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PL
Nanocząstki złota to jedne z najintensywniej testowanych metalonanomateriałów o potencjalnych właściwościach teranostycznych. Zarówno łatwość ich syntezy, unikalne właściwości fizyczne, jak i rozbudowana chemia powierzchni są powodami tak intensywnego nimi zainteresowania w materii wczesnego wykrywania i efektywnego leczenia nowotworu. Jednak by nanocząstki mogły być w przyszłości zakwalifikowane do badań klinicznych, niezbędny jest szereg testów in vitro i in vivo opisujących ich transport i metabolizm. Jedną z najczęściej stosowanych w tym celu technik jest ICP-MS.
EN
Gold nanoparticles are one of the most intensively tested metalo-nanomaterials in terms of their potential theranostic application. The reasons of such intensive attention paid to them, related to the early diagnosis and effective theraphy of cancer, are the simplicity of their synthesis, unique physical properties and the extensive surface chemistry. However, in order to qualify gold nanoparticles to clinical trials, it is necessary to carry out in vitro and in vivo tests describing their transportation and metabolic processes. One of the most frequently used technique adopted to fulfill this purpose is ICP-MS.
PL
Do wyzwań stawianych LA ICP MS w analityce chemicznej, poza określeniem in vivo rozmieszczenia pierwiastków w próbkach roślin czy też poznaniem ich szlaków migracyjnych, należy oznaczenie zawartości pierwiastków toksycznych i pierwiastków fizjologicznych w tkankach roślin.
EN
Bioavailability of nutrients is crucial in obtaining high crop yields and influences the possible pollution of groundwater. The paper presents in vivo methods (seed testing, pot trials, field trials) of the evaluation of micronutrients bioavailability from fertilizers which enable selection of the most efficient way of micronutrient fertilization by determination of bioavailability of micronutrients, plant height and crop yields.
PL
Biodostępność składników odżywczych dla roślin jest istotna z punktu widzenia osiągniętych plonów oraz możliwego wpływu na zanieczyszczenie wód gruntowych jonami metali dostarczanych roślinom wraz z nawozem. Metody określania biodostępności mikroelementów in vivo (testy kiełkowania, doświadczenia wazonowe oraz polowe) umożliwiają wybór nawozu mikroelementowego charakteryzującego się najwyższą wydajnością nawożenia na podstawie uzyskanych wyników biodostępności oraz plonowania roślin. Niewątpliwą zaletą badań in vivo jest łatwość przeniesienia otrzymanych wyników na warunki środowiskowe. Niestety, czas trwania doświadczeń oraz ich wysoki koszt (przede wszystkim testów polowych) sprawiają, że wciąż poszukuje się alternatywnych rozwiązań w postaci testów in vitro. Istnieje jednak konieczność potwierdzenia rezultatów otrzymanych w badaniach in vitro badaniami in vivo.
EN
The introduction of different bioelements into the structure of hydroxyapatite exerts a positive influence on the growth of new bone tissue. One such useful bioelement is silica, which possesses antibacterial properties and also acts as a factor regulating bone mineralization through stimulation of DNA to synthesize osteoblasts. Results of investigations into integration of foam titanium implants (FTI), with rabbit bone are presented. Two groups of implants were investigated: clean titanium implants produced by selective laser melting and FTI coated with a thin film of hydroxyapatite (HA) mixed with 10 wt. % of bioglass (BG) of A2 type (CaO- P2P-SiO2). Analysis of histopathology of implants' integration with bone were performed by staining using the triple chromatographic method of Masson - Goldner, planimetric analysis using the Kruskal - Wallis test, an ANOVA test and microtomography. Application of layers of the type HA+GH showed superior integration with bone than uncoated titanium implants.
EN
Results of investigations into integration of foam titanium implants (FTI), with rabbit bone are presented. Three groups of implants were examined: clean titanium implants produced by selective laser melting, FTI coated with a thin film of octacalcium phosphate (OCP), doped with 0.6 weight percent of Mg, deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and FTI with hydroxyapatite (HA) doped with 0.6 wt.% of Mg. Analysis of histopathology of implants' integration with bone were performed by staining using the triple chromatographic method of Masson - Goldner, pla- nimetric analysis using the Kruskal - Wallis test, an ANOVA test and microtomography. The best results were obtained for implants coated with HA, followed by those coated with OCP. Implants from these two groups showed superior integration with bone than uncoated titanium implants.
EN
The knowledge of the mechanical characteristics of bone structures is a prerequisite for theoretical, numerical, and experimental analyses describing the functioning of bone, which is a living organ. The description of the mechanical properties of bone tissue, such as conventional Young’s modulus or strength, will enable the assessment of the degree of tissue degeneration through a comparison of the material properties of the examined bones to the properties determined for physiologically normal bones. However, the mechanical parameters published by different research centres often differ from each other by up to several hundred percent. These discrepancies arise primarily from the differences in the research methodology applied, and thus from many additional factors having a direct impact on the values of the mechanical parameters obtained in experimental tests. Therefore, in order to standardize and improve the interpretation of the results of measurements, we should develop universal criteria for the measuring conditions and quantify the impact of the factors being related to sample and measurements on the values obtained. In this paper, the authors present the dependence of some factors, i.e. the site and direction of sample excision as well as the rate and type of loading, on the values of the mechanical parameters. Those values were determined in experimental tests and the additional correlation coefficients proposed enabled an easier comparison of the results obtained with the values presented in the literature.
PL
Prezentowana praca jest przeglądem badań eksperymentalnych nad wpływem pól elektromagnetycznych na procesy biologiczne przebiegające w organizmach żywych. Przedstawiono metody stosowane do oceny oddziaływania pól elektromagnetycznych na poziomie komórkowym oraz dokonano analizy otrzymanych za ich pomocą wyników.
EN
The paper is a review of experimental studies on the effects of electromagnetic fields on biological processes in living organisms. It presents the methods used and analyses the results obtained with different experimental approaches.
10
EN
Purpose: By development of a robotics technique, the assisted living instruments which have intelligent functions are being developed. As a result, there is a possibility that the accident to which the assisted living instrument under actuation contacts a human body may occur. The purpose of this research is for the impact force measurement system which with load cells to build, and to evaluate performance. Design/methodology/approach: The impact force measurement system was built by load cells and a data logger. Evaluation of the performance of the system was carried out to static loads and dynamic loads. Findings: By covering the sensor part of load cells with shock absorbing material, it turned out that it is possible to measure impact load simple. Moreover, as a result of comparing the characteristic of shock absorbing material, it became clear that the impact-absorbing characteristic of cell sponge and organism soft tissue is in agreement. Research limitations/implications: This research estimated the impact-absorbing characteristic of organism soft tissue for the skin, fat, muscles, etc. as a complex. Practical implications: This paper cleared that the load which a bone receives by dynamic external force can be easily measured by load cells. Originality/value: The objective of this research project was to develop the system by which impact force is measured and evaluated based on the damage which a human body receives. And we were able to complete the prototype.
EN
The aim of this work was the analysis of the modifying phase effect (hydroxyapatite particles and carbon fibres) and environment role (in vitro and in vivo) on mechanism and velocity of the resorption process of polylactide-co-glycolide (PGLA). Resorption time of samples incubated in simulated biological environment was determined on the basis of pH changes of the Ringer's solution. Scanning electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy were applied for the estimation of the resorption degree of the polymer. It was observed that carbon fibres addition accelerates distinctly in vitro matrix degradation, whereas in the natural biological environment fibres reduce this time. In the case of composite with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles the in vitro processes are complex and difficult to explain. In this case simultaneous occurrence of three processes is possible: polymer resorption, HAP precipitation and dissolution. In the biological environment reduce polymer resorption time is no-ticeable.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wybrane wskaźniki oceny struktury kości wykorzystywane w ocenie ich wytrzymałości in vivo, których wartości ustalane są w badaniach in vivo lub in vitro. Celem pracy była także ocena możliwości wykorzystania i przydatności pomiaru równomierności rozkładu gęstości (a więc i równomierności budowy strukturalnej) jako wskaźnika służącego do wstępnego określania wytrzymałości posiadanych preparatów kostnych przed próbami wytrzymałościowymi. Stwierdzono, że równomierność rozkładu gęstości w próbce jest wyższa dla kości koksartrycznych niż osteoporotycznych przy podobnej gęstości średniej struktury, a uzyskane rozkłady dla preparatów o porównywalnych gęstościach prześwietleniowych są istotnie różne.
EN
Selected indicators of bone structure evaluation have been presented. These indicators are used in bone strength evaluation in vivo (values of indicators are established in vitro or in vivo). The aim of the work was also estimation of utilization possibility and suitability of uniformity of density distribution uniformity measurements (uniformity of bone struc-ture) as an indicator for preliminary determination of bone samples strength. It was found that uniformity of density distribution in the sample is higher for coxarthritic bones than for osteoporotic ones with the same average density. Distribution of the uniformity for samples with comparable densities was essentially different.
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