Around the world, the increasing population and consumption are placing huge demands on food. Agriculture is considered one of the important sectors in the world and the force to feed humanity. While under these circumstances, which stand out by successive years of drought, degradation of soil, climate change, and global warming, this sector has multifaceted a major issue that goes beyond threatening food security. Thus, Morocco characterized by an arid and semi-arid climate is one example of countries that suffered from those problems. Due to lack of rain, the water resources of some Moroccan arable lands are consumed highly as well as the quality of its soils is now degraded. This issue calls for new approaches to amending the degraded soils in these regions and sustain water supplies. Indeed, biochar can be a remedy for these poor soils; in fact, it has an incredible sequester carbon on soil, a benefit on the environment as well as on plant growth. Despite its virtues, certain biochars contain phytotoxic compounds. In this study, four biochars prepared from banana waste, peanut hull, almond shells, and walnut shells were tested on three plant species (cress to test (HAP), barley for assessing heavy metals, and lettuce to assess salinity) before any field application. The chemical and physical analysis was done for the four biochars and the sandy soil, the four biochars were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for identifying the morphology of each biochar. The results showed that the four biochars enhanced water holding capacity (WHC), they also revealed the existence of heavy metals especially for almond shells biochar and walnut shells biochar. While for the morphology of each biochar, banana waste biochar (BC-BW) and peanut hull biochar (BC-PeH) had more pores than almond shells biochar (BC-Alm) and walnut shells biochar(BC-WS). Concerning the phytotoxic tests, the lettuce was germinated in all biochars treatments except for the 8% biochar banana treatment, for the cress and barley, all the treatments were grown.
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In the work, adsorption of Cu2+ ions onto almond shell were investigated under different operational conditions. Almond shell was used without any pretreatment prior to the tests. The optimum conditions for adsorption of Cu2+ ions through almond shell were determined to be; pH 5.0, temperature 20°C, shaking rate 125 rpm, sorbent dose 0.3 g and initial Cu2+ ion concentration 50 mg/dm3. The equilibrium duration of the system was 60 minutes. The sorption capacities of the sorbents were predicted with the aid of equilibrium and kinetic models. The interactions of peanut shell with metal ions were constituted by SEM, EDX, FT-IR, XRD and AFM. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Weber-Morris, Elovich model and Bangham kinetic models were applied to test the experimental data. The Cu+2 ions adsorption onto almond shell was better defined by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, for initial pH. The equilibrium data were evaluated using Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, D-R and Harkins Jura isotherms. The highest R2 value in isotherm studies was obtained from Langmiur isotherm (R2 = 0.98) for the inlet concentration.
In this research, the suitability of almond shell and coconut fiber as a renewable agricultural residue for manufacturing of biocomposite to be used as a replacement of wood was investigated. The use of agriculture waste as a reinforcement in composite may result in several environmental and socioeconomic benefits. Biocomposite containing different weight percentage of almond shell particle (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 wt%) and coconut fiber (2, 4 and 6 wt%) mixed with 20 wt% of almond shell particles were made using epoxy resin and 0.5 wt% of Tricresyl Phosphate. Thermal stability test and morphology (SEM) of the biocomposite were determined.
W artykule przedstawiono analizę wyników badań trwałości materiałów biokompozytowych umacnianych łuskami migdałowca i włóknami kokosowymi, używanych jako zamienniki drewna. Zastosowanie odpadów rolniczych jako elementów umacniających materiały kompozytowe pozytywnie oddziałuje zarówno na środowisko naturalne, jak i kryteria ekonomiczne ich producentów. W badaniach stosowano materiały biokompozytowe o zawartości cząstek łusek migdałowca od 10 do 50% mas. oraz włókien kokosowych 2, 4 i 6% mas. Osnową wytworzonych kompozytów była żywica epoksydowa z dodatkiem fosforanu trikrezylowego 0,5% mas. Wykonano badania stabilności cieplnej wytworzonych biokompozytów oraz ich mikrostruktury przy zastosowaniu mikroskopu skaningowego SEM.