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EN
The purpose of this study was to assess miners’ perceptions about the safety climate of their workplace. To achieve the research aim, the relationship between demographic characteristics and occupational hazards was first determined, and finally, the relationship of safety climate with occupational hazards and health-seeking behavior was discovered. The data was collected through a self-reporting questionnaire. The results revealed that the subjects have to deal with severe occupational hazards, and they possess poor health-seeking behavior. A safety climate assessment showed that only one of the seven dimensions (i.e. safety communication, learning, and trust in co-worker safety competence) was at a satisfactory level. With respect to the first objective, we found that age, education, and experience were statistically significant with occupational hazards, while marital status had no significant impact on occupational hazards. Regarding the second objective, three dimensions (management safety justice, safety communication, learning, and trust in co-worker safety competence, and workers’ trust in the efficacy of safety systems) were significant predictors of occupational hazards. The study reflects that workers’ participation is the main factor in setting up an adequate safety climate within the organization. Suggestions provided in this study could provide useful information to managers and safety practitioners to improve safety performance and promote the safety climate in the organization.
PL
W niniejszym artykule zaprezentowano wyniki prac poświęconych skróconej wersji kwestionariusza do pomiaru klimatu bezpieczeństwa. Klimat bezpieczeństwa rozumiany jest jako suma moralnych spostrzeżeń pracowników na temat ich środowiska pracy, stanowi odzwierciedlenie pracowniczej percepcji organizacyjnego systemu zarządzania, z uwzględnieniem polityki, stosowanych praktyk i procedur. Skrócona wersja Kwestionariusza Klimatu Bezpieczeństwa zawiera 50 twierdzeń, które tworzą 10 wymiarów: partycypacja pracowników w sprawy bezpieczeństwa, zachowania bezpieczne, zaangażowanie kierownictwa, modelowanie i wzmacnianie bezpiecznych zachowań w organizacji, zarządzanie ryzykiem w sytuacji wypadku, zaplecze techniczne i ergonomia, tempo pracy i poziom zmęczenia, proces szkolenia w zakresie bhp, atmosfera w miejscu pracy, polityka organizacji w zakresie zarządzania bhp. Badania przeprowadzono w grupie 813 osób. Wstępne analizy wskazują na satysfakcjonujące własności psychometryczne, a co za tym idzie – KKB-50 można uznać za trafne i rzetelne narzędzie do pomiaru klimatu bezpieczeństwa w organizacji. Wartość współczynnika alfa Cronbacha dla globalnego wymiaru klimatu bezpieczeństwa wyniosła 0,930, zaś dla jego poszczególnych skal wahała się w przedziale 0,67- 0,83. Trafność kwestionariusza szacowana przy użyciu współczynników korelacji liniowej r-Pearsona jest na dobrym poziomie (r = 0,84, p < 0,01). Analiza czynnikowa potwierdza jednorodność skal.
EN
This article presents the results of works on a shortened version of Questionnaire of the Safety Climate. Safety climate is treated as the sum of the employees’ moral perceptions of their work environment. It reflects employees’ perceptions of organizational management system including policies, practices and procedures. The shortened version of Questionnaire of the Safety Climate contains 50 statements that create 10 dimensions: employees’ participation in safety matters, safe behaviours, management commitment, modeling and strengthening of safe behaviours in the organization, risk management in case of an accidents, technical facilities and ergonomics, work pace and the level of fatigue , the process of health and safety trainings, workplace atmosphere, organization policy in the field of occupational health and safety management. The research was conducted in a group of 813 people. Preliminary analyzes indicate satisfying psychometric properties, and thus – KKB-50 can be considered as a valid and reliable tool for measuring the safety climate in an organization. The value of Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the global dimension of the safety climate was 0.930, while for its individual scales it fluctuated within 0.67-0.83. The accuracy of the questionnaire estimated using the linear correlation coefficients r-Pearson is on a good level (r = 0.84, p < 0.01). Factor analysis confirms the homogeneity of scales.
3
Content available Human error in pilotage operations
EN
Pilotage operations require close interaction between human and machines. This complex sociotechnical system is necessary to safely and efficiently maneuver a vessel in constrained waters. A sociotechnical system consists of interdependent human- and technical variables that continuously must work together to be successful. This complexity is prone to errors, and statistics show that most these errors in the maritime domain are due to human components in the system (80 ? 85%). This explains the attention on research to reduce human errors. The current study deployed a systematic human error reduction and prediction approach (SHERPA) to shed light on error types and error remedies apparent in pilotage operations. Data was collected using interviews and observation. Hierarchical task analysis was performed and 55 tasks were analyzed using SHERPA. Findings suggests that communication and action omission errors are most prone to human errors in pilotage operations. Practical and theoretical implications of the results are discussed.
PL
Bezpieczeństwo, jako jedna z podstawowych potrzeb człowieka, wydaje się być niezbędnym elementem dbania o pracownika w organizacji. Dzięki niej tworzy się środowisko pracy, w którym rozwijają właściwe postawy pracowników wobec bezpieczeństwa. To z kolei prowadzi do mniejszej wypadkowości i zmniejszenia ryzyka zawodowego. Wysoki poziom kultury bezpieczeństwa prowadzi także do zwiększenia motywacji do pracy, wyższej satysfakcji i zaangażowania pracowników. Materiał i metody: W badaniach uczestniczyło 427 pracowników z południowej i wschodniej Polski w wieku 18 – 67 lat. Zastosowano „Kwestionariusz Kultury Bezpieczeństwa w Pracy (KKBP)” A. Wołpiuk - Ochocińskiej i B. Ochocińskiego, Praca i Samopoczucie UWES W. Shaufeli'ego i A. Bakkera i Skalę Przywiązania do Organizacji(OCS) Meyera i Allen. Wyniki: Pracownicy oceniający na wysokim i niskim poziomie poziom kultury bezpieczeństwa pracy różnią się istotnie statystycznie pod względem wszystkich badanych wymiarów zaangażowania pracowniczego. Pracownicy z organizacji o wyższym poziomie kultury bezpieczeństwa oznaczają się wyższym poziomem wigoru, absorpcji i dedykacji, a także wyższym poziomem przywiązania emocjonalnego, normatywnego i o charakterze trwania. Wnioski: Kultura bezpieczeństwa pracy, a szczególnie psychologiczne poczucie bezpieczeństwa w pracy są istotnym elementem warunkującym zaangażowanie organizacyjne pracownika. Zaangażowanie w pracę, szczególnie w postaci zaabsorbowania pracą, decyduje o poziomie przywiązania do organizacji o charakterze emocjonalnym, trwania i normatywnym. Zbyt wysoki poziom zapobiegania błędom w zakresie bezpieczeństwa pracy w konsekwencji może prowadzić do obniżenia normatywnego zaangażowania pracowników.
EN
Background: Safety as one of the basic human needs seems to be an essential element of taking care of employees in an organization. It creates a work environment in which employees can develop the right attitude towards safety. This in turn leads to a lower accident rate and reduces occupational risk. The high level of safety culture will also increase to incentives to work, higher satisfaction and employees' engagement. Material and Methods: The study involved 427 employees from southern and eastern Poland aged 18 - 67 years. “Safety Culture at Work Questionnaire (KKBP)” by A Wołpiuk - Ochociński and B. Ochociński, W. Shaufeli and A. Bakker's Work Engagement Scale and Meyer and Allen's Commitment to Organization Scale were used. Results: Scorers evaluating the level of safety culture at work high and low differ significantly in terms of all the surveyed dimensions of the organizational engagement and work engagement. Employees of the organizations with a higher level of safety culture mean a higher level of vigor, dedication and absorption, as well as higher levels of emotional, normative and continuance commitment. Conclusions: The culture of work safety, especially the psychological sense of safety at work are an essential element for employee's organizational commitment. Work engagement, meant as an absorption, determines the level of emotional, continuance and normative commitment to organization. Too high level of prevention of Errors in the field of work safety may ultimately lead to a lower level of employees' engagement.
EN
According to statistical data, the main cause of accidents is inappropriate behaviour of an employee. The analysis of causes of accidents determined that it is due to the low level of work safety culture. The main aim of the presented research was the assessment of the influence of selected sociodemographic factors on the level of safety climate in micro and small construction companies. The research was carried out by means of an authorial survey questionnaire on a group of 48 employees. Out of the mentioned factors, age and seniority have the biggest influence on the level of safety climate in the examined companies. The analysis shows that in the group consisting of the youngest employees and the group consisting of employees with the least seniority preventive measures should be taken in order to raise the level of work safety culture.
PL
Według danych statystycznych główną przyczyną wypadków przy pracy jest niewłaściwe zachowanie się pracownika. W analizie przyczyn wypadków określane jest to jako niski poziom kultury bezpieczeństwa pracy. Głównym celem zaprezentowanych badań była ocena wpływu wybranych czynników socjodemograficznych na poziom klimatu bezpieczeństwa w mikro i małych firmach budowlanych. Badania przeprowadzono za pomocą autorskiego kwestionariusza ankiety na grupie 48 pracowników. Z wybranych czynników socjodemograficznych wiek i staż pracy mają największy wpływ na poziom klimatu bezpieczeństwa w badanych przedsiębiorstwach. Z analizy danych wynika, że w grupie najmłodszych pracowników oraz w grupie pracowników z najniższym stażem pracy należy podjąć działania prewencyjne w celu podniesienia poziomu klimatu bezpieczeństwa pracy.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje wstępne wyniki prac nad narzędziem do pomiaru klimatu bezpieczeństwa. Klimat bezpieczeństwa traktowany jest jako suma moralnych spostrzeżeń, które podzielają pracownicy na temat ich środowiska pracy. Odzwierciedla pracowniczą percepcję organizacyjnego systemu zarządzania z uwzględnieniem polityki, stosowanych praktyk i procedur, które wskazują jak bezpieczeństwo jest realizowane w środowisku pracy. Przygotowana wersja Kwestionariusza Klimatu Bezpieczeństwa składa się ze 106 twierdzeń, obejmujących wymiary związane z partycypacją pracowników w sprawy bezpieczeństwa, zachowaniami bezpiecznymi, zaangażowaniem kierownictwa, modelowaniem i wzmacnianiem bezpiecznych zachowań w organizacji, zarządzaniem ryzykiem w miejscu pracy, zapleczem technicznym i ergonomią, tempem pracy i poziomem zmęczenia, procesem szkolenia w zakresie bhp, atmosferą w miejscu pracy, polityką organizacji w zakresie zarządzania bhp. Wyniki analiz przeprowadzonych z udziałem 695 osób pokazują, że rzetelność wyróżnionych skal jest satysfakcjonująca (alfa Cronbacha od 0,68 do 0,89). Również trafność kwestionariusza, oszacowana za pomocą współczynników korelacji liniowej r-Pearsona, jest na dobrym poziomie (r = 0,88, p < 0,01). Wyniki analizy czynnikowej wskazują na jednorodność 4 spośród 10 poskal, w pozostałych można wyodrębnić kolejne subwymiary. Wstępne analizy pozwalają uznać KKB za trafne i rzetelne narzędzie do pomiaru klimatu bezpieczeństwa w organizacji.
EN
This article presents the results of work on the tool for measuring the safety climate. Safety climate is treated as the sum of the moral perceptions that employees’ share about their environment. It reflects employee perceptions of organizational management system regarding policies, practices and procedures that indicate how safety is implemented in the work environment The prepared version of the Questionnaire of the Safety Climate consists of 106 statements regarding the dimensions related to employee participation in safety issues, safe behaviors, management’s commitment, modeling and strengthening safe behaviors in the organization, risk management in the workplace, technical equipment and ergonomics, the pace of work and the level of fatigue , the process of training in health and safety, the atmosphere in the workplace, the organization's policies in the management of health and safety. The results of analyzes conducted for the 695 people show that the reliability of the scale is satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha from 0.68 to 0.89). What is more, the accuracy of the questionnaire is on a good level (r = 0.88, p < 0.01). The results of the factor analysis indicate the homogeneity of 4 scales. Preliminary analyzes allow saying that KKB is accurate and reliable tool for measuring the climate of security in the organization.
PL
Celem artykułu jest zwrócenie uwagi na znaczenie czynników podmiotowych - indywidualnych oraz wskazanie ich wpływu na kształtowanie kultury bezpieczeństwa w przedsiębiorstwach wydobywczych. W tym kontekście podkreślono rolę różnic indywidualnych związanych przede wszystkim z temperamentalnymi uwarunkowaniami zachowań probezpiecznych. W artykule omówiono także zagadnienia dotyczące wybranych aspektów psychologii różnic indywidualnych, problematykę bezpieczeństwa z uwzględnieniem definicji kultury i klimatu bezpieczeństwa, złożonych relacji pomiędzy charakterystycznymi cechami temperamentu a podejmowaniem zachowań probezpiecznych lub ryzykownych przez pracowników. W końcowej części artykułu zostały przedstawione praktyczne wskazówki, które można zaimplementować w przedsiębiorstwach wydobywczych.
EN
This paper highlights the significance of individual subject-related factors and indicates their impact on the development of the safety culture in mining enterprises. The role of individual differences related mainly to pro-safety behaviours driven by individuals’ tempers was emphasized in this context. The paper also addresses the issues pertaining to the selected aspects of the psychology of individual differences, the safety problems including the definition of the safety culture and climate, complex relations between characteristic features of a temper and undertaking pro-safety behaviours vs. the risky ones by employees. The final section presents practical guidelines that may be implemented in mining enterprises.
EN
Many organizations worldwide have implemented Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS) 18001 in their premises because of the assumed positive effects of this standard on safety. Few studies have analyzed the effect of the safety climate in OHSAS 18001-certified organizations. This case–control study used a new safety climate questionnaire to evaluate three OHSAS 18001-certified and three non-certified manufacturing companies in Iran. Hierarchical regression indicated that the safety climate was influenced by OHSAS implementation and by safety training. Employees who received safety training had better perceptions of the safety climate and its dimensions than other respondents within the certified companies. This study found that the implementation of OHSAS 18001 does not guarantee improvement of the safety climate. This study also emphasizes the need for high-quality safety training for employees of the certified companies to improve the safety climate.
PL
Gazy cieplarniane (CO2, CH4, N2O) powstające w przemyśle, transporcie i rolnictwie oraz para wodna są uważane za główną przyczynę ocieplania się klimatu. Rolnictwo, po przemyśle i transporcie, jest jednym z ważniejszych emitentów tych gazów w skali globalnej. Zalecane ekstensywne żywienie zwierząt (np. pastwiskowanie) jest dla nich przyjazne, ale bardziej metanogenne niż intensywne żywienie paszami treściwymi. Na wielkość emisji GHG przez inwentarz żywy wpływają takie czynniki jak: skład dawki pokarmowej, strawność składników pokarmowych, system utrzymania i żywienia, stan zdrowotny zwierząt oraz gospodarowanie odchodami. Zmniejszenie się emisji GHG z produkcji zwierzęcej w Polsce w latach 1988-2012 jest wynikiem spadku liczby pogłowia. Jednak coraz powszechniejsze utrzymanie krów mlecznych w oborach bezściołowych spowodowało wzrost emisji CH4 z tej działalności rolniczej. W celu zmniejszenia emisji GHG wytwarzanych przez zwierzęta należy uwzględnić możliwości ograniczania ich wytwarzania we wszystkich etapach łańcucha produkcji żywności pochodzenia zwierzęcego.
EN
Greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) produced in industry, transport and agriculture and water vapour are considered to be the main cause of global climate warming. Agriculture on the industry and transport is one of the most important source of emission these gases on a global scale. Recommended extensive feeding of animals (e.g. grazing) is for them friendly, but more methanogenic than intensive nutrition (concentrates). The volume of GHG emissions by livestock derive such factors as the composition of the ration, digestibility of nutrients, system maintenance, nutrition and health status of the animals, manure management. The reduction in GHG emissions from animal production in Poland in the years 1988-2012 is a result of declining livestock population. However, the increasing maintenance of dairy cows in barns one letter resulted in an increase of CH4 emissions from this agricultural activity. In order to reduce GHG emissions produced by animals must be taken into account possibilities to reduce their production in all stages of the food production chain of animal origin.
EN
This study examines the degree to which construction sector employees perceive that safety is important in their organizations/sites and how job satisfaction affects these perceptions when age is introduced as a moderator variable. Two-way analysis of variance demonstrated that job satisfaction has a strong effect on perceived management commitment to work safety and that this relationship was moderated by respondents’ age. Job satisfaction was associated with perceived accident rate and safety inspection frequency, but the proposed role of age in this linkage was not confirmed. Consequently, the findings indicated that by increasing the level of job satisfaction, perceptions of these safety climate aspects proved to be more positive. The conclusion is that these relationships could further lead to a lower percentage of accidents and injuries in the workplace and better health among employees. A significant relationship between job satisfaction, age and perceived co-workers’ commitment to work safety was not found.
EN
This paper attempts to replicate a safety climate model originally tested in Australia to assess its applicability in a different context: namely, across production workers in 22 medium-sized metal processing organizations in Austria. The model postulates that safety knowledge and safety motivation mediate the relation between safety climate on the one hand and safety compliance and participation on the other. Self-report data from 1075 employees were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results of the replication study largely confirmed the original safety climate model. However, in addition to indirect effects, direct links between safety climate and actual safety behavior were found.
12
Content available Safety Climate and Prediction of Ergonomic Behavior
EN
One of the most important ways to prevent accidents is to consider safety climate or culture. Moreover, some studies suggest that behavior contributes to 86%–96% of all injuries. This cross-sectional study took place in an Iranian petrochemical company in 2010. Vinodkumar and Bhasi's safety climate questionnaire and an ergonomic behavior sampling checklist were the data collection tools. Cronbach’s α for questionnaire reliability was .928. With reference to the results of a pilot study, a sample of 1755 was determined for behavior sampling. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to derive the coefficient of paths in the path model and the Anderson–Rabin method to calculate factor scores. The results showed that safety climate was an effective predictor of ergonomic behavior (p < .01). They also showed the importance of decreasing the number of workers with negative safety climate. Moreover, it is necessary to promote workers’ ergonomic behaviors in the workplace.
13
Content available Safety Management in a Relationship-Oriented Culture
EN
A relationship-oriented culture predominates in the Greater China region, where it is more important than in Western countries. Some characteristics of this culture influence strongly the organizational structure and interactions among members in an organization. This study aimed to explore the possible influence of relationships on safety management in relationship-oriented cultures. We hypothesized that organizational factors (management involvement and harmonious relationships) within a relationship-oriented culture would influence supervisory work (ongoing monitoring and task instructions), the reporting system (selective reporting), and teamwork (team communication and co-ordination) in safety management at a group level, which would in turn influence individual reliance complacency, risk awareness, and practices. We distributed a safety climate questionnaire to the employees of Taiwanese high-risk industries. The results of structural equation modeling supported the hypothesis. This article also discusses the findings and implications for safety improvement in countries with a relationship-oriented culture.
EN
Although the social exchange relationships between employers and employees are increasingly important to the performance of safety management systems, the psychological effects of work attitudes on this relationship have been less studied. Using a sample of first-line operators and their supervisors from 188 facilities in Taiwan which had Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series 18000 (OHSAS 18000) certification, the current research conducted an empirical investigation of the influence of safety climate on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Work attitude was used to disclose the psychological effect. Research results indicated that (a) safety climate was a significant predicator of OCB, (b) the psychological effect significantly influenced social exchange relationships, and (c) job satisfaction showed a stronger mediating influence than organizational commitment due to the frequent top management turnover. Discussions and implications are also addressed.
EN
The aim of this study was to compare assessments made by Finnish- and Swedish-speaking workers in Finland about the safety climate in their companies, because an earlier study showed that the accident frequency of Swedish-speaking workers was one third lower than that of Finnish-speaking workers. 148 Finnish-speaking and 138 Swedish-speaking workers from 14 small and medium-sized companies participated in this study. They filled out a Finnish safety climate questionnaire, the reliability of which was above the acceptable level. There were no differences between the language groups in the total variables of safety climate and safety action. Based on the differences in single items, we interpreted that Swedish-speaking workers stressed collective safety more, whereas Finnish-speaking workers put more emphasis on their personal responsibility for safety.
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