono założenia projektowe wynikające m.in. z interdyscyplinarnych badań nad określeniem szczegółowych potrzeb szkoleniowych i wymagań sprzętowych w odniesieniu do pełnego symulatora lotu. Badania te zostały przeprowadzone we współpracy z funkcjonariuszami Zarządu Lotnictwa Policji w Komendzie Głównej Policji oraz operatorami pododdziałów antyterrorystycznych polskiej Policji.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the article is to present model Teacher Training Schools in Poland on the example of the implemented project ”Teacher Training School in the commune of Rawicz" and to present recommendations in the field of supporting teachers’ competences participating in the project. Design/methodology/approach: The article presents the Teacher Training School model as an innovative system of supporting teachers' competences. Selected aspects of the Teacher Training School functioning established as part of the project co-financed from EU funds are presented. The conclusions from the diagnostic tests (carried out for 7 supported schools, teachers and principals) were indicated in the light of their expectations for forms of support aimed at the development of professional competences. Two diagnostic methods and tools were used in the research process: CAWI survey – online survey research addressed to 66 teachers, based on respondents completing an electronic questionnaire using the Microsoft Forms tool, and CATI survey – computer-assisted telephone interview, conducted by the interviewer with 14 principals and deputy principals of schools, according to a predefined script. Findings: The results of the diagnosis of the schools’ needs, of teaching staff in particular, made it possible to specify teachers’ expectations within four subject areas (mathematics, ICT, natural sciences and language) towards the willingness to learn methods and techniques, as well as tools and technical means supporting the learning processes. At the same time, conditions for maintaining the durability of the introduced changes and strengthening the obtained effects were identified from the point of view of school principals and deputy principals. Research limitations/implications: The assessment of the effectiveness of the impact of the Teacher Training School in the commune of Rawicz presented in the article will be possible only after the completion of the project as part of the ongoing project evaluation. Practical implications: The results of diagnostic tests, including the expectations of teachers and managers, allow for detailed planning of workshops and cooperation networks in the project ”Teacher Training School in the commune of Rawicz”. Social implications: The implementation of model Teacher Training Schools in Poland will have a social dimension that will directly affect the development of teachers and indirectly increase the key competences of students. Originality/value: The presented model of the Teacher Training School as well as the conclusions of the conducted research constitute a recommendation for the needs of practical training of teachers from primary schools in Poland.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the article is to present model Teacher Training Schools in Poland and to demonstrate conclusions from the diagnosis of needs of supported schools in order to specify the forms of support for teachers included in the project. Design/methodology/approach: The article presents the assumptions of the Teacher Training School Model as an innovative system of supporting teachers' competences, which can be financed from EU funds. Selected aspects of the Teacher Training School functioning were presented for an exemplary project: “Teacher Training School in the commune of Barcin”, implemented in the period from January 01, 2021 until July 31, 2022. The conclusions from the diagnostic research (CAWI and CATI) of 7 supported schools, 65 teachers and 10 principals and deputy principals, in terms of their expectations for the forms of support planned in the project, were indicated. Findings: The results of the diagnosis of needs of supported schools allow to specify the forms of support for teachers and principals affected by the newly established Teacher Training School in the commune of Barcin. Research limitations/implications: The assessment of the effectiveness of the impact of the Teacher Training School in the commune of Barcin presented in the article will be possible after the completion of the project. Practical implications: The results of diagnostic tests, including the expectations of teachers and managers, allow for detailed planning of workshops and cooperation networks in the project „Teacher Training School in the commune of Barcin”. At the same time, the results may constitute recommendations for the process of training and practical improvement of teachers in the field of developing key competences for students. Social implications: The priority of educational policy in Poland is to ensure an effective system of education and continuous professional development of teachers which will respond to real needs of a school and will allow teachers to improve their professional competences and develop their workshop. Originality/value: The implementation of the model Teacher Training Schools in Poland will have a social dimension directly affecting teachers’ and indirectly pupils' key competences.
EN
This article compares military and defence-oriented training, education, and socialisation in seven European countries—Sweden, Germany, France, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Poland. The comparative case study approach has been employed to identify the systemic solutions employed in the defence education of young people in those European Union countries. The criteria that have guided the analysis of defence education in each country include purpose, characteristics, duration and possible shortcomings. The results identify common content and alternative delivery patterns and establish a research agenda for further study based on gaps in policy knowledge and programme evaluation. The defence education solutions implemented in each of the countries under analysis lead to conclusions and recommendations regarding the need to create common solutions in the area of cooperation between the armed forces and the civilian population of EU countries. The experience of each country shed light not only on defence-oriented training of young people but also on the potential of various activities aimed at strengthening national security.
PL
Artykuł przybliża możliwości symulatorów pojazdów kolejowych i symulatorów stanowiska do prowadzenia ruchu wykorzystywanych podczas szkoleń pracowników w metrze warszawskim. Wskazuje się na duże korzyści płynące ze stosowania symulatorów. Na podstawie doświadczeń zaobserwowano pozytywne opinie kandydatów i pracowników już posiadających kwalifikacje w zakresie możliwości przećwiczenia wielu incydentalnych sytuacji rzadko występujących w rzeczywistości. Zastosowanie symulatorów pozwala na powtarzalność tych samych ćwiczeń dla wszystkich pracowników oraz wstępną weryfikację predyspozycji do wykonywania danych czynności przez kursanta.
EN
The article explores the possibility of using railway vehicle simulators and train traffic management station simulators for training Warsaw metro employees. The great benefits of using simulators are pointed out. On the basis of experience, positive opinions of candidates and employees who already have qualifications in terms of the possibility of practicing many incidental situations rarely occurring in reality have been observed. The use of simulators allows for the repetition of the same exercises for all employees and the initial verification of the trainee's predisposition to perform given activities.
19
Content available remote Poprawa bezpieczeństwa transportu kolejowego i monitorowania maszynistów
PL
W artykule przedstawiono najważniejsze aspekty zmian w systemie szkolenia i egzaminowania kandydatów na maszynistów i maszynistów, które wejdą w życie z dniem 1 stycznia 2023 r. W pierwszej kolejności scharakteryzowano obowiązujący obecnie w Polsce system oraz wskazano jego podstawowe wady. Następnie opisano zakres zmian prawnych wynikających z nowelizacji Ustawy o transporcie kolejowym, które doprowadzą do rozdzielenia procesów szkolenia oraz egzaminowania, a w efekcie do poprawy efektywności tych procesów. W artykule przybliżono również zakres działania tworzonego obecnie Centrum Egzaminowania i Monitorowania Maszynistów, które będzie funkcjonowało przy Urzędzie Transportu Kolejowego i zostanie wyposażone w nowoczesne symulatory.
EN
The article presents the most important aspects of changes in the training and examination system for candidates for train drivers and train drivers, which will enter into force on January 1, 2023. First, the system currently in force in Poland is characterized and its basic disadvantages are indicated. Then, the scope of legal changes resulting from the amendment to the Act on Rail Transport is described, which will lead to the separation of training and examination processes, and, as a result, to improvement of the efficiency of these processes. The article also presents the scope of activities of the currently built Center for Examination and Monitoring of Train Drivers, which will function at The Office of Rail Transport and will be equipped with modern simulators.
PL
Omówiono prezentację multimedialną dotyczącą niepewności pomiaru, przygotowaną w ramach projektu realizowanego w Europejskiej Sieci Metrologicznej MATHMET. Prezentacja w sposób przystępny przedstawia metody wyznaczania współczynnika rozszerzenia podawanego w świadectwach wzorcowania. Będzie uzupełnieniem materiałów szkoleniowych związanych z niepewnością pomiaru.
EN
A multimedia presentation on the measurement uncertainty, prepared as part of the project implemented in the European Metrological Network MATHMET, was presented. In a simple way, it presents the methods of determining the coverage factor given in calibration certificates. It will complement training materials related to measurement uncertainty.
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