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EN
The article analyzes the impact of nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) supplied from the land on the waters of the Puck Lagoon (Gdańsk Basin, southern Baltic). The study is based on the numerical modelling. The model data was verified by comparison with the in situ measurement data. The spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations of nitrate, phosphate, and chlorophyll a were analyzed. We came to the conclusion that the load of nutrients deposited from the land side to the waters of the Puck Lagoon is relatively small (but not negligible compared to the Vistula River). However, even when a little runoff enters the reservoir with a very limited water exchange, like the Puck Lagoon, there are periods when riverine nutrients load significantly affects the functioning of the ecosystem.
EN
The objective of the study was to trace the variability of the hydrochemical conditions in three lakes of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship (Poland) - Starzyca, Maszewskie and Nowogardzkie in the annual cycle. The research was done in 2018-2019, and samples for analysis were collected 4 times a year. All analyses were performed applying standard methods. Such hydrochemical indices were determined as dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, content of orthophosphates, total phosphorus, nitrite, nitrate, ammonium, chlorophyll a and iron. The study showed that all lakes in the research cycle were characterised by a polymictic type of water mixing, and the trophic level, based on the adopted criteria, indicated advanced eutrophy, which may also be caused by anthropogenic pressure. Oxygen conditions characterised by deoxidation of the waters in the bottom layer in the spring and summer seasons, and clear oxygenation in the surface water layer (in Lake Maszewskie reaching even 188.5% in the spring) confirm the significant advancement of the eutrophication process. The supply of phosphorus and nitrogen in spring from pelagic waters in the waters of the examined lakes influences concentrations of chlorophyll a in the summer. The influence of “internal supply” (bottom waters and bottom sediments) on the amount of nutrients available for autotrophs is clearly visible in the analysed lakes - an increase in nitrogen and mineral phosphorus concentrations in relation to surface waters was observed in the bottom layer.
EN
Morocco is one of the countries most affected by the scarcity of water resources and the poor distribution of rainfall. Natural lagoon is the most widely used treatment process in Morocco. Indeed, Morocco is a sunny country throughout the year. The lagoon system requires minimal effort in operation and maintenance. Moreover, this system is the best process for removing bacteria indicators. For these reasons, a study of the purification performance of natural lagoons during five years, located in Chichaoua region (Morocco) was carried out. The lagoon system was monitored for five years, with measurements taken every three months at the input and output of the system. It received a hydraulic loading rate (HLR) between 1171 and 2760 m3 with an average of 2053 m3/day. The obtained results show the removal of 37% of TSS, 63% of BOD5, 60% of COD, 61% of NH4+, 37% of TP, and 6.5 log units of coliforms during the mentioned monitoring period. Thus, the effluent values do not always comply with the Moroccan water quality requirement for irrigation reuse. Additionally, the statistical analyses confirm the presence of a strong linear correlation between almost all variables in the lagoon output. Therefore, the performance efficiency of the lagoon in removing organic matter and nutrients was significantly (p < 0.05) dependent on the season. However, the fecal contamination was not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the seasons in this study. At the end of this study a complementary treatment before the reuse of treated wastewater, was proposed.
EN
The intensive development of industry generates a number of negative consequences, which leads to an ecological crisis. As a result, the soil on which plant products are grown is polluted by radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides, and chemicals. That is why in the early 1960s, the alternative farming, which is also called biological, biodynamic or organic, began to develop in Europe. The movement for alternative farming is widely developing in industrialized countries with a high level of chemization of agriculture. Therefore, the proposed topic is extremely relevant in terms of rational nature use, ensuring the sustainable development of territories, as well as food security in Ukraine. The article deals with agroecological assessment of suitability of agricultural land of the Steppe Zone of Ukraine for ecological farming and bases on the modern data from the Kherson branch of the state institution “Institute of Soil Protection of Ukraine”. Spatial modeling of the presence of nutrients in the steppe soil of Ukraine was made by the means of ArcGIS 10.1 product. Taking into account the obtained data and spatial modeling, the territories with soils of limited suitability for ecological farming occupy 67.2% (1194.5 thousand hectares) of the Kherson region, unsuitable soils are located on 16.7% (297.4 thousand hectares) of agricultural land of the Steppe Zone of Ukraine and suitable lands were detected on 16.1% (286.2 thousand hectares) of the territory of the studied lands. The conclusion was made that with the actual availability of lands occupied under ecological farming (4.3% or 75.9 thousand hectares), the territory of the Steppe Zone of Ukraine has a prime potential to increase the area under ecological farming by 4.2 times. Therefore, the article paid attention to ecological farming, taking into account the specifics of the content of trace elements in the steppe soils and their compliance with the methodology for determining whether soils belong to the categories of suitable, limited-suitability and unsuitable for ecological farming.
PL
Pływające wyspy hydrofitowe są coraz częściej spotykanym elementem krajobrazu - szczególnie na otwartych akwenach miejskich. Posiadają walory estetyczne, są rozwiązaniami opartymi na naturze, poprawiają mikroklimat, a przede wszystkim pełnią funkcję oczyszczającą. Do tej pory jednak nie udało się precyzyjnie sklasyfikować rozwiązań pływających wysp hydrofitowych (z ang. floating treatment islands) w nomenklaturze polskiej. Brakuje również specyficznych wytycznych do ich projektowania. W niniejszym artykule podjęto się wyjaśnienia idei metody, klasyfikacji systemu pływających wysp hydrofitowych, omówiono podstawowe mechanizmy usuwania zanieczyszczeń oraz wybrane zagadnienia projektowe. Praca powstała w wyniku realizacji projektu Preludium 18 [2019/35/N/ST8/01134].
EN
The popularity and presence of floating treatment istalnds in the landscape is increasing rapidly, particularly on open urban reservoirs. They are distinguished by their aesthetic value, belong to nature-based solutions, improve the microclimate, and, most importantly, have a cleansing function. However, in the Polish nomenclature, floating treatment islands solutions have yet to be precisely classified. There are also no specific design guidelines. This article attempts to explain the method’s concept, classify the system of Floating Treatment Wetlands, discuss the basic pollutant removal mechanisms, and discuss selected design issues. The work was created as a result of the Preludium 18 project [2019/35/N/ST8/01134].
PL
Zakwity wód zdominowane przez toksyczne sinice (cyjanobakterie) są ważnym problemem środowiskowym w erze antropocenu, obserwuje się wzrost ich zasięgu geograficznego oraz częstotliwości, w skali globalnej. W nizinnym, retencyjnym zbiorniku Sulejowski (Sulejów) rokrocznie odnotowywane są, w sezonie letnim, zakwity z sinicami z rodzaju Mircocystis oraz Aphanizomenon. Dodatkowo, pogarszający się stan wody związany jest z cyklicznym wystepowaniem hepatotoksyn sinicowych - mikrocystyn. Wieloletnie badania prowadzone na zbiorniku wskazują na wiodącą rolę stężenia biogenów oraz czasu retencji wody dla rozwoju toksynogennych cyjanobakterii.
EN
Water blooms dominated by toxic cyanobacteria have been an important environmental problem in the Anthropocene, with an increase in their geographical extent and frequency, globally. In the Sulejów - lowland, retention reservoir, cyanobacterial blooms of the genera Mircocystis and Aphanizomenon are recorded annually, during the summer season. In addition, the worsening condition of the water is associated with the cyclic occurrence of cyanobacterial hepatotoxins - microcystins. Long-term studies conducted on the reservoir indicate the leading role of nutrient concentration and water retention time for the development of toxinogenic cyanobacteria.
PL
Z roku na rok jakość wód powierzchniowych ulega znacznemu pogorszeniu. Woda jest zasobem niezbędnym do funkcjonowania ekosystemu, gospodarki, a także społeczeństwa.
EN
The study was carried out to assess surface water quality in water bodies in Hau Giang province, Vietnam using individual surface water quality parameters and water quality index. In addition, the correlation of phytoplankton and zooplankton composition with surface water quality was also examined. The results showed that surface water quality in Hau Giang province was contaminated with organic matters, nutrients, iron and microorganisms. The water quality index (WQI= 37-84) showed that surface water ranged from moderate to good. A total of 164 species belonging to five phyla of phytoplankton were recorded with the density from 370–2260 individuals/L and 91 species belonging to five phyla of zooplankton with a density of 11,332–121,600 individuals/L. The predominance of the phytoplankton species Oscillaroria, Euglena, Phacus and the predominance of zooplankton species of the Nauplius, Rotifera and Protozoa signalize an aquatic environment rich in organic matters and nutrients. The correlation results showed that BOD, COD, NH4+-N, NO3--N and PO43--P were closely related to the density of phytoplankton while pH, DO, BOD, NH4+-N and coliform play an important role in determining the density of zooplankton species.
EN
The probabilistic model of municipal wastewater quality process is proposed in the chapter. The methods of its characteristics and parameters statistical identification and prediction are presented. Next the proposed model is practically applied to examine and characterized the quality of the municipal wastewater collected in the exemplary sewage treatment plant.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki wstępnych badań jakości wody zbiornika Turawa przeprowadzonych w obrębie Instalacji Poprawiającej Jakość Wody w początkowym okresie jej funkcjonowania. Podano wyniki analizy zmian takich wskaźników wody, jak odczyn, przewodność elektrolityczna, azot azotanowy i fosfor fosforanowy. Analizy przeprowadzono z wykorzystaniem statystyk podstawowych i testu rang Wilcoxona. Na podstawie wyników uzyskanych w analizowanym okresie 2020 r. sformułowano wnioski dotyczące stopnia poprawy jakości wody poprzez obniżenie zawartości biogenów w wodach tego zbiornika. Wskazano możliwe kierunki rekultywacji zbiorników wodnych, które borykają się z eutrofizacją retencjonowanych w nich wód.
EN
Preliminary water quality tests in the Turawa reservoir were carried out within the Water Quality Improvement Installation in the initial period of its operation. The changes in such water indicators as pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate and phosphate content were tested. The analyzes were performed using descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The degree of improvement in water quality was assessed by reducing the content of nutrients in the waters of this reservoir. Possible directions of reclamation of water reservoirs that struggle with water eutrophication were indicated.
EN
Milk and fermented milk drinks are foods rich in a range of essential nutrients. They include, among others highly digestible proteins, B vitamins, vitamins A and D, calcium, potassium and phosphorus. It is also worth noting that the use of bacterial starter cultures in the production of fermented milk drinks increases the bioavailability of some of these nutrients. The fermentation leading to the formation of such beverages therefore results in the end-products gaining not only a texture, aroma and taste different from milk, but also other properties. Increases, among others digestibility of their proteins, and as a result of the partial breakdown of lactose, they become more affordable for people with intolerance to this disaccharide. The nutritional value of milk and fermented milk drinks has a positive impact on human health. Among other things, the beneficial effect of the ingredients of these products on bone health and the ability to lower blood pressure have been proven, and the preventive role of milk in the risk of developing metabolic syndrome diseases has been confirmed.
PL
Mleko i mleczne napoje fermentowane to produkty bogate w szereg niezbędnych składników odżywczych. Należą do nich m.in. wysoce przyswajalne białka, witaminy z grupy B, witaminy A i D, wapń, potas i fosfor. Warto także zauważyć, że użycie kultur starterowych bakterii podczas produkcji mlecznych napojów fermentowanych przyczynia się do zwiększenia biodostępności niektórych z tych składników odżywczych. Fermentacja prowadząca do powstania takich napojów sprawia zatem, że końcowe produkty zyskują nie tylko odmienną od mleka teksturę, zapach i smak, ale także inne właściwości. Zwiększa się m.in. strawność ich białek, a w wyniku częściowego rozpadu laktozy, stają się one bardziej przystępne dla osób z nietolerancją tego dwucukru. Wartość odżywcza mleka i mlecznych napojów fermentowanych ma swoje przełożenie na ich pozytywny wpływ na zdrowie człowieka. Udowodniono, między innymi korzystne oddziaływanie składników zawartych w tych produktach spożywczych na zdrowie kości, zdolność obniżenia ciśnienia krwi, a także potwierdzono prewencyjną rolę mleka w przypadku ryzyka rozwoju chorób zespołu metabolicznego.
EN
To understand the role of physical processes and their interannual variability on the dissolved nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass distribution, field data collected in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean (ISSO) during the austral summer of 2009–2011 are used. In the subtropical zone, macronutrients were limited (N:P < 1, N:Si < 1, Si:P ≈ 1) and the phytoplankton biomass variability was mainly governed by the mesoscale eddy activity associated with the Agulhas Return Current. High nutrient low chlorophyll condition prevailed in the sub-Antarctic zone and further south. A South-North gradient of the upper layer dissolved SiO2 was higher than that of NO3. The sub-Antarctic zone was characterized by the highest N:Si ratio (>4) and it was associated with the enhanced draw down of silicate due to the winter/spring diatom blooms in the region. The chlorophyll-a (CHL) concentration in the Polar Frontal Zone was low (0.2 mg m–3) in 2009 and 2010 but it was high (0.5 mg m–3) in 2011. This increase in CHL in 2011 was due to the supply of dissolved iron from the strong winds and subsequent mixing during the winter of 2010. Further, the increased CHL values in the Antarctic zone (0.5 mg m–3) in 2011 compared to 2009 and 2010 could be due to the increased sea ice melting associated with positive Southern Annular Mode. The increased phytoplankton biomass in the summer of 2011 coincides with an increase in nitrate utilization (N:P≈13) compared to 2009 and 2010. Observations showed that ISSO frontal zones are characterized by inter-annual variability in terms of nutrient utilization and phytoplankton biomass production.
EN
The study objective was to analyse the number of tourists present in the shore zone and bathing areas of lakes with regard to their tourist carrying capacity and the amount of biogenic substances potentially entering the ecosystem from the beach and bathing areas. The procedures from project between the EU and Poland, in the module “Development of the sanitary supervision of water quality” were used in three categories: physiological substances - sweat and urine; water-soluble and insoluble organic compounds; and biogenic elements - nitrogen and phosphorus. The research was conducted in two model mesotrophic lakes, Piaseczno and Zagłębocze, located in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lakeland (eastern Poland). The data were analysed in reference to biological trophic status indices defining the limnological status of lakes in the summer of 2014 and 2016. Analyses of gross primary production of phytoplankton using the light and dark bottles method and the analysis of chlorophyll a concentration were applied using the laboratory spectrophotometric method. The relatively small number of tourists recorded in the shore zone of both lakes did not exceed their tourist carrying capacity, and their potential contribution of biogenic substances to the lake ecosystems was small. Biological trophic indices for both lakes indicated that they had been continually late-mesotrophic for decades. The amount of biogenic substances directly linked to beach tourism usually has a minor effect on the limnological status of mesotrophic lakes. Due to the specific character of lake ecosystems, however, even small amounts of these substances can contribute to the destabilisation of the biocenotic system.
PL
Zagospodarowanie komunalnych osadów ściekowych może być realizowane przy zastosowaniu procesu kompostowania, który jest formą recyklingu organicznego. Ze względu na wysokie uwodnienie osadów ściekowych, ich niską porowatość oraz niską proporcję węgla do azotu (C/N), uzyskanie odpowiedniego wsadu wymaga wprowadzenia materiałów strukturotwórczych i korygujących. W niniejszej pracy proces kompostowania osadów z materiałami lignocelulozowymi (słoma pszeniczna, zrębki drewniane) prowadzono w układzie dwustopniowym (1° — napowietrzany bioreaktor, 2° — okresowo przerzucana pryzma). Wykazano, że temperatura powyżej 55°C (warunki termofilowe) utrzymywała się do 6. dnia procesu, a po 2 tygodniach uległa obniżeniu do 40°C. W kompoście nie stwierdzono żywych jaj pasożytów jelitowych oraz bakterii z rodzaju Salmonella, co oznacza, że czas trwania fazy termofilowej był wystarczający do higienizacji osadów ściekowych. Mimo stosunkowo wysokiej zawartości materii organicznej w gotowym produkcie (766 g/kg s.m.), stabilny kompost uzyskano już po 60 dniach procesu, o czym świadczy wartość AT4 na poziomie około 10 g O2/kg s.m. Kompost charakteryzował się wysoką zawartością pierwiastków nawozowych (NPK), a stężenia metali ciężkich nie przekraczały wartości normatywnych.
EN
Composting, as a form of organic recycling, may be used for municipal sewage sludge treatment. Due to the high moisture of sewage sludge, and both its low porosity and the carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N), to obtain the appropriate feedstock, bulking agents and amendments must be added. In the present study, the composting process of sewage sludge with the lignocellulosic materials (wood chips, wheat straw) was conducted in a two-stage system (1° — aerated bioreactor, 2° — periodically turned windrow). The temperature above 55°C (thermophilic conditions) maintained until the 6th day of the process, and after 2 weeks it decreased to 40°C. There were no live eggs of intestinal parasites and Salmonella bacteria in the compost. This means that the length of the thermophilic phase was sufficient for the sewage sludge hygienization. Compost had relatively high content of organic matter (766 g/kg dry matter), however, the product achieved stability only after 60 days of composting, as evidenced by the AT4 value on the level ca. 10 g O2/kg DM. Compost was characterized by a high content of nutrients (NPK) and heavy metals concentrations were below the normative values.
EN
Biochar has been extensively studied as a soil amendment to reduce nutrients losses. However, the comparative effectiveness of biochar adsorption capacity for ammonium (NH4 -N), nitrate (NO3 -N), and phosphate (PO4-P) remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of feedstock (banana stem and coconut shell) and temperature (300, 500, and 700°C) on biochar adsorption ability for NH4-N, NO3-N, and PO4-P were investigated and fitted by three adsorption models, viz Freundlich, Langmuir, and linear. Freundlich (R2 = 0.95–0.99) and Langmuir (R2 = 0.91–0.95) models were found suitable for adsorption of NH4 -N. The maximum adsorption capacity (Qm) for coconut shell biochar increased with pyrolysis temperature (Qm = 12.8–15.5 mg g-1) and decreased for banana stem biochar (Qm = 12.9–9.7 mg g-1). In the case of NO3 -N adsorption, Freundlich (R2 = 0.82–0.99) and linear model (R2 = 1.00) were found suitable while Langmuir model showed much less contribution, similarly adsorption of PO4-P, was not supported by these three models. The minimum concentrations required for adsorption of phosphate were recorded as 36, 8, and 3 mg L-1 using pyrolyzed biochar at the temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C, respectively. These results indicate that the feedstock and pyrolysis temperature, as well as aquatic nutrient concentration, were important factors for the adsorption of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus.
EN
In this study, Baltic Sea sediments, as a source of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ammonium (NH4+), and phosphates (PO43-), were investigated based on samples obtained in 2017 and 2018, shortly after a sequence of inflows from the North Sea that occurred between 2014 and 2017. Two different data sets (I and II) were used to assess benthic diffusive fluxes and thus elucidate both the temporal conditions at the time of sampling (data set I) and the diffusion potential of the sediments (data set II). The estimated fluxes were characterized by a high spatial variability within the whole Baltic Sea and ranged between −0.01 and 3.33 mmol m−2 d−1 for DIC, −0.02 and 0.44 mmol m−2 d−1 for DOC, −40.5 and 1370.1 µmol m−2 d−1 for NH4+, and −5.9 and 60.9 µmol m−2 d−1 for PO43-. The estimated benthic diffusive fluxes indicated a high potential for DIC, DOC, NH4+, and PO43- release from Baltic Sea sediments. The high O2 concentrations in the water column of the Gulf of Bothnia together with major Baltic inflows (MBIs) bringing oxygenated seawater to the Baltic Proper and to some extent the Eastern Gotland Basin regulate the amounts of chemicals released from the sediment. Our study showed that a sequence of inflows has greater impact on the diminution of diffusive fluxes than does a single MBI and that the sediments of the Baltic Proper, even under the influence of inflows, are an important source of C, N, and P (159 kt yr−1 for DIC+DOC, 6.3 kt yr−1 for N- NH4+ and 3.7 kt yr−1 for P-PO43-) that should be considered in regional budget estimations.
EN
The study presents the results of a 3-year field study, whose aim was to assess the effect of sowing and NP fertilizer application method on the content of nutrients in leaf blades of two different types of maize varieties (traditional and stay-green) in the BBCH 61 stage. The selection of the variety in combination with row NP fertilization is a factor supporting the nutritional status of maize at this stage. The “stay-green” variety showed a positive reaction to the row NP application, which was caused by a better supply of P and K. The content of N, P, K, Mg in maize leaves at the BBCH 61 stage may be an indicator of the size of maize grain yield, regardless of the type of maize hybrid.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki 3-letnich badań polowych, których celem była ocena wpływu sposobu siewu i aplikacji nawozu NP na zawartość składników pokarmowych w blaszkach liściowych w fazie BBCH 61 przez dwa różne typy odmian kukurydzy (tradycyjna i stay-green). Czynnikiem wspomagającym stan odżywienia kukurydzy w tym stadium jest dobór odmiany w połączeniu z rzędowym nawożeniem NP. Pozytywna reakcja na rzędowe stosowanie NP wykazała odmiana „stay-green”, co wynikało z lepszego zaopatrzenia w P, K. Zawartość N, P, K, Mg w liściach kukurydzy w stadium BBCH 61 może być indykatorem wielkości plonu ziarna kukurydzy, niezależnie od typu mieszańca kukurydzy.
EN
The present study investigated the efficiency of four aquatic macrophytes: Lemna spp, Pistia stratiotes, Ipomoea aquatica and Eichhornia crassipes on nitrogen and phosphorous utilization from aquacultural effluents concerning seasonal changes and biomass production. These nutrients in excess affect fish health and cause eutrophication in water bodies, hence affecting the ecosystem. Aquatic macrophytes were planted in tanks filled with the effluents from carp pond and other tanks were left without plants, serving as control/algal treatment. The water samples were collected weekly for analysis of total nitrogen (TN), ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), total phosphorus (TP) and ortho-phosphate (ortho-P). The results show that average water temperature raised from 12.2 ± 0.21 °C in winter to 32.0 ± 0.4 °C in summer with no significant difference (p>0.05) between treatments whereas pH was neutral in winter and slightly alkaline in the other seasons. Seasonal changes had impact on macrophytes biomass accumulation with the highest in spring for Lemna spp (91.3%), followed by P. stratiotes (81%) and in summer, E. crassipes (64%). Autumn and winter had the lowest biomass accumulation and I. aquatica had the lowest values in all seasons. For each season, the nutrients concentration decreased with no significant difference (p>0.05) between treatments. Average NH3-N removal efficiencies were higher during summer and autumn followed by spring and lowest in winter for all treatments. NO3-N and TN decreased significantly from the highest in summer to the lowest in winter in all treatments. The ortho-P removal efficiency was slightly higher than TP and decreased from the highest in spring to the lowest in winter (91.4% to 7.8%, control/algae; 90.3% to 8.4%, E. crassipes; 86.2% to 8.3%, Lemna spp; 82.5% to 10.8%, P. stratiotes). The chlorophyll a concentration was higher in Lemna spp (62.2 μg/L) and control/microalgae treatments (59.3 μg/L) indicating that there was probably microbial community that contributed to nutrient utilization. Aquatic macrophytes, in association with microalgae, were responsible for the nitrogen and phosphorous removal. Seasonal temperature change affects the growth and nutrients uptake of aquatic macrophytes. A decrease in temperature reduces the efficiency of nutrients removal and biomass production. For an effective N and P removal from pond effluents in a given season, selection of a proper aquatic macrophyte must be taken into consideration with regards to a given season.
PL
Biologiczne oczyszczanie ścieków jest powszechnie stosowaną metodą mającą na celu usunięcie związków organicznych oraz biogennych poprzez przemiany biochemiczne z wykorzystaniem odpowiednich grup mikroorganizmów. Klasyczne metody wykorzystują w tym celu osad czynny w formie zawieszonej - rozwiązanie to jest stosowane na większości oczyszczalni ścieków komunalnych, jednakże wiąże się z dużą energochłonnością układu. Dodatkowo, rosnące wymagania dotyczące ilości substancji biogennych odprowadzanych do odbiorników prowadzą do wdrażania nowych, zaawansowanych metod oczyszczania. W tej sytuacji zastosowanie procesu hybrydowego - wykorzystującego zarówno biomasę w form zawieszonej, jak i osiadłej - może przyczynić się do zmniejszenia zapotrzebowań na energię elektryczną, zwiększenia usunięcia biogenów oraz poprawić opadalność osadu w porównaniu do tradycyjnie prowadzonego procesu jedynie z biomasą zawieszoną [Günes i in. 2019].
PL
W wyniku ciągle postępujących prośrodowiskowych zmian prawnych eksploatatorzy stają przed koniecznością uzyskiwania wysokich redukcji zanieczyszczeń, niekiedy dalszej poprawy parametrów ścieku oczyszczonego, zwłaszcza substancji biogennych. Niestety, w branży odnotowuje się tendencję wzrostową dla niezidentyfikowanych zrzutów ścieków, które w sposób często niekontrolowany mogą powodować natychmiastowe wystąpienie problemów technologicznych na oczyszczalni. Dodatkowo w ostatnich latach możni zaobserwować zwiększoną ilość dopływów o ładunku charakterystycznym dla ścieków przemysłowych, aniżeli bytowych. Bardzo często są to ścieki bogate w substancje tłuszczowe oraz środki powierzchniowo czynne, które w stosunkowo szybkim czasie mogą przyczynić się do rozwoju w osadzie czynnym bakterii promieniowców. To z kolei może powodować znaczne pogorszenie sedymentacji osadu oraz wystąpienie piany i kożucha na powierzchni reaktorów biologicznych W momencie, gdy najpowszechniej stosowane środki okazują się nieskuteczne należałoby rozważyć zmianę strategii ograniczenia promieniowców oraz skutków ich występowania. Jak szybko oraz efektywnie poradzić sobie z tym problemem opisano szerzej w artykułach autorstwa M. Bazeli, Forum Eksploatatora nr 1/2020 oraz M. Bazeli, M. Sielska, Forum Eksploatatora nr 1/2021.
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