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EN
The paper aims at reviewing the evolution of the F1 engine technology and the associated regulatory framework governing the sport over the last 10 years. Technical regulations, in force since 2014, replaced the 2.4-liter V8 naturally aspirated engines with sophisticated hybrid units such as the 1.6-liter V6 turbocharged engines supported with energy management and recovery systems. Since 2014 the fundamental trend in the development of powertrains has been the advancement of their efficiency. Due to the fact that the fuel flow rate has been restricted, the maximum performance is now entirely dependent on the engine efficiency.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano przegląd rozwoju technologii silników samochodów wyścigowych F1 i związane z nimi przepisy oraz regulacje w okresie ostatnich dziesięciu lat. Obowiązujące od 2014 r. przepisy techniczne wprowadziły w miejsce używanych do końca 2013 r. wolnossących silników V8 o objętości skokowej 2,4 dm3, złożone hybrydowe zespoły napędowe, obejmujące turbodoładowane silniki V6 o objętości skokowej 1,6 dm3 wspomagane przez systemy zarządzania i odzyskiwania energii. Od roku 2014 podstawowym kierunkiem rozwoju zespołów napędowych jest ich sprawność; ponieważ wielkość zużycia paliwa została zmniejszona, więc poprawa osiągów zespołów napędowych jest całkowicie uzależniona od ich sprawności.
EN
Energy-efficient industrial drives and control systems are designed to minimize power consumption. Energy consumption is associated with the efficiency of energy conversion in electric motors. In the paper the in-service efficiency estimation method for induction cage motor was shown. The implementation of the method was based on the air-gap torque method. The results were compared with those obtained with the known air-gap torque method. The authors present a significant impact of estimation of mechanical power losses and stray load losses in the motor on the accuracy of estimating the coefficient of efficiency cage induction motor.
3
Content available remote Sprawność maksymalna indukcyjnego silnika pierścieniowego
EN
This article presents considerations on the condition of the occurrence of maximum efficiency in the three-phase slip-ring induction motor supplied by a constant voltage value. A relationship was derived, which allows to calculate with great accuracy the location of maximum efficiency. Comparison of laboratory results with the results of efficiency calculations confirmed the possibility of analytical determination of the output power for maximum efficiency. A general condition for the occurrence of maximum efficiency was formulated, which speaks about the approximate equality of no-load losses and losses in the windings of the rotor current. Calculation tests performed for two groups losses for maximum efficiency point confirmed the general condition of maximum efficiency. Laboratory studies were conducted using the slip-ring motor with rated power PN = 0,8 kW and rated speed nN = 905 rpm.
4
EN
Energy-saving control system of pump drive are designed to minimize power consumption. Energy consumption in pump units depends on the instantaneous efficiency of the pump and motor. The paper was presented non-invasive method for determining the coefficient of efficiency induction-cage motor fed from a source with adjustable frequency. The method has been implemented through the method of determining air gap torque in the motor. Proposes a new method of determining the mechanical losses in the induction-cage motor. Influence of the mechanical power loss estimating on the motor efficiency determining was presented. The article presented the results of laboratory tests and simulations.
5
EN
This article presents considerations on the condition of the occurrence of maximum efficiency in the three-phase induction motor supplied by a constant voltage value. A relationship was derived, which allows to calculate with great accuracy the location of maximum efficiency. Comparison of laboratory results with the results of efficiency calculations confirmed the possibility of analytical determination of the output power for maximum efficiency. A general condition for the occurrence of maximum efficiency was formulated, which speaks about the approximate equality of no-load losses and losses in the windings of the rotor current. Calculation tests performed for the two groups losses for maximum efficiency point confirmed the general condition of maximum efficiency. Laboratory studies were conducted using the squirrel-cage motor with rated power PN = 1.1 kW and rated speed nN = 1415 rpm.
EN
New (2007 and 2008) international standards concerning the methods of the determining of the efficiency of the induction motors as well as the marking of the motors with classes of the efficiency. Valid since August 2009 the obligatory Regulation (EC) with regard to ecodesign requirements for electric motors As result of these documents the first once in Europe the mandatory requirements concerning the minimal values of the efficiency of the induction motors have been established.
EN
The new standards of IEC defining four efficiency classes of induction motors and the respective regulations of the European Union are presented. The dependence of the material costs on the expected efficiency is analyzed by means of the optimization procedure. The economical effects which result from implementing the new regulations for the users and for the manufacturers are evaluated. Some details of the new regulations of the European Union are criticized.
9
Content available remote Sprawność napędu samochodów osobowych z silnikami ZI w cyklach jezdnych
PL
Na podstawie obliczeń symulacyjnych przebiegowego zużycia paliwa w podstawowych testach jezdnych dla kilkudziesięciu samochodów osobowych z silnikami ZI zaprezentowano średnie wartości sprawności ogólnej silników i układu przeniesienia napędu w poszczególnych fazach pracy na poszczególnych przełożeniach.
EN
In this work calculations engine total efficiency and efficiency of a power transmission system for indyvidual phases in driving cycles on the basis of fuel consumption map and assumed efficiency of transmission and loss of energy connected with clutch lost motion has been carried out.
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