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EN
Soil sealing is a threat to soil and its ecosystem services. One of the main drivers of soil sealing is land degradation resulting from the expansion of urban areas, where it leads to such problems as the growing risk of flooding and local inundations, urban heat islands, or water shortages. The article focuses on analyses and quantification of the general degree of soil sealing in 2012-2018 in eight functional urban areas (FUA) in Poland, taking into account their division into the urban core (UC) and the commuting zone (CZ). We used the high resolution layer imperviousness density (HRL IMD) data to quantify soil sealing as well as data on land cover and land use with different spatial resolutions, i.e. from the European Urban Atlas project (UA) and the National Database of Topographic Objects (BDOT10k) to quantify artificial surfaces. The research determined the spatial differentiation of UCs and CZs in terms of the degree of soil sealing. We further observed higher average growth of sealed land in CZs. Quantitative and spatial analyses determined the spatial patterns of soil sealing in the FUA in Poland. Soil sealing intensified from 2012 to 2018. The process should be expected to continue in the coming years in light of the continuous transformation of vegetated areas into artificial ones. The conclusions should be considered valuable for the implementation of the spatial policy concerning sustainable land use and soil protection in suburban areas.
EN
Realizacja inwestycji z reguły związana jest z większą lub mniejszą ingerencją w środowisko. To zaś może być m.in. siedliskiem gatunków chronionych. Co mówią o tym i do czego zobowiązują nas prawne przepisy?
PL
Wraz z postępem technicznym i technologicznym sprostanie wymaganiom dzisiejszych czasów skłoniły człowieka do wynajdowania nowych sposobów i metod pozyskiwania danych przestrzennych z wymaganą dokładnością. Do takich danych należy zaliczyć dane satelitarne. Stanowią one niezwykle cenne źródło informacji, wykorzystywane do wykonywania badań i analiz z zakresu obserwacji powierzchni Ziemi, zjawisk geofizycznych jak i meteorologicznych. Tematyka niniejszego artykułu skupia się na wykorzystaniu danych teledetekcyjnych, jako źródeł umożliwiających ocenę zmian sposobu użytkowania gruntów. W tym celu przedstawiono główne programy umożliwiające pozyskiwanie danych przestrzennych, tj. program Landsat i Copernicus. Nie sposób zapomnieć również o systemie ISOK (Informatycznym Systemie Ochrony Kraju). Jego znaczenie w sektorze społecznym i ekonomicznym pomaga wykrywać wczesne stadia zagrożeń i katastrof naturalnych. W odniesieniu do okresowości wykonywanych pomiarów w ramach wymienionych programów i systemów, jest to nieodłączny element przeprowadzanych badań obranych obszarów. Bowiem obserwacje zmian w czasie dają doskonałe rezultaty, ponieważ dynamika stref przyrodniczych jak i urbanistycznych jest niebagatelna.
EN
Along with technical and detailed progress, meeting the requirements of time prompted man to invent new ways and methods of spatial acquisition with the required participation. Whether such data must come from regional data. They are extremely valuable sources of information that are used to perform research and analyze the range of observations of the Earth's surface, geophysical and meteorological phenomena. The subject matter of the article focuses on the acquisition of remote sensing data as sources enabling the assessment of changes in land use after land consolidation works. For this purpose, the main programs for acquiring spatial data, i.e. Landsat and Copernicus, were used. It is also impossible to forget about the ISOK system (IT System for Country Protection). Its recognition in legal and economic proceedings helps to detect early stages and natural circumstances. In order to examine the period of taking measurements under specific tools and systems, it is an integral part of the research of the selected areas. Because I know that observations of changes over time give excellent results, because the dynamics of natural and urban zones is considerable.
EN
Some centuries ago, the city of Guanajuato was divided into neighborhoods in which a beneficiation hacienda was generally located. Various activities related to mining and metallurgical work were carried out, a predominant characteristic in the region such as quicksilver and the casting of metals. With the passage of time, these beneficiation haciendas were subdivided, the families of the workers remained on the farms adjacent to the big house (where the owner of the quicksilver or head of the smelter lived), and gave up their place to heritage public spaces which are visited and admired today by the tourism sector. In some cases, the land use changed, and in others it continues to be the predominant use in the area. Another no less important factor is the observable state of conservation, because, although there are few buildings whose infrastructure does not receive the attention they should, it does not affect the popularity enjoyed by the space in question.
EN
The intensification of agricultural production is one of the factors determining economic development. Increasing mechanisation and use of fertilisers in agriculture lead to higher yields, but at the same time they can pose a threat to the environment. The overuse of chemical fertilisers contributes to increased concentration of nutrients in agricultural runoff. One of such areas is the Szreniawa River catchment, the study area located in the southern part of Poland. In this catchment, intensive mostly mechanical ploughing is applied in, for instance, vegetable production. The area has loess soils, which with intensive ploughing are susceptible to erosion. The study aims to determine changes in the quality of flowing waters against the background of agricultural production and land-use characteristics. Surface waters were classified as class II and occurred at all analysed points. The highest concentrations of N-NO3 , N-NH 4 and P-PO 4 were found at a point in the middle of the catchment (lower part of research area). There, the lowest concentrations were recorded in 2018, which was related to the amount of precipitation during the growing season. On the other hand, the volume of plant and animal production closely correlated with the quality of surface water in the area. This was also confirmed by the land use structure. In conclusion, intensive agricultural production, mainly in terms of plough tillage causes significant hazards associated with soil erosion especially on agriculturally sensitive soils, although it provides good yields.
EN
The objective of this study is to map through multisource data, the change in land use structure and quantify its evolution around the semi-arid watershed of Wadi Sarno of Sidi Bel Abbès between 2000 and 2021. To this end, satellite images of 2000 and 2021 have been exploited by remote sensing and GIS, as well as field surveys for verification and validation of the results obtained. The methodology is based on supervised classification by maximum likelihood from the processing of satellite images. The analysis of the dynamics of land use shows that the areas of natural formations (dense forest and bare land) have decreased from 17,560 ha to 15,516 ha, that is to say, a regression of 8.04%, while the anthropised formations (Agriculture, open forest and rangeland, built-up areas, water bodies) have experienced an increase in their surface area, they have gone from 7901 ha to 9945 ha, that is to say, 10.4% of the total surface area of the basin. In the light of these results, it is possible to define priority areas for restoring degraded zones and enhancing natural formations. by giving priority to perennial crops to fix the soil in place and benefit from additional income for the region's farmers. By planting hardy species such as olives, figs, almonds, carob trees and so on. These species have proven their effectiveness and adaptation to local soil and climate conditions.
EN
The cartography and quantification of irrigated fields in the context of decreasing rainfall constitute a key element for water resources management. Therefore, in this context, the use of remote sensing methods applied to Landsat-type images with a high spatial resolution for monitoring the changes in land use in general and irrigated crops, in particular, is highly relevant. This paper aims to present a method for mapping spatial and temporal changes in irrigated parcels in the Guigou Plain, located in the central Middle Atlas, based on Landsat images and fieldwork. For the years 1985, 1998, 2010 and 2018, the use of a supervised classification method based on the principle of machine learning, fed by precise field surveys, has made it possible to highlight a significant extension of irrigated areas to the expense of pastureland and rainfed crops. Over the entire period under consideration, the results obtained with good precision (98.5% overall accuracy) showed that the area under irrigated crops has increased from approximately 699 ha to 3988 ha, i.e. an increase of 570%. The corollary of this increase is strong pressure on the water resource, especially groundwater. This information on the total extension of irrigated plots can be taken as a reference in the perspective of reasoned management of water resources in the sector.
EN
Water erosion in mountainous areas is a major problem, especially on steep slopes exposed to intense precipitation. This paper presents the analysis of the topsoil loss using the SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model. The SWAT model is a deterministic catchment model with a daily time step. It was designed to anticipate changes taking place in the catchment area, such as climate change and changes in land use and development, including the quantity and quality of water resources, soil erosion and agricultural production. In addition to hydrological and environmental aspects, the SWAT model is used to address socio-economic and demographic issues, such as water supply and food production. This program is integrated with QGIS software. The results were evaluated using the following statistical coefficients: determination (R2), Nash-Sutcliff model efficiency (NS), and percentage deviation index (PBIAS). An assessment of modelling results was made in terms of their variation according to different land cover scenarios. In the case of the scenario with no change in use, the average annual loss of topsoil (average upland sediment yield) was found to be 14.3 Mg∙ha-1. The maximum upland sediment yield was 94.6 Mg∙ha-1. On the other hand, there is an accumulation of soil material in the lower part of the catchment (in-stream sediment change), on average 13.27 Mg∙ha-1 per year.
EN
The threat of environmental degradation of the Martapura River as a result of an increase in built-up land has become a serious problem, so it is important to implement a new method using the integration of calculations of changes in built-up land and the sustainability of river area environmental management. This study aimed to calculate the change in built-up land directly integrated through Rap-RiverBuiltUp quantitative analysis on the environmental sustainability of the Martapura river area, Banjarmasin City. The research method used is the technique of spatial analysis of ETM/Landsat 8 OLI satellite landsat images and analysis of ecological, social and economic sustainability with Rap-RiverBuiltUP analysis. The results of the analysis of built-up land around the Martapura river, Banjarmasin City, have increased by 2.31% over the last 12 years, followed by a growth in population density of ±1.5% annually. The implementation of sustainable environmental management needs to be prioritized with the efforts to periodically revise regional spatial planning regulations, especially the boundaries of built-up land to reduce the development of built-up land around the Martapura River. The sustainability status of the built-up area around the Martapura river is currently not sustainable. The ecological dimension indicates a less sustainable status, while the economic and social dimensions indicate a fairly sustainable status. Increasing the sustainability index value of the Martapura river from each dimension in the future is by making the lever factor an input for the management policy of the Martapura river, Banjarmasin City.
EN
Which modern use of grassland is the most beneficial for the protection of water resources in the Polish Carpathians is scarcely known; thus, the deep outflows from organically, extensively, semi-intensively and intensively used and unused grasslands between 2019 and 2022 were measured. The studies showed that use impacted the process of deep infiltration, but the differences were clearest between the areas where management was reduced to a minimum (lowest outflow) and the areas which were mown most often (highest outflow). No effect of fertilisation was detected. To intensify groundwater recharge, it is evidently necessary to mow vegetation twice or three times per season; more frequent mowing changed the characteristics of the vegetation in an undesirable way. The fallowing of grasslands proved to be a practice unfavourable to groundwater resources.
EN
In recent years, the road network in Poland has undergone significant development, meeting the objective of creating a coherent network of roads to ensure the efficient functioning of passenger and freight transport. Linear investments, such as the construction of motorways, expressways or bypasses, are an important element that improves the safety and comfort of the life of residents, and has a significant impact on the economic and regional progress. In addition to the undoubted benefits of constructing a bypass, its possible negative impact on the surrounding agricultural and forest areas should be emphasised. Poor planning and construction of the bypass itself, without prior programming of survey and management works, can lead to disturbances in the spatial structure of neighbouring villages. This study attempts to analyse and evaluate the impact of the construction of the Tomaszów Lubelski bypass on the spatial structure of rural areas located in the eastern part of Tomaszów County (Lubelskie Voivodeship), which is a 9.58 km long section of the S17 Warsaw – Hrebenne expressway. The study undertook a detailed analysis of only those factors that adversely affect the spatial structure of rural areas. On the basis of research on the subject, factors affecting and significantly changing the spatial structure of rural areas were identified, which allowed to formulate final conclusions regarding the problem of realising linear investments in relation to shaping the space of rural areas.
PL
Na przestrzeni ostatnich lat sieć drogowa w Polsce uległa znaczącej rozbudowie, realizując zamierzenia stworzenia spójnej sieci dróg zapewniających efektywne funkcjonowanie transportu osobowego i towarowego. Realizacje inwestycji liniowych jakimi są między innymi budowy autostrad, dróg ekspresowych, czy obwodnic, stanowią istotny element podnoszący bezpieczeństwo oraz komfort życia mieszkańców, jak również mają znaczący wpływ na postęp gospodarczy i ekonomiczny regionu. Obok niewątpliwych korzyści budowy obwodnicy należy podkreślić, że może ona wywierać negatywny wpływ na otaczające tereny rolne i leśne. Niewłaściwe przeprowadzenie procesu planowania jak i samej budowy obwodnicy, bez wcześniejszego programowania prac geodezyjno-urządzeniowych, może prowadzić do zaburzeń w strukturze przestrzennej sąsiadujących miejscowości. W niniejszej pracy podjęto próbę analizy i oceny wpływu budowy obwodnicy miasta Tomaszowa Lubelskiego na strukturę przestrzenną terenów wiejskich, położona we wschodniej części powiatu tomaszowskiego (woj. lubelskie), stanowiąca odcinek drogi ekspresowej S17 Warszawa – Hrebenne o długości 9,58 km. W pracy podjęto szczegółową analizę wyłącznie tych czynników, które w niekorzystny sposób przekształcają przestrzeń obszarów wiejskich. Opierając się na badaniach wyodrębniono czynniki oddziaływujące oraz znacząco zmieniające strukturę przestrzenną terenów wiejskich. Na ich podstawie sformułowano ostateczne wnioski dotyczące problematyki budowy inwestycji linowych w odniesieniu do kształtowania przestrzeni obszarów wiejskich.
EN
Land surface temperature (LST) estimation is a crucial topic for many applications related to climate, land cover, and hydrology. In this research, LST estimation and monitoring of the main part of Al-Anbar Governorate in Iraq is presented using Landsat imagery from five years (2005, 2010, 2015, 2016 and 2020). Images of the years 2005 and 2010 were captured by Landsat 5 (TM) and the others were captured by Landsat 8 (OLI/TIRS). The Single Channel Algorithm was applied to retrieve the LST from Landsat 5 and Landsat 8 images. Moreover, the land use/land cover (LULC) maps were developed for the five years using the maximum likelihood classifier. The difference in the LST and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) values over this period was observed due to the changes in LULC. Finally, a regression analysis was conducted to model the relationship between the LST and NDVI. The results showed that the highest LST of the study area was recorded in 2016 (min = 21.1°C, max = 53.2°C and mean = 40.8°C). This was attributed to the fact that many people were displaced and had left their agricultural fields. Therefore, thousands of hectares of land which had previously been green land became desertified. This conclusion was supported by comparing the agricultural land areas registered throughout the presented years. The polynomial regression analysis of LST and NDVI revealed a better coefficient of determination (R2) than the linear regression analysis with an average R2 of 0.423.
EN
The remote sensing technique is crucial for creating maps showing land use and land cover from a procedure known as image classification. For the process of image classification to be successful, many aspects must be taken into consideration; one of these factors is the availability of high-quality Landsat images. This study aims to classify and map the studied area’s land use and cover using remote sensing and geographic information system techniques. This study is divided into two parts: part one focuses on classifying land use and land cover, while part two evaluates how accurate the classification is. Several classification methods are compared for their efficacy in this study. Some image classification methods have shown promising results when used to remote sensing data. An efficient classifier is necessary for extracting data from remote-sensing images. The maximum likelihood classification was the most effective classifier in our study. In this study, the Maximum Likelihood classification accuracy has achieved an overall accuracy of 91% and an overall kappa accuracy of 86.83%. This study provides essential data for planners and decision-makers to design sustainable environments.
PL
Artykuł porusza tematykę planowania zagospodarowania przestrzennego, uwzględniając dostępność danego terenu do przystanków publicznego transportu zbiorowego. Przedstawiony przykład dotyczy obszaru Górka Narodowa Zachód. Teren ten został modelowo przekształcony w oparciu o izochrony dojścia do przystanków i idei miasta 15-minutowego. Etap koncepcyjny realizowano korzystając z licznych analiz dotyczących między innymi aktualnego zagospodarowania i systemu transportowego. W dalszej części artykułu przeanalizowano dostępność rozumianą jako częstotliwość kursowania linii oraz izochrony dojścia do przystanków. Następnie przedstawiono dokumenty planistyczne, na bazie których stworzono koncepcję zagospodarowania przestrzennego. Nowy projekt w sposób zasadniczy poparty jest dostępnością planowanej zabudowy do przystanków, zarówno tych istniejących, jak i planowanych w najbliższej przyszłości.
EN
The article presents the issue of land use planning, taking into account the accessibility of a given area to public transport stops. The presented example relates to the area of Górka Narodowa Zachód. The area was modeled in terms of isochrones of access to bus stops and the idea of a 15-minute city. The conceptual stage was supported by numerous analyses, including current development and the transportation system. The next part of the article analyzed accessibility understood as the frequency of lines and isochrones of access to stops. Furthermore, planning documents were presented, on the basis of which a spatial development concept was created. The new design is fundamentally supported by the accessibility of the planned development to the stops, both existing and those intended for the near future.
EN
The goals of the study presented in the article draw attention to the role of public transport stops in the spatial distribution of crime in the Stare Bałuty estate in Łódź, Poland. Answers are provided to the questions of spatio-temporal structure of criminal acts committed within the estate, the influence zone of transport stops as well as the assessment and effects of environmental crime predictors in their vicinity. Crime location quotient (LQC) was used to assess the intensity of crime and identify the influence zone that attracts certain categories of crimes to the vicinity of stops. The influence of environmental predictors on the level of threat was identified and assessed on the basis of B. Czarnecki’s method. The variables used in the analysis initially spanned 739 crimes and 53 public transport stops evaluated with regard to 20 safety aspects and their impact on the pro-crime effects on the scale of location as well as various forms and functions of urban development. A strong negative influence of public transport stops ‒ attracting various categories of crime, mostly property theft ‒ was discovered. The negative influence of stops on the concentration of crime within 200 metres is reinforced by the existence of environmental crime predictors. The recommendations and discussions resulting from the findings should influence the policy of crime prevention on the level of object location, management and the maintenance of socio-spatial order in the vicinity.
16
Content available remote Changes in agricultural production in the Małopolskie voivodeship
EN
Agriculture is one of the basic branches of the national economy, which is responsible for food production. With the rapid development of agricultural production technology, especially new techniques of animal husbandry and crop production, we are seeing changes in the amount of adverse substances entering the environment. Analysts pay great attention to biogenic compounds, mainly nitrogen and phosphorus, which infiltrate deep into the soil profile and cause surface runoff as a result of precipitation. This causes eutrophication of surface waters. In the recent decades there has been an increase in agricultural productivity. At the same time, the percentage of people employed in this sector of the economy and the economic value of products produced in agriculture are decreasing. On the basis of the data obtained from the Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture (in Polish: Agencja Restrukturyzacji i Modernizacji Rolnictwa, Kraków delegation) [1] and the data from the Statistics Poland (in Polish: Główny Urząd Statystyczny [2], the present study shows the trends of the changes in the agricultural sector in the Małopolskie Voivodeship in 2016-2021. Unfortunately, due to the lack or incompleteness of the data obtained, some parameters were considered over a two- or three-year period. The parameters such as livestock population, number of farms, crop area, yields and fertilization levels were analyzed. The aspect of employment in agriculture was also addressed as an element indicating the level of involvement of residents in agricultural activities, both crop and livestock production. The low rate of employment in the agricultural sector may indicate the degree of familiarity of the population with the basic processes of obtaining animal products and agricultural crops. The discussed Voivodeship is characterized by a high proportion of agricultural land – more than 60% of the area. There is a slight decline in cattle and pig populations. Sheep and goat populations are low and not very variable. Analyzing crop production, despite the declining area of total crops, there was a slight increase in the area of most crops in 2021, thanks in part to a reduction in the participation of unmarked crops compared to 2020. In addition, the analysis shows that despite the downward trend in the amount of mineral fertilizers used, yields have increased, which may confirm the development of production technologies and better management of nutrient resources contained in the soil of primary importance to plants.
PL
Rolnictwo jest jedną z podstawowych gałęzi gospodarki narodowej, które odpowiada za produkcję żywności. Dynamiczny rozwój technologii produkcji rolniczej, w tym szczególnie nowych technik chowu i hodowli zwierząt oraz produkcji roślinnej możemy obserwować zmiany w ilości niekorzystnych substancji wprowadzanych do środowiska. Analitycy dużą uwagę poświęcają związkom biogennym, głównie azotowi i fosforowi, które w wyniku opadów atmosferycznych infiltrują w głąb profilu glebowego oraz powodują spływ powierzchniowy. Powoduje to eutrofizację wód powierzchniowych. W ostatnich dziesięcioleciach obserwowany jest wzrost produktywności w rolnictwie. Jednocześnie zmniejsza się procentowy udział osób zatrudnionych w tym dziale gospodarki oraz wartość ekonomiczna produktów wytwarzanych w rolnictwie. Na podstawie danych uzyskanych z Agencji Restrukturyzacji i Modernizacji Rolnictwa (delegatura w Krakowie) [1] oraz danych Głównego Urzędu Statystycznego [2], w niniejszym opracowaniu przedstawiono trendy zmian w sektorze rolniczym w województwie małopolskim w latach od 2016-2021. Niestety, ze względu na brak lub niekompletność pozyskanych danych, część parametrów była rozpatrywana w okresie dwu- lub trzyletnim. Analizie poddano parametry takie jak pogłowie zwierząt gospodarskich, liczba gospodarstw rolnych, powierzchnia upraw, plonowanie oraz poziom nawożenia. Poruszono także aspekt zatrudnienia w rolnictwie jako element wskazujący na poziom zaangażowania mieszkańców w działalność rolniczą, zarówno produkcję roślinną, jak i zwierzęcą. Niski udział zatrudnienia w sektorze rolniczym może świadczyć o stopniu zaznajomienia społeczeństwa z podstawowymi procesami uzyskiwania produktów zwierzęcych oraz płodów rolnych. Województwo małopolskie charakteryzuje się wysokim udziałem użytków rolnych - ponad 60% jego powierzchni. Obserwuje się nieznaczne zmniejszenie pogłowia bydła oraz trzody chlewnej. Pogłowie owiec i kóz jest niskie i mało zmienne. Analizując produkcję roślinną, mimo zmniejszającej się powierzchni upraw ogółem, można obserwować niewielki wzrost powierzchnie większości z upraw w roku 2021, m.in. ze względu na zmniejszenie się udziału upraw nieoznaczonych względem roku 2020. Ponadto w analizie wykazano, że mimo spadkowej tendencji w ilości stosowanych nawozów mineralnych, plony wzrosły, co może potwierdzać rozwój technologii produkcji oraz lepsze gospodarowanie zasobami składników pokarmowych zawartych w glebie mających fundamentalne znaczenie dla roślin.
EN
The aim of the research was to analyse land use changes and to develop a coherent base on the basis of available cartographic source materials – archival and contemporary topographic maps and spatial databases. The presented research is a continuation of works related to the cartographic visualization of changes in the distribution of the settlement network in the Noteć Forest – one of the largest forest complexes in Poland. The analysis was performed for nine villages together with their immediate surroundings, located in this area. The total surface area of lands covered by the study was 32,468 km2 . Cartographic source materials were collected for selected areas. The archival maps were georeferenced and then digitized. In this way, the data has been transformed into a homogeneous system enabling further comparisons and analyses in an automated manner. Geodetic software (C-Geo), GIS (MapInfo, QGIS) and GNSS technology were used in the work. Cartographic sources can be successfully used for spatial analyses and environmental studies, providing reliable and available quantitative data. This type of research is important because it shows the changes taking place in the natural environment and can be used in works related to spatial planning, landscape ecology and social research.
EN
The Cisadane River, Tangerang City, is one of the most important rivers in Indonesia. This river provides raw water for Municipal Waterworks (PDAM) of the Tangerang City and Soekarno-Hatta International Airport, but the water quality tends to deteriorate due to pollution. The government has made various efforts to manage the river water quality, but no significant resolution was issued yet. The problem is becoming more complicated due to land-use changes that affect the pollutant load. Therefore, more precise, integrated, and comprehensive management is needed. This study used an approach with various methodologies according to the stages of the research, including; qualitative and quantitative analysis, GIS, statistics, risk management, and System Dynamic. The outcome of this research was the development of the policies in river water quality management, specifically land use manage-ment, separation of drainage channels from domestic sewage channels, enhancement of Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) services coverage, as well as reinforcement of institutional and regulatory aspects, especially in funding commitments.
EN
Changing coastal zones in Indonesia, such as coral reefs, seagrass, and mangroves, have an impact on tropical ecosystems. Excessive exploitation and sedimentation, in particular, have threatened the mangrove at Segara Anakan Cilacap. In order to evaluate temporal land cover changes and the impact of high siltation on the Segara Anakan lagoon system in Cilacap, Indonesia, a research was conducted. The land cover data from SPOT 4 was available in 2008, and the Sentinel-2A data was available in 2019. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to enhance the Macro Class with supervised classification utilizing Maximum Likelihood techniques. Mangroves and water bodies declined between 2009 and 2019, whereas settlements and farmland areas increased, according to this study. In the western part of Segara Anakan, extensive siltation altered the biomass, structure, and composition of mangrove vegetation. At high sedimented habitats, Acanthus and Derris dominate, followed by Nypa. The changes in land cover and land use had an impact on socioeconomic factors. Decreases in water bodies and mangrove areas, as well as an increase in farmland, were significantly linked to a shift in society’s livelihoods from fishermen to farmers. The destruction of mangrove habitats in the Segara Anakan has been accelerated by anthropogenic activity and population pressure. Because this sensitive environment is constantly threatened by anthropogenic activity and climate change, effective management of the Segara Anakan Lagoon mangrove ecosystem is important for its long-term viability.
EN
In the 20th century, climate change caused an increase in temperature that accelerated the rate of sea level. Sea level rise and land subsidence threaten densely populated coastal areas as well as lowlands because they cause tidal flooding. Tidal floods occur every year due to an increase in sea level rise and land subsidence. The lack of information on this phenomenon causes delays in disaster mitigation, leading to serious problems. This study was conducted to predict the area of tidal flood inundation on land use in 2020 to 2035. This research was performed in Pekalongan Regency, as one of the areas experiencing large land subsidence and sea level rise. The research data to be used were tides and the value of soil subsidence, as well as sea level rise. Digital Terrain Model (DTM) was obtained through a topographic survey. Modeling was used for DTM reconstruction based on land subsidence and sea level rise every year. The sea level rise value uses the satellite altimetry data from 1993–2018. A field survey was conducted to validate the inundation model that has been created. Land subsidence was processed using Sentinel-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) image data with Single Band Algorithm (SBA) differential interferometry. This study proved that tidal flooding has increased every year where in 2020 it was 783.99 hectares, but with the embankment there was a reduction in inundation area of 1.68 hectares. The predicted area of tidal flood inundation in 2025, 2030 and 2035 without the embankment is 3388.98 hectares, 6523.19 hectares, 7578.94 hectares, while with the embankment in 2035 is 1686.62 hectares. The research results showed that the use of embankments is a solution for coastal mitigation as well as regional planning.
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