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PL
Tanie skanery z wieloma wiązkami laserowymi takie jak Velodyne, Ouster, Hesai często wykorzystywane są do budowy niedrogich systemów skaningu kinematycznego, w tym systemów plecakowych i bezzałogowych. Niski koszt skutkuje mniejszą jakością pozyskiwanych danych, a parametry dokładnościowe podawane przez producentów często odbiegają od rzeczywistych. Z tego powodu problem oceny dokładności danych pozyskanych za pomocą takich skanerów jest ciągle podnoszony przez naukowców. Metody przez nich stosowane mają na celu ocenę dokładności położenia punktów skaningu i opierają się głownie na punktach i powierzchniach referencyjnych. Należy jednak zaznaczyć, że na dokładność położenia tych punktów wpływ mają różne czynniki, w tym te wynikające z błędów instrumentalnych, wynikające z charakteru mierzonego obiektu, a także danych z innych sensorów (np. dane o trajektorii stosowane w skaningu mobilnym). W tym artykule proponujemy metodę, która pozwala na ocenę jakości obserwacji (odległości i kątów), których błędy wynikają głównie z pierwszego z wymienionych czynników, czyli instrumentu. Metoda ta bazuje na porównaniu obserwacji rzeczywistych z teoretycznymi powstającymi poprzez symulację. Do symulacji rzeczywistych obserwacji stosowany jest wirtualny skaner Velodyne, który umieszczany jest w takiej samej pozycji i orientacji jak rzeczywisty. Obserwacje teoretyczne dla skanera wirtualnego tworzone są w oparciu o znany mechanizm działania skanera oraz dokładną i bardzo gęstą chmurę punktów naziemnego skaningu laserowego. Wykonane dla skanera Velodyne HDL-32E eksperymenty wykazały, że dokładność pomiaru odległości jest porównywalna z podawaną przez producenta, jednak inna dla różnych diod laserowych, a dokładność pomiaru kąta poziomego wynosi około 0,04°. Ponadto wykazano, że częstotliwość wirownia skanera, od której zależy wartość kąta poziomego jest różna od wartości nominalnej i nie jest stała w trakcie całego obrotu. Opracowana metoda symulacji obserwacji może być w przyszłości wykorzystana do kalibracji podobnych skanerów tego typu.
EN
Inexpensive scanners with multiple laser beams such as Velodyne, Ouster, Hesai are often used to build low-cost kinematic scanning systems, including backpack and unmanned systems. Low costs result in lower quality of the acquired data. In addition, the accuracy parameters provided by manufacturers are often different from the actual ones. For this reason, the problem of assessing the accuracy of data obtained using such scanners is investigated by scientists. The methods used for this purpose aim at assessing the accuracy of the position of scanning points and use mainly reference points and surfaces. However, that the accuracy of the location of these points is influenced by various factors, including those resulting from instrumental errors, from the nature of the measured object, as well as data from other sensors (e.g. trajectory data used in mobile scanning). In this article, we propose a method that allows for the assessment of the quality of observations (distances and angles) which errors result mainly from the first of the mentioned factors, i.e. the instrument. Proposed method bases on the comparison of real observations with theoretical ones created through simulation. To simulate real observations, a virtual Velodyne scanner is used, which is placed in the same position and orientation as the real one. Theoretical observations for the virtual scanner are created based on the known mechanism of scanner operation and an accurate and very dense terrestrial laser scanning point cloud. Experiments executed for the Velodyne HDL-32E scanner proved that the accuracy of distance measurement is comparable to that provided by the manufacturer, but different for different laser diodes, while the accuracy of horizontal angle measurement is equal to about 0.04°. Moreover, it was shown that the scanner's rotation frequency, which determines the value of the horizontal angle, is different from the nominal value and is not constant during the entire rotation. The developed observation simulation method can be used in the future to calibrate similar scanners of this type.
EN
To address the issue of insufficient accuracy in consumer recommendation systems, a new biased network inference algorithm is proposed based on traditional network inference algorithms. This new network inference algorithm can significantly improve the resource allocation ability of the original one, thereby improving recommendation performance. Then, the performance of this algorithm is verified through comparative experiments with network-based inference algorithms, network inference algorithms with initial resource optimization, and heterogeneous network inference algorithms. The results showed that the accuracy of the new network inference algorithm was 24.5%, which was superior to traditional one. In terms of system performance testing, the recommendation hit rate of the new network inference algorithm increased by 13.97%, which was superior to the other three comparative algorithms. The experimental results indicated that a novel network inference algorithm with bias can improve the performance of consumer recommendation systems, providing new ideas for improving the performance of consumer recommendation systems.
PL
Modelowanie nagrzewania indukcyjnego w celu konstrukcji urządzeń jest procesem wymagającym analiz sprzężonych, co najmniej elektromagnetyczno-cieplnych i może być realizowane przy wykorzystaniu modeli polowych i obwodowych. Są to zagadnienia rozbudowane, obejmujące szeroką wiedzę z dziedziny elektrotechniki, elektroniki i termodynamiki. Istotą prowadzonych analiz jest uzyskiwanie rezultatów o wysokiej dokładności w warunkach konieczności stosowania szeregu uproszczeń. W niniejszej pracy scharakteryzowano kilka istotnych czynników wpływających na dokładność numerycznych analiz procesu nagrzewania indukcyjnego, z uwzględnieniem wpływu przyjmowanych uproszczeń w analizie zagadnień cieplnych i rodzaju sprzężenia, będących podstawowymi czynnikami, rzadko uwzględnianymi w obliczeniach tej klasy. Celem pracy jest usystematyzowanie współczesnego stanu wiedzy w zakresie prowadzenia inżynierskich procedur obliczeniowych w zagadnieniach nagrzewania indukcyjnego.
EN
Modeling of induction heating to design physical devices is a process that requires coupled analyses, at least electromagnetic and thermal and can be implemented using field and circuit models. These are extensive issues, covering knowledge in the field of electrical engineering, electronics and thermodynamics. The essence of the analyzes is to obtain high-accuracy results. This paper characterizes several important factors affecting the accuracy of numerical analyzes of the induction heating process, taking into account the impact of the adopted simplifications in the analysis of thermal issues and the type of coupling, which are basic factors rarely taken into account in similar calculations. The aim of the work is to revise the current state of knowledge in the field of engineering computational procedures of induction heating systems.
EN
Parkinson’s disease is associated with memory loss, anxiety, and depression in the brain. Problems such as poor balance and difficulty during walking can be observed in addition to symptoms of impaired posture and rigidity. The field dedicated to making computers capable of learning autonomously, without having to be explicitly programmed, is known as machine learning. An approach to the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease, which is based on artificial intelligence, is discussed in this article. The input for this system is provided through photographic examples of Parkinson’s disease patient handwriting. Received photos are preprocessed using the relief feature option to begin the process. This is helpful in the process of selecting characteristics for the identification of Parkinson’s disease. After that, the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) algorithm is employed to reduce the dimensions, bringing down the total number of dimensions that are present in the input data. The photos are then classified via radial basis function-support vector machine (SVM-RBF), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), and naive Bayes algorithms, respectively.
EN
In the paper a new, fractional order, discrete model of a two-dimensional temperature field is addressed. The proposed model uses Grünwald-Letnikov definition of the fractional operator. Such a model has not been proposed yet. Elementary properties of the model: practical stability, accuracy and convergence are analysed. Analytical conditions of stability and convergence are proposed and they allow to estimate the orders of the model. Theoretical considerations are validated using exprimental data obtained with the use of a thermal imaging camera. Results of analysis supported by experiments point that the proposed model assures good accuracy and convergence for low order and relatively short memory length.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the work was to present the automation of the mass measurement process as a factor that can significantly affect the quality and speed of analyzes in pharmaceutical industry. Design/methodology/approach: In this study, two methods were presented for testing the mass uniformity of tablets whose weight ranged from 13 mg to 2580 mg. The first method involved determining the weight of 20 randomly selected tablets of pharmaceutical preparations by statically measuring the weight of these tablets. In the second method, an automatic tablet feeder type PA-04/H was used, in which, as a result of vibration, successive tablets were automatically moved via a special chute onto the weighing pan. Findings: No significant differences were found in the weight measurements performed by the manual and automatic methods. The largest differences were noted at the 0.5% level. All tablets tested met the United States Pharmacopeia requirements for their mass uniformity. For orally disintegrating tablets, the largest percentage deviations in weight from the mean value were -4.47% for tablet F6, - 4.26%, for tablet F1 and 3.31% for tablet F2. The differences in accuracy and precision between the automatic and manual methods were insignificant. Research limitations/implications: Mass measurement by the manual method is one of the most frequently performed measurements in the laboratory. The final result from this measurement method may be subject to error caused, for example, by human error, i.e. reading, writing or calculation error. For this reason, process automation is increasingly being used, which eliminates the possibility of error to a large extent. Practical implications: The automation of weight measurement reduces the effort required for product inspection. Thus, it can be an important factor in the process of optimization and product quality management. Originality/value: The description of the research method and its results can be a valuable guideline for people who deal with product quality control in the pharmaceutical industry. It has been shown that automation to be effective does not have to be complicated but well designed.
EN
Jamming is electromagnetic radiation or reflection that impairs the function of electronic instruments and equipment or communication tools. Intentionally disrupting or interfering with GPS signals, which are used for positioning, navigation, and timing, known as "GPS jamming", is accomplished using a radio frequency emitting device. On January 8, 2022 (the day of a NATO exercise), it was investigated how GPS signal jamming affected the position accuracy at three IGS points in Iceland. The obtained coordinate differences between kinematic processing and static processing reached values of about 0.5-10 meters for the MAYV, and HOFN stations in this study. In addition to GPS signal jamming effect in Iceland, horizontal and vertical velocity fields of the three IGS stations in Iceland covering a twenty-two year period (2000-2022) in this study. According to the obtained results, a motion of about 2cm-2.5cm per year (horizontal) and 0.1cm-2.1cm per year (vertical) was computed at the three IGS stations (HOFN, REYK, and MAYV) located in Iceland.
EN
Network Real Time Kinematic (NRTK) measurements are currently the most popular surveying method in geodesy. In most countries, there are networks of Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS), which form the core of the terrestrial infrastructure that allows for NRTK measurements. In many countries, including Poland, several CORS networks operate in parallel and independently. The paper presents the characteristics of the CORS network in Poland. The results of several day NRTK and Real Time Kinematic (RTK) test measurements performed tied to five CORS networks operating in Poland: ASG-EUPOS, NadowskiNET, SmartNet, TPINETpro, VRSNet.pl, were subjected to a comparative analysis. VRS, FKP, MAC and POJ streams were used in the test measurements. The research mainly concerned the possibility of the occurrence of systematic errors when NRTK and RTK measurements were tied to different CORS networks for the survey of the same points. Conclusions from the comparative analysis of the accuracy and precision of the NRTK and RTK measurement results for each coordinate were also included.
EN
The article presents the results of research on the development of a method for improving the positioning accuracy of an UAV equipped with a single-frequency GPS receiver for determining the linear elements of exterior orientation in aerial photogrammetry. Thus, the paper presents a computational strategy for improving UAV position determination using the SPP code method and the products of the IGS service. The developed algorithms were tested in two independent research experiments performed with the UAV platform on which an AsteRx-m2 UAS single-frequency receiver was installed. As a result of the experiments, it was shown that the use of IGS products in the SPP code method made it possible to improve the accuracy of the linear elements to the level of about ±2.088 m for X coordinate, ±1.547 m for Y coordinate, ±3.712 m for Z coordinate. The paper also shows the trend of changes in the obtained accuracy in determining linear elements of exterior orientation in the form of a linear regression function. Finally, the paper also applies the SBAS corrections model for the improvement of UAV position calculation and determination of linear elements of exterior orientation. In this case, the improvement in the accuracy of determining the linear elements of exterior orientation is about ±1.843 m for X coordinate, ±1.658 m for Y coordinate, ±7.930 m for Z coordinate. As the obtained test results show, the use of IGS products and SBAS corrections in the SPP code method makes it possible to improve the determination of UAV positions for the use in aerial photogrammetry.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań elektromagnetycznych kilku modeli zbrojenia ortogonalnego z zastosowaniem Profometru PM-650. Oceniono powtarzalność pomiarów w przypadku różnego usytuowania tzw. ośrodka pomiaru względem pręta poprzecznego i oszacowano wartości błędów pomiarowych. Stwierdzono, że pozycja skanera istotnie wpływa na pomiar średnicy, natomiast w mniejszym stopniu na pomiar otuliny. W artykule poruszono również problem wpływu na wyniki czynników zaburzających pole elektromagnetyczne. W efekcie przeprowadzonych badań sformułowano zalecenia praktyczne.
EN
The article presents the results of electromagnetic research of several models of orthogonal reinforcement. Profometer PM-650 was used. The repeatability of measurements for different locations of the so-called measurement centre relative to the transverse member was evaluated and the values of measurement errors were estimated. It was found that the position of the scanner significantly affects the measurement of the diameter, while the measurement of the coating affects to a lesser extent. The article also discusses the problem of influencing the results of electromagnetic field disruptors. Practical recommendations were formulated.
EN
Opinions related to rising fuel prices need to be seen and analysed. Public opinion is closely related to public policy in Indonesia in the future. Twitter is one of the media that people use to convey their opinions. This study uses sentiment analysis to look at this phenomenon. Sentiment is divided into three categories: positive, neutral, and negative. The methods used in this research are Adaptive Synthetic Multinomial Naive Bayes, Adaptive Synthetic k-nearest neighbours, and Adaptive Synthetic Random Forest. The Adaptive Synthetic method is used to handle unbalanced data. The data used in this study are public arguments per province in Indonesia. The results obtained in this study are negative sentiments that dominate all provinces in Indonesia. There is a relationship between negative sentiment and the level of education, internet use, and the human development index. Adaptive Synthetic Multinomial Naive Bayes performed better than other methods, with an accuracy of 0.882. The highest accuracy of the Adaptive Synthetic Multinomial Naive Bayes method is 0.990 in Papua Barat Province.
PL
Należy przyjrzeć się i przeanalizować opinie związane z rosnącymi cenami paliw. Opinia publiczna jest ściśle związana z polityką publiczną Indonezji w przyszłości. Twitter jest jednym z mediów, których ludzie używają do przekazywania swoich opinii. Niniejsze badanie wykorzystuje analizę nastrojów, aby przyjrzeć się temu zjawisku. Opinia jest podzielona na trzy kategorie: pozytywną, neutralną i negatywną. Metody wykorzystane w tym badaniu to Adaptive Synthetic Multinomial Naive Bayes, Adaptive Synthetic k-nearest neighbours i Adaptive Synthetic Random Forest. Metoda Adaptive Synthetic służy do obsługi niezrównoważonych danych. Dane wykorzystane w tym badaniu to argumenty publiczne według prowincji w Indonezji. Wyniki uzyskane w tym badaniu to negatywne nastroje, które dominują we wszystkich prowincjach Indonezji. Istnieje związek między negatywnymi nastrojami a poziomem wykształcenia, korzystaniem z Internetu i wskaźnikiem rozwoju społecznego. Adaptive Synthetic Multinomial Naive Bayes działała lepiej niż inne metody, z dokładnością 0,882. Najwyższa dokładność metody Adaptive Synthetic Multinomial Naive Bayes wynosi 0,990 w prowincji Papua Barat.
EN
Remote sensing technology is reliable in identifying the distribution of seabed cover yet there are still challenges in retrieving the data collection of shallow water habitats than with other objects on land. Classification algorithms based on remote sensing technology have been developed for application to map benthic habitats, such as Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Distance, and Support Vector Machine. This study focuses on examining those three classification algorithms to retrieve information on the benthic habitat in Pari Island, Jakarta using visual interpretation data for classification, and data field measurements for accuracy testing. This study used five classes of benthic objects, namely sand, sand-seagrass, rubble, seagrass, and coral. The results show how the proposed approach in this study provides an overall good classification of marine habitat with an accuracy produced 63.89–81.95%. The Support Vector Machine algorithm produced the highest accuracy rate of about 81.95%. The Support Vector Machine algorithm at a very high spatial resolution is considered to be capable of identifying, monitoring, and performing the rapid assessment of benthic habitat objects.
EN
The paper presents an analysis of the accuracy of determination of parameters of the position of aircraft using data from the AVIA-W radar. In the first place, the authors determined the position of the aircraft as well as the range and azimuth parameters by the AVIA-W radar, located in Dęblin. This was followed by a determination of the absolute position error of the aircraft and the determination of the range and azimuth measurement error by the AVIA-W radar. The research test was carried out using a Diamond DA40 NG aircraft on which a GPS satellite receiver was mounted in order to determine the flight reference position. In addition, the range and azimuth measurements for the aircraft were acquired from the AVIA-W radar. Navigational calculations were conducted for polar and rectangular planar coordinates. Based on the performed research, the azimuth error was found to be -1.4°, while the radar range measurement error was equal to -0.04 km. The conducted research is experimental in its character. In the future it will be repeated and extended to the GCA-2000 radar, which is also located at Dęblin military airfield.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono analizę dokładności wyznaczenia parametrów pozycji statku powietrznego z użyciem danych z radaru AVIA-W. W pierwszej kolejności dokonano wyznaczenia pozycji statku powietrznego oraz określenia parametru zasięgu i azymutu przez radar AVIA-W, zlokalizowany w Dęblinie. Następnie dokonano wyznaczenia błędu absolutnego pozycji statku powietrznego oraz określenia błędu pomiaru zasięgu i azymutu przez radar AVIA-W. Test badawczy przeprowadzono z użyciem samolotu Diamond DA40 NG, na pokładzie którego zamontowano odbiornik satelitarny GPS w celu wyznaczenia pozycji odniesienia lotu. Dodatkowo z radaru AVIA-W pozyskano pomiary zasięgu i azymutu do statku powietrznego. Obliczenia nawigacyjne zrealizowano dla współrzędnych biegunowych i prostokątnych płaskich. Na podstawie wykonanych badań stwierdzono, że błąd azymutu wynosi -1,4°, z kolei błąd pomiaru zasięgu radaru wynosi -0,04 km. Przeprowadzone badania mają charakter eksperymentalny i w przyszłości zostaną powtórzone i rozszerzone o radar GCA-2000, który także znajduje się na lotnisku wojskowym Dęblin.
EN
This paper describes a cheap, portable coordinate system for measuring circular geometries. The developed software can measure diameters, circle center coordinates, and distances between them. The circle detector uses the Adaptive Hough Transform implemented in the OpenCV library. For image rectification, the system uses reference circle positions on the plane parallel to the plane of the measured ones. Pixel size is determined by the distances between the reference circle positions on the same plane. The mean measurement value from a series of photos was found efficient estimation of accurate value, significantly improving overall system accuracy.
EN
Through the spectrum noise logging technology, the oil field is dynamically monitored, and according to its simple logging instrument and convenient operation, the position of the outer channeling of the casing can be qualitatively judged by the abnormal noise of the measurement record, and the downhole production status of the water injection well can be accurately diagnosed. Fully grasp the problems of oil casing leakage, outer channeling and packer leakage in water injection wells, and enrich downhole operations. In this paper, the downhole noise signal data are standardized, and the K-means clustering algorithm is used to classify the downhole noise signal according to the correlation coefficient of different frequencies to obtain the low-frequency noise signal, and the low-frequency noise signal is clustered twice to obtain the channeling frequency band and the reservoir fluid frequency band. The accurate channeling frequency range is determined and conforms to the domestic and foreign research data. The channeling frequency band is processed by wavelet threshold, and the useless noise in the channeling frequency band is eliminated. The channeling noise signal curve after processing is analyzed, and the main output layers have an obvious amplitude back channeling. The K-means clustering algorithm is used to analyze the channeling frequency band, and the channeling noise is processed by wavelet threshold. It is a new noise signal curve processing method, which provides a new idea for the spectrum noise logging technology to master the problem of channeling outside the pipe in the water injection well.
EN
A new precise, selective and reliable reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the determination of Methyl paraben sodium (MPS) and Propyl paraben sodium (PPS) (preservatives) in Iron protein succinylate syrup. Optimized conditions were; Methanol: Water (65: 35) as mobile phase, UV/Vis detector at the wavelength of 254 nm and flow rate was set at 1.3 ml min⁻¹. By applying the set of conditions, separation of components was carried out in less than 7 min for both the analytes. The method was validated according to International conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the analytical characteristic parameters of validation included specificity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness were evaluated. The calibration curve was found to be linear in the range of 0.045 mg mL⁻¹ to 0.075 mg mL⁻¹ for Methyl paraben sodium and 0.015 mg mL⁻¹ to 0.025 mg mL⁻¹ for propyl paraben sodium with a correlation coefficient r2 > 0.999. Accuracy; reported as percentage recovery was found to be in the range of 98.71%–101.64% for Methyl paraben sodium and 99.85%–101.47% for Propyl paraben sodium at 80%, 100% and 120% concentration for both the analytes. The proposed method was found to be precise and robust when evaluated by variations in wavelength, mobile phase composition, temperature and analyst. The limit of detection (LOD) was found 0.001 mg mL⁻¹ (3 ppm) for Methyl paraben sodium and 0.001 mg mL⁻¹ (1 ppm) for Propyl paraben sodium.
EN
This paper presents an analysis of the accuracy of aircraft positioning using radar and GPS satellite data. In particular, this study shows the results of research on determining the position of an aircraft, as well as the range and azimuth parameters for the GCA-2000 radar to the GPS solution. The research used measurement data from the GCA-2000 radar and the Thales MobileMapper Pro receiver placed onboard a Diamond DA-40NG aircraft. The flight experiment was carried out at the EPDE military airport in Dęblin. It was found that the average error in determining the position of the aircraft for the GCA-2000 radar was 295.57 m. Moreover, the average error in determining the range for the GCA-2000 radar is 138.12 m. Additionally, the average error in determining the azimuth for the GCA-2000 radar is equal to 0.408°.
EN
This study presents a modified algorithm to determine the accuracy of GPS positioning in aerial navigation. To achieve this, a mixed model with measurement weights was used to determine the resultant value of accuracy of aerial vehicle positioning. The measurement weights were calculated as a function of the number of GPS tracking satellites. The calculations were performed on actual GPS measurement data recorded by two onboard GNSS receivers installed onboard a Cessna 172 aircraft. The flight test was conducted around the military airport in Dęblin. The conducted analyses demonstrated that the developed algorithm improved the accuracy of GPS positioning from 62 to 91% for horizontal coordinates and between 16-83% for the vertical component of the aerial vehicle position in the BLh ellipsoidal frame. The obtained test results show that the developed method improves the accuracy of aircraft position and could be applied in aerial navigation.
PL
Rozwój technologiczny w sposób naturalny przyczynia się do usprawnienia metod pozyskania danych przestrzennych. Dobrym przykładem są tutaj bezzałogowe statki powietrzne (BSP), które całkowicie zrewolucjonizowały podejście do pozyskania danych wysokorozdzielczych z niskiego pułapu. W niniejszym badaniu przeprowadzono analizę możliwości wykorzystania niskokosztowego bezzałogowego statku powietrznego do weryfikacji wybranych elementów mapy zasadniczej. Głównym celem opracowania jest zaproponowanie optymalnej metody pozyskania danych przestrzennych uwzględniającej jej koszt oraz czas niezbędny na uzyskanie końcowej ortomozaiki.
EN
Technological development contributes to the effectiveness of spatial data capture in a natural way. The perfect example of this state of affairs is the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) which in practice completely changed the collecting methods of high-resolution imagery acquired from low altitude. In the presented research the low-cost UAV was examined as a tool for the terrain inventory and verification the selected classes of master map. The main goals of the analysis were to propose the optimal methodology of spatial data capture by UAV. It also includes the total cost and time required for preparing the final orthomosaics.
20
Content available remote Porównanie właściwości wybranych mikroczujników parametrów środowiskowych
PL
W pracy przedstawiono porównanie podstawowych właściwości scalonych mikroczujników warunków środowiskowych pod kątem wykorzystania ich do pomiaru temperatury otoczenia, wilgotności względnej oraz ciśnienia w laboratorium pomiarowym, w którym te trzy wielkości charakteryzują się niewielkimi przedziałami zmian. Z przeprowadzonych badań wynika, iż w stosunkowo wąskim zakresie zmian wielkości mierzonych, wyniki pomiarów uzyskiwanych za pomocą porównywanych czujników charakteryzują się bardzo dobrą zgodnością.
EN
The paper presents a comparison of the basic properties of integrated micro-sensors of environmental conditions in terms of their use to measure the ambient temperature, relative humidity and pressure in a measurement laboratory, where these three values are characterized by small change intervals. The conducted research shows that in a relatively narrow range of changes in measured values, the results of measurements obtained with the compared sensors are characterized by very good compliance.
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