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PL
W kopalni miedzi KGHM Polska Miedź SA eksploatacja złóż odbywa się w coraz trudniejszych warunkach pracy wynikających z większej głębokości. Wychodząc naprzeciw potrzebom kopalni KGHM oraz wpisując się w światowe trendy rozwoju maszyn górniczych, firma Mine Master przy współpracy z AGH w Krakowie, Łukasiewicz-EMAG i Politechniką Wrocławską opracowała i wdrożyła wóz kotwiący zasilany bateryjnie, przeznaczony do warunków KGHM. Artykuł przedstawia podstawowe informacje techniczne dotyczące wozu Roof Master 1,8KE oraz wyniki prób ruchowych przeprowadzonych na głębokości 850 m. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały, że maszyna pozwala na przejechanie 13 km na jednym ładowaniu. Ładowanie baterii od 20% do 70% trwa 2,5 godziny, a do 100% 2–3 godziny. Natomiast zabudowa jednej kotwy pochłania około 3,0% baterii.
2
Content available remote Rozwój napędów zabudowanych w piastach kół pojazdów BEV
PL
Od kilkunastu lat obserwuje się intensywny rozwój pojazdów elektrycznych. Stosowane są też różne systemy napędu w tych pojazdach. W artykule przedstawiono rodzaje napędu, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem napędów zabudowanych w piastach kół. Zaprezentowano także opracowane w Zakładzie Maszyn Elektrycznych i Zakładzie Napędów Elektrycznych Instytutu Elektrotechniki w Warszawie rozwiązania silników i napędów umieszczonych w piastach kół.
EN
In the article were compared the vehicles (by pairing) the vehicles on the basis of selected criteria considering vehicles’: weight, length, wheel width, maximum output and acceleration time. The article was carried out by analysing the available source materials and specific energy mix based on coal. The emission of air pollutants (exhaustive) was estimated using the mathematical calculation. In order to carry out the analysis, the data provided by the manufacturers of the considered cars were used, concerning fuel consumption by the cars equipped with the internal combustion engines or electricity consumption in the case of cars with equipped with electric motors. The air pollutants that were taken into consideration: carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and total particulate matter. Apart from the exhaustive emissions, the total particular matter emissions from the tyre and brake wear and road abrasion is also included. The pollutant emission was estimated on the basis of emission factors using the average mileage characterizing for driving in European conditions.
EN
The way of directive of the European Parliament and the Council in 2014/94 on October 22nd 2014 in the case of infrastructure development of alternative fuels which was specifically concerned with calls to reduce oil dependence on transport in European countries was imposed due to the necessity to formulate specific provisions in individual nations in the Union. In correlation to this, on the day of 11th January 2018 the act on electromobility and alternative fuels was passed, which came to be on the day of 1st September 2018 with changes implemented later on. The regulations mentioned above oblige public transport to partially replace their diesel engine-based rolling stock and introducing changes to alternative fuels (compressed hydrogen in gaseous form belongs to such fuels). Support systems in Poland are an important element in the implementation of modern and ecological technologies. Very often those solutions are much more expensive compared to the ones used so far. The financing provided by them enables the realization of such projects in our environment. In this work, the idea of emission-free public transport operating on the basis of electric vehicles (Battery Electric Vehicles) as well as hydrogen (Fuel Cell Vehicles) will be presented. Both of these variants will be compared and their working principle are going to be shown. The analysis of support systems for the development of emission-free public transport on a European, national and regional level will also be presented. All collected information will form a compendium of information essential to implementing the public transport project in Polish conditions.
EN
Due to limited resources of fossil fuels and overproduction of greenhouse gases, a need for alternative means for vehicle communication appeared. Because of that hybrid electric vehicles, as well as battery electric vehicles, were proposed to replace some of conventional vehicles based on internal combustion engine [3]. To their advantages over conventional cars belong environmental friendliness and better performance (in case of hybrid electric vehicles), but they also suffer from greater purchase costs and limited range (in case of most battery electric vehicles) [4, 6]. Presented work briefly characterizes four types of vehicles equipped with electric motor (mild hybrid, full hybrid, plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicles) along with generalised presentation of their battery requirements [4, 6]. Further in this work, the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery working principle was explained, along with characterisation of its limitations due to its design and requirements for inactive components e.g. 4-fold drop in specific capacity and energy density while moving from pure electrode material level to battery level [20]. Next, present Li-ion active components, such as LiCoO2, LiMnO2 and LiFePO4 cathodes and graphite anode along with their capacities and energy densities as well as other characteristic regarding (e.g. environmental friendliness, safety and cost) are shown. Moreover electrode materials e.g. nanocomposite anodes and cathodes, multi-electron cathodes (e.g. Li2MnSiO4), as well as Li-metal and Li4Ti5O12 anodes, with their advantages and disadvantages were described [15, 20]. Presented article was summarized by gathered opinions of battery electric vehicles users, who share their experience regarding their electric cars in a survey. One can tell that they are fairly satisfied with their purchase and that improvement in range of battery electric vehicles along with predictable government policy regarding electrification of cars are the most important factors when considering purchase of electric vehicle [36].
6
Content available Light electric vehicle powertrain analysis.
EN
This paper describes the structure of a light electric vehicle known as the Mia Electric vehicle. The vehicle parameters and exploitation properties are presented, while the advantages and disadvantages of the vehicle’s technical solutions are discussed, along with possible ideas for their improvement. Vehicle test results on a roller dyno and under actual driving conditions are presented. The data recorded during tests form the basis of an analysis of the vehicle powertrain, whose findings are described in the summary along with testing conclusions.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono możliwości wykorzystania układu napędowego z silnikiem indukcyjnym sterowanym metodą DTC-SVM w napędzie hybrydowym pojazdu osobowego. Sprawdzono działanie systemu napędowego pracującego zarówno ze sprzężeniem zwrotnym od prędkości kątowej oraz w układzie bez jawnego sprzężenia zwrotnego od tej zmiennej stanu. Badania wykonano w środowisku Sim Power System.
EN
This paper presents an possibility of Direct Torque Control of Induction Motor Drive application in a Hybrid Electrical Vehicle. Control structure with and without external speed control loop was tested and checked during different drive operation. Simulation results were performed in Sim Power System software.
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