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EN
The aim of the study is to analyse shape memory alloy (SMA) pipeline joints in limited space applications for all kinds of ships. Generally, the space available in various areas on ships is strictly limited and service works usually meet many obstacles. If we consider a pipeline, the flange joints always require a larger free space around the pipe than the pipe alone. A simultaneous problem can occur with the propeller shaft line coupling between bearings. SMA couplings require less space around the pipe and service should be easier, e.g., insulation fixing, painting and so on. SMA couplings last for a lifetime and there is no need for periodical seal replacement. Herein, some proposals among other unpublished data are discussed. There is a significant technological interest in the use of SMAs for applications not widely used yet. A wide variety of alloys present the shape memory effect and many generate an expressive restitution force considerable for commercial interests.
EN
The paper presents a formal and legal status within the scope of design, construction and equipping the Polish Navy ships. Regulations in force in the Ministry of National Defence are not complete and have a significant impact on the possibilities and limited efficiency of building new ships. The article presents an attempt to systematise issues in terms of the construction of new ships for the Polish Navy. Fundamental attention was focused on identification of existing gaps in the regulations, as well as presenting proposals to eliminate them.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono stan formalno-prawny w zakresie przepisów projektowania, budowy i wyposażania jednostek pływających MW RP. Obowiązujące w resorcie obrony narodowej przepisy nie są kompletne i w znacznym stopniu wpływają na ograniczone możliwości i efektywność prowadzenia budów nowych okrętów. Artykuł prezentuje próbę usystematyzowania, pod względem pojęciowym, zagadnień dotyczących budowy nowych okrętów dla MW RP. Zasadniczą uwagę skupiono na zidentyfikowaniu występujących luk w przepisach, a także przedstawieniu propozycji ich wyeliminowania.
EN
The article presents the research results on the mechanical properties of aluminum alloy AW-5083 and its joints welded by hybrid method – traditional MIG and FSW. AW-5083 alloy is the most currently used in shipbuilding industry. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) – a new technology can be successfully used for butt-welding of different types of aluminum alloy sheets. FSW method can be an alternative to traditional arc welding methods i.e. MIG or TIG. Hybrid welding (FSW with MIG or TIG) could be used in cases when joining only by FSW is not possible. Welding parameters used for the connection of the sheets were presented. Metallographic analysis showed the correct construction of structural bonded joints. The research was carried out using a static tensile test in accordance with the requirements of the Standard PN-EN ISO 4136:2013-05. Flat samples cut perpendicular to the direction of rolling were used. The research was conducted at the temperature of +20ºC. The test shows that the mechanical properties of joints made by hybrid method compered to native material were lower. The tensile strength of joint was lower by 20% then native material 5083 while its yield stress was lower only about 6%. The biggest change was observed in case of plastic properties. Elongation of joint was over 50% lower compared to native material. Despite the decrease of mechanical properties, they meets the requirements of classification societies, so the conclusion is that hybrid method (FSW and MIG) of joining AW-5083 can be applied in shipbuilding industry.
PL
Ze względu na losowość czynników wymuszających podczas użytkowania urządzeń okrętowych w praktyce eksploatacyjnej okrętowych układów energetycznych wdrażanych jest coraz więcej elementów strategii eksploatacji wg stanu technicznego (ang. Condition Based Maintenance). W referacie przedstawiono wybrane problemy dotyczące diagnostyki jako niezbędnego ogniwa w ciągu czynności związanych z podejmowaniem racjonalnych, podyktowanych aktualnym stanem technicznym, decyzji eksploatacyjnych. W tym aspekcie zwrócono uwagę na konieczność odpowiedniego zorganizowania badań diagnostycznych oraz sposobu gromadzenia ich wyników pod kątem zastosowania w przyjętym modelu decyzyjnym. Ilustracją przedstawionych rozważań jest zaproponowany model procesów: zmian stanu technicznego i eksploatacyjnego silnika okrętowego opracowany z wykorzystaniem teorii procesów semimarkowskich. Uzyskane na podstawie tych modeli wartości odpowiednich wskaźników mogą zostać użyte w procesie decyzyjnym np. podczas wzmiankowanym w referacie opracowaniu drzewa decyzyjnego.
EN
The article presents the research results of hardness distribution of friction stir welded joint (FSW) of AW-5083 aluminium alloy. During the study used two types of tools: with cylindrical pin and with conical pin. FSW is a method of welding in the solid state, mechanical properties of joints welded by that method can be higher than that for arc welding techniques (MIG, TIG). The parameters of friction stir welding (FSW) used for joining 5083 alloy sheets were presented. Metallographic analysis of chosen joints showed the correct construction of structural bonded joints. The study was carried out using Vickers hardness HV1 in accordance with the requirements of the Polish Standard PN-EN 6507 using a hardness and microhardness-testing machine FM-800. The location of measurement points in the butt joint was determined in accordance with PN-EN 1043-1:2000. The indenter load was 9.8 N. In order to identify areas of particular characteristic of bonded joints macroscopic examination was performed using an optical microscope ZAISS AxioVert A1 MAT. The test specimens were polished and then etched with KELLER reagent. This enabled the precise identification of zones present in the joint, such as weld nugget, thermo-mechanically affected zone and native material. Hardness testing in across researched joints showed that the change of welding parameters in the range proposed in the research does not impact on the hardness distribution in the weld.
EN
The article presents the methodology of calculation of principal parameters of ship’s hull dimensions, called „significant ships list”, at preliminary stage of design process. Knowledge collected in the database is related to new buildings classified according to type, displacement, or DWT, shipping class, maximum speed etc. Are analysed dimensional constraints due of Froude Number, ships dimensional coefficients block and weigh coefficient, relations of main dimensions such as L/B, B/T, L/H, B/H etc. [7]. Those parameters coming out from ship-owners requirements like type of ship, load capacity, type of cargo, shipping zone, speed and some more. Very helpful tool for such analysis is list of significant ships created for specified types of ships. Mentioned lists are very effective under conditions that cover broad-spectrum new buildings and data included are credible. Uncritical taking values included in significant ships list can lead to critical errors in selection of main dimensions of a ship or its propulsion powering. For that reasons, basing on analysis, as main criteria of similarity of ship’s hull were assumed mass coefficient, block coefficient and Froude Number [2]. That procedure has significant impact at proper estimation of propulsion power. Another reliable parameter of evaluation of power seems to be relation between power and load capacity Ne/D.
EN
This article presents an analysis of main development and demand factors for offshore vessels in this industry and its influence on prospects of future development of main players and suppliers in shipbuilding sector in Europe. In author’s opinion, major drivers are: economic activity and population of the world, global energy consumption and demand, world oil and gas prices, demand and supply, global trends also, investments in renewable/alternative energy and clean power generation, discovery of new sources of energy and current situation on the offshore market. There are many other factors also and unfortunately there is no possibility in such short article describe all of them. These factors are global as well as sectoral, and in the case of shipowners - also internal. Their strength and direction for the development and demand for offshore vessels is diverse, therefore they also have a different meaning in this process. However, all these factors, to a greater or lesser degree determine the present and future volume as well as a structure by type of the fleet in question.
EN
The article presents the research results of thermography method used for monitoring process of friction stir welding of sheets made of AW-5083 aluminium alloy. Nowadays monitoring the temperature is used in many fields of science, including in the diagnosis of machining and joining processes such as turning, grinding, milling, welding, etc. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) – a new technology can be successfully used for butt-welding of different types of aluminium alloy sheets. FSW method can be an alternative to traditional arc welding methods i.e. MIG or TIG. The joining process was carried out on laboratory stand built on the basis of universal milling machine FWA-31. The parameters of joining AW-5083 alloy sheets chosen after optimization of the FSW process were presented. For determining temperature and its distribution in tool-workpieces contact area, noncontact infrared method was chosen. Infrared camera ThermoGear G100 produced by NEC Avio Infrared Technologies Co., Ltd. was used. The camera has two measuring ranges defined: -40-+120°C and 0-500°C. Average value of the temperature between the tool and joined metal sheets was about 380°C in case when correct parameters of welding were chosen. Controlling the temperature allow catch the moment when the material of joined sheets is plasticized (370°C ) which is best to start the linear moving of the tool and the same start of welding. The study can be the basis for the use of thermography method to monitor the process and determine the parameters of the friction stir welding for obtaining a high quality joint.
PL
W artykule przeanalizowano wybrane aspekty wpływu potencjału przemysłu stoczniowego na kształtowanie bezpieczeństwa morskiego państwa, zarówno w ujęciu historycznym, jak i współczesnym. W publikacji odniesiono się również do wybranych aspektów zdolności polskiego przemysłu stoczniowego w działaniach na rzecz sił morskich.
EN
This article examines selected aspects of the shipbuilding industry's potential for maritime safety in both the historical and the contemporary context. The publication also refers to selected aspects of the capabilities of the Polish shipbuilding industry in actions for naval forces.
EN
This paper presents the results of research on adhesive joints durability properties of ship austenitic steel done with the use of the latest adhesives – glues: a composite one from Belzona company, described as 1111 and 1212 as well as a Hysol 9466 adhesive, produced by Hysol. The 1.4301 (304) and 1.3964 (2xx) steels used for shipbuilding were single-lap adhesive joint, with varying degree of edges’ chamfering and offsetting (with a deflection). This type of alternative connections will provide protection and temporary structure’s protection in case of emergency cracking (due to corrosion or an impact) of the examined steel or welded joints of the ship’s construction and hull’s sheathings. The adhesive joints of the tested steel were made in laboratory conditions (according to the technological card) as well as outside the laboratory, hereinafter called as the emergency ones with the use of Belzon 1212. Adhesive joints of 304 and 2xx steel using Hysol 9466 adhesive made in laboratory conditions showed better durability properties than the ones made with the use of Belzona 1111 composite. However, in case of emergency connections the bonding strength as well as the bonding time (hardening) are important factors. The use of the special Belzona 1212 (for wet surfaces) gives a relatively good durability of approx. 20MPa with a much shorter (up to 20 minutes) hardening time and does not require such an accurate surface preparation as the adhesive joints made with the use of Hysol 9466.
11
Content available remote Monitorowanie oraz balansowanie ogniw akumulatora łodzi solarnej
PL
AGH „Solar Boat” jest akademickim projektem łodzi solarnej. Energia pozyskana z paneli fotowoltaicznych magazynowana jest w akumulatorze litowo-jonowym, wymagającym układu Battery Management System. Zabezpiecza on ogniwa przed nadmiernym rozładowaniem oraz przeładowaniem, a także wyrównuje rozbieżności pomiędzy poziomami naładowania poszczególnych cel w akumulatorze. Aby efektywnie balansować ogniwa, niezbędne jest prawidłowe określenie ich stanu naładowania. Proces komplikuje nieliniowa zależność napięcia wykazywanego przez baterię od poziomu naładowania, pojemność oraz impedancja wewnętrzna ogniwa i temperatura pracy akumulatora. Budowa układu BMS składa się z doboru układu scalonego zarządzającego akumulatorem, stworzenia obwodów monitorujących oraz balansujących cele przy współpracy z głównym układem logicznym, przygotowania adaptera ogniw oraz komunikacji pomiędzy układem logicznym i komputerem, a następnie odpowiedniej konfiguracji układu.
EN
AGH Solar Boat is an academic project of solar boat. The energy obtained from photovoltaic panels is stored in the lithium-ion battery that requires the Battery Management System. It protects the cells against excessive discharge and overload, as well as balancing divergences between the levels of charge of each cell in the battery. Determining the correct state of charge indicator is necessary to effectively balance the cells. The process is complicated because of non-linear dependence of voltage exhibited by the battery at different charge level, the capacity and the internal impedance of the cell and working temperature of the battery. Construction of BMS consists of a selection of integrated circuit battery management, create a circuit monitoring and balancing the cells in cooperation with the main chip, preparation cells adapter and communication between microcontroler and computer, then configuration the appropriate system.
EN
The article presents the research results of hardness distribution of friction stir welded joint (FSW) of AW-5083 aluminium alloy. During the study used two types of tools: with cylindrical pin and with conical pin. FSW is a method of welding in the solid state, mechanical properties of joints welded by that method can be higher than that for arc welding techniques (MIG, TIG). The parameters of friction stir welding (FSW) used for joining 5083 alloy sheets were presented. Metallographic analysis of chosen joints showed the correct construction of structural bonded joints. The study was carried out using Vickers hardness HV1 in accordance with the requirements of the Polish Standard PN-EN 6507 using a hardness and microhardness-testing machine FM-800. The location of measurement points in the butt joint was determined in accordance with PN-EN 1043-1:2000. The indenter load was 9.8 N. In order to identify areas of particular characteristic of bonded joints macroscopic examination was performed using an optical microscope ZAISS AxioVert A1 MAT. The test specimens were polished and then etched with KELLER reagent. This enabled the precise identification of zones present in the joint, such as weld nugget, thermomechanically affected zone, native material. Hardness testing in across researched joints showed that the shape of the welding tool pin does not affect the mean value of hardness in the weld.
PL
Artykuł przedstawia założenia, architekturę i główne funkcje programu DNVGL Survey Simulator. Program, bazujący na wizualizacji 3D okrętów i platform wiertniczych, został stworzony w celu wspomagania profesjonalnego szkolenia załóg pływających. Realizuje on model kształcenia w znacznej mierze odmienny od akademickiego, skoncentrowany przede wszystkim na problemach praktycznych i procedurach obowiązujących w przemyśle. Przedstawione zostały również pierwsze wyniki jego implementacji w procesie nauczania na Wydziale Oceanotechniki i Okrętownictwa Politechniki Gdańskiej.
EN
The paper presents history, architecture and functionality of Survey Simulator – an innovative solution helping to train in carrying out visual inspections in more comprehensive, efficient and safe way. Various utilities offered by Survey Simulator help trainees with gaining practical knowledge in order to become self-reliant in their future daily tasks. It makes practical training possible without leaving classroom. The second important problem presented in this paper is an implementation of Survey Simulator at Faculty of Ocean Engineering and Ship Technology, Gdansk University of Technology. Using teaching tool based on practical approach, quite different than theoretical one, dominating at universities, generates new expectations as well as new opportunities for students, researchers and commercial software vendor. Different aspects of cooperation between academia and industry were described as well as first conclusions after few months of intensive usage of the program by students.
PL
W referacie przedstawiono zakres stosowania kompozytów polimerowych w budownictwie okrętowym (statki, okręty) oraz możliwe teoretyczne sposoby ich recyklingu.
EN
The paper presents the scope of polymer composites in shipbuilding (ships, vessels) and the theoretical possible ways of recycling.
EN
The paper presents comparative analysis of energetic possibilities of different ships with close parameters of displacement and operational ailing range, for selected type of main engine. Analysis is related to three types of ships, i.e. bulk carrier, tanker and container ship, with assumed displacement at level of 120 000DWT and typical for that ships sailing speed. The analysis concerns shipping route from Gdynia to Shanghai. First step of conducted analysis was based on elaboration of the list of contemporary similar ships for every class, their general dimensions, dimensional coefficients, and subsequently evaluation of hulls resistances using Holtrop – Mennen Method necessary for calculation of propulsive power, main engines’ selection, most convenient for every type of ship and calculation of trips durations and fuel consumptions. All calculations were done assuming typical cruising speed for considered types of ships, it means 25 knots for container ships and 15 knots for tankers and bulkers. Results of carried out calculations lets come to the conclusion that total time of trip duration of container ship is 1.5 times shorter and fuel consumption is 2.5 times higher comparing with tankers and bulk carriers going on the same trip. Taking under consideration constantly growing prices of heavy oil, that situation is inconvenient from economical point of view. Above facts explains general trend to reduce speed of container ships presented by almost all shipping companies. The way of speed’s reduction is decreasing of continuous power rate of main engine, what is related to necessity of blinding or dismounting some numbers of turbochargers. Hypothetic example of such operation and its impact at operational properties were analysed, and results showed, that exploitation parameters of the container ship begun closer to bulk carriers and tankers but could not achieve proper level of efficacy due to not optimal hull shape and engine characteristic.
EN
Stabilization/solidification (S/S) method is a potential solution for immobilization of heavy metals containing waste. Immobilization of heavy metals from spent grit, waste material from the shipbuilding and ship repair industry, into the fly ash based geopolymers using the S/S method was evaluated. Addition of spent grit in the quantity of 10% of total solid content of geopolymer mixture decreased the compressive strength of fly ash based geopolymers but did not affect the change of geopolymer strength in function of synthesis parameters. TCLP and EN 12457-2 leaching test were used for the evaluation of chemical stability of contaminated geopolymers with respect to the leaching of heavy metals. The both, TCLP and EN 12457 leachates fulfill the maximum acceptable limits for landfill disposal with respect to the heavy metals concentration. The highest concentration of Zn is observed in a both, TCLP and EN 12457 leachates due to the synthesis parameters.
EN
The specificity of the yard work requires the particularly careful treatment of the issues of scheduling and budgeting in the production planning processes. The article presents the method of analysis of the assembly sequence taking into account the duration of individual activities and the demand for resources. A method of the critical path and resource budgeting were used. Modelling of the assembly was performed using the acyclic graphs. It has been shown that the assembly sequences can have very different feasible budget regions. The proposed model is applied to the assembly processes of large-scale welded structures, including the hulls of ships. The presented computational examples have a simulation character. They show the usefulness of the model and the possibility to use it in a variety of analyses.
EN
The article uses the analytical equation for the work function of metals, made by one of the authors, to study the structure of aluminum alloys, which are increasingly used in the shipbuilding industry. For example, of selected alloys Al-Cu, Al-Ta and Al-Ti are presented graphically changes in work function depending on the percentage composition of the alloy. Also presented an equation that allows to evaluate the work function for multicomponent alloys.
19
Content available remote Urządzenia badawcze przemysłu stoczniowego
PL
W procesie projektowania statku ważny problem stanowi badanie jego własności morskich. Zadanie to realizuje się poprzez badania modelowe wykonywane z wykorzystaniem specjalistycznych urządzeń, jakimi są pomosty holownicze. Badania oparte o programy komputerowe, chociaż tańsze, nie pozwalają na osiągnięcie takich samych wyników, dlatego zapotrzebowanie armatorów na badania modelowe w dalszym ciągu nie słabnie.
20
Content available remote Napęd i zasilanie hybrydowe niewielkich jednostek pływających
PL
W ostatnich latach jesteśmy świadkami niezwykłego rozwoju praktycznie wszystkich dziedzin nauki. Dzięki temu zwłaszcza w krajach wysoko rozwiniętych projektowane i produkowane są nowe maszyny i urządzenia o coraz bardziej niezwykłych możliwościach. Postęp nie ominął okrętownictwa. Coraz ostrzejsze normy dotyczące ochrony środowiska oraz rosnące ceny paliw spowodowały, że podczas projektowania nowych jednostek oraz modernizacji starszych coraz większą wagę przywiązuje się do ich konstrukcji oraz przewidywanych kosztów eksploatacji. Należy również pamiętać o tym, że rodzaj zastosowanego napędu może mieć decydujący wpływ na to, czy jednostka zostanie dopuszczona do eksploatacji zwłaszcza na obszarach objętych ochroną, na przykład programem Natura 2000. Przeglądając literaturę fachową dotyczą okrętownictwa, coraz częściej można znaleźć artykuły, w tytułach których pojawiają się zwroty no emission, zero emission bądź green ship. Świadczy to o tym, że większą niż kiedyś wagę przywiązuje się do tak zwanych „czystych technologii”.
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