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Content available remote Odporność systemów ociepleń ETICS na uszkodzenia mechaniczne
PL
Przedmiotem artykułu jest odporność systemów ociepleń ETICS na uszkodzenia mechaniczne. Autor przedstawia sposób wytwarzania i właściwości siatek zbrojących z włókna szklanego do systemów ETICS, a także omawia formalne warunki dopuszczenia siatek zbrojących do zastosowania w systemach ETICS, sposoby zwiększania odporności systemów ociepleń na uderzenia oraz miejsca zastosowania podwójnego zbrojenia w systemach ETICS.
EN
The subject of the article is the resistance of ETICS thermal insulation systems to mechanical damage. The author presents the method of manufacturing and properties of fibreglass mesh for ETICS systems, and he also discusses the formal conditions for admitting reinforcing mesh to be used in ETICS systems, methods of increasing the impact resistance of thermal insulation systems and places to use double reinforcement in ETICS systems.
EN
Composite materials, in most cases polymers reinforced with fibers, are these days utilized in numerous applications such as aerospace applications in which lightweight, high strength, high specific modulus and low temperature resistance are critical issues. As these materials have possible applications in different designing areas, a lot of work has been put into enhancing their performance. This study's aim was to study the impact transition behavior of PPS and its composite under different ranges of temperatures by investigating their thermal, mechanical and structural characteristics. PPS and its composite reinforced with 40% vf (volume fraction) glass fibers are employed in this study. The impact transition behavior of PPS and 40%Vf glass fibers composite were investigated by analyzing the mechanical properties: impact, tensile, bending and, hardness at the following temperature ranges: 23°C, -26°C, and -78°C. A particular refrigerator and dry ice were used to achieve the extremely low temperatures (-26 C and -78 C, respectively). The results showed that the addition of 40% glass fibers improved the impact transition behavior of 40%GF PPS composite with temperature decreasing. Which with decreasing in temperature from 23˚C to -78˚C, the impact strength of PPS decreased by fifty five percent while it increased by twenty three percent for 40%GF PPS composite.
PL
W artykule opisano obszary zastosowań fibrobetonów z włóknami szklanymi oraz podkreślono możliwość tworzenia nie tylko elementów konstrukcyjnych przeznaczonych głównie do przenoszenia obciążeń, ale także struktur towarzyszących procesom budowlanym oraz form małej architektury, które uatrakcyjniają i urozmaicają przestrzenie publiczne. Dzięki ulepszonym właściwościom mechanicznym, zmniejszonym ciężarze i większej swobodzie projektowej elementów z włóknami szklanymi możliwe jest tworzenie wytrzymalszych, bezpieczniejszych, trwalszych oraz nowocześniejszych konstrukcji.
EN
The article describes the areas of application of glass fiber reinforced concrete and emphasizes the possibility of creating not only structural elements intended mainly for carrying loads but also structures accompanying construction processes and forms of small architecture that make public spaces more attractive and diversified. Thanks to improved mechanical properties, reduced weight, and greater design freedom of elements with glass fibers, it is possible to create stronger, safer, more durable, and modern structures.
EN
Five-layer epoxy composites consisting of two outer layers made of glass fiber and three inner layers of cotton-bamboo fabric were obtained by compression molding. The influence of cotton-bamboo fabric/glass fiber content (35, 40, 45 and 50 wt%) and the order of stacking laminate layers on the mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, compressive, impact strength), thermal properties (TGA) and structure (FTIR, SEM) of the composites was investigated. The best mechanical and thermal properties were obtained with the content of 45 wt% cotton-bamboo fabric/glass fiber.
PL
Metodą prasowania tłocznego otrzymano pięciowarstwowe kompozyty epoksydowe składające się z dwóch warstw zewnętrznych wykonanych z włókna szklanego oraz trzech wewnętrznych z tkaniny bawełniano-bambusowej. Zbadano wpływ zawartości włókna szklanego (35, 40, 45 i 50% mas) oraz kolejności układania warstw laminatu na właściwości mechaniczne (wytrzymałość na rozciąganie, zginanie i ściskanie oraz udarność), termiczne (TGA) oraz strukturę (FTIR, SEM) kompozytów. Najlepsze właściwości mechaniczne i termiczne uzyskano przy zawartości 45% mas. włókna szklanego.
EN
The effect of the chemical foaming on the structure (SEM) and selected properties of glass fi ber (30, 60 wt%) reinforced polyamide 6 (PA 6) was investigated. Density, tensile properties and Charpy impact strength were determined. Hydrocerol ITP 825 was used as a blowing agent in the amount of 2 wt%. The size of the pores and the foaming degree depended on the distance from the injection point. The smallest pore size (64 μm) was observed for 60 wt% glass fiber reinforced PA6.
PL
Zbadano wpływ procesu spieniania chemicznego na strukturę (SEM) oraz wybrane właściwości poliamidu 6 wzmocnionego włóknem szklanym (30, 60 % mas.). Oznaczono gęstość, właściwości mechaniczne przy rozciąganiu i udarność Charpy’ego. Jako porofor stosowano Hydrocerol ITP 825 w ilości 2% mas. Wielkość porów i stopień spieniania zależały od odległości od punku wtryskiwania. Najmniejszą wielkość porów (64 μm) stwierdzono w przypadku poliamidu zawierającego 60% mas. włókna szklanego.
PL
W artykule omówiono zastosowanie prętów kompozytowych z włókna szklanego jako alternatywnego sposobu zbrojenia elementów zginanych. Przedstawiono koncepcję zbrojenia minimalnego wyliczanego na podstawie układu sił w przekroju zginanym, a następnie porównano z wynikami badań. Wykazano, że w przypadku zbrojenia GFRP opieranie się jedynie na zależnościach statycznych może prowadzić do zaniżenia nośności.
EN
This paper presents the use of fiberglass composite bars as an alternative reinforcement method for flexural elements. The concept of the minimal reinforcement calculated from the balance of forces in the element is presented and then compared with test results. It is shown that when calculating the minimum degree of GFRP reinforcement, basing only on static relationships can result in too low a load capacity.
EN
In the past few decades, natural fiber reinforced polymeric composites have gained significant importance for various structural applications in different sectors like the automotive, aerospace, sports and building construction industries. However, hybridizations make the composite more versatile in term of strength, weight and its processing for many engineering applications. In the current study, a polyester resin matrix was reinforced with two different natural fibers, namely kenaf and palmyra palm leaf stalk (PPLS) and hybridized with glass fiber. Four layers of two different fiber mats, kenaf/glass and PPLS/glass with different stacking sequences were employed to fabricated laminates by the hand lay-up technique. In this case, an attempt was made using the numerical approach to investigate the influence of glass fiber on the mechanical characteristics of the laminates. To substantiate the results of the numerical approach, experiments were conducted. Enhancement of both the tensile and flexural strength was observed due to hybridization of both the kenaf and PPLS fiber with glass fiber. The tensile and flexural strength improved by 68.91 and 37.63% respectively when the kenaf fiber was hybridized with glass fiber. Similarly, enhancement of 54.42% of the tensile strength and 15.92% of the flexural strength were noticed when the PPLS fiber was hybridized with glass fiber. Through the use of ANSYS software, finite element analysis (FEA) was employed as a simulation method to examine the tensile and flexural strength. The numerical findings were found to be quite close to the experimental results, with a variation of less than 3%.
PL
W pracy omówiono wykorzystanie odpadowego szkła kineskopowego, do wytwarzania polimerobetonów. Szkło kineskopowe poddano kilkakrotnemu rozdrabnianiu, w celu otrzymania ziaren mniejszych od 2 mm. Utworzono szereg polimerobetonów wzmocnionych hybrydowo: zmielonym szkłem kineskopowym, piaskiem oraz pociętym włóknem szklanym, o długości 4,5 mm i 12 mm. Zbadano wpływ dodatku włókien szklanych i ich długości na właściwości polimerobetonów, z 30% dodatkiem objętościowym żywicy epoksydowej, pełniącej rolę lepiszcza. Przeprowadzono badania szkła kineskopowego, oznaczając jego skład chemiczny, rozkład wielkości cząstek i budowę ziaren. Oznaczono wytrzymałość na zginanie i na ściskanie oraz porowatość otwartą, gęstość pozorną i nasiąkliwość wodą. Wyniki badań wykazały, że polimerobetony z dodatkiem zmielonego szkła kineskopowego, są dobrą metodą na zagospodarowanie, tego nietypowego odpadu. Uzyskane polimerobetony mają kilkukrotnie lepsze właściwości mechaniczne niż tradycyjne betony oraz znacznie mniejszą porowatość i nasiąkliwość wodą, co czyni ten materiał korzystny do produkcji wyrobów cienkościennych oraz narażonych na działanie wody i odczynników chemicznych. Dodatek ciętych włókien szklanych powoduje poprawę właściwości mechanicznych polimerobetonów, a także chroni ten materiał, przed gwałtowną dezintegracją, po przekroczeniu maksymalnych naprężeń. Jest to niezwykle ważne dla bezpieczeństwa użytkowania konstrukcji, w przypadku awarii.
EN
This paper describes the use of CRT glass waste for the production of polymer concrete. The CRT glass was subjected to a multistage mechanical disintegration process, in a way that allowed obtaining grains smaller than 2 mm. A set of hybrid reinforced polymer concrete was produced by using: ground CRT glass, sand and cut glass fibers 4.5 mm and 12 mm long. The influence of the volume of fibers and the length of glass fibers on the properties of polymer concrete with 30% by volume of epoxy resin, acting as a binder was described. Tests of CRT glass were carried out, among others study of chemical composition, particle size distribution and analysis of grain morphology. For polymer concrete, the flexural strength and compressive strength were determined, and the open porosity, apparent density, and water absorption were examined. The test results showed that polymer concrete with the use of milled CRT glass is a good way to manage this problematic waste. The polymer concrete has several times better than traditional concretes and significantly lower porosity and water absorption, which makes this material advantageous in applications such as the production of thin-walled products and products exposed to water and chemical attack. The addition of chopped glass fibers leads to an increase in mechanical properties and also protects the material against rapid disintegration after exceeding the maximum stresses, which is extremely important for the safety of use of the structure in the event of a failure.
EN
The glass fiber reinforced resin matrix composite I-beams were designed and formed via a type of novel bending pultrusion processing technique, and the three-point bending tests were carried out to analyze the mechanical bending performances. The obtained results show that the main failure mode of the composite I-beam under the bending load is the upper structure (top flange) cracks along the length direction of the fibers, and the cracks simultaneously propagate downwards in the vertical direction. The bifurcated cracks can be found at the junction area between the top flange and web. In addition, the main bending failure mechanism of the composite I-beam includes the matrix cracking, propagation of cracks, and final fracture failure. In particular, noting that when the crack reaches the I-shaped neck position, the lateral bifurcation occurs, and the resulting secondary cracks further extend in two directions, which leads to the serious damage between the top flange and web, and the ultimate fracture failure occurs.
EN
This paper presents the results of an experimental study on employing near surface mounted (NSM) fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcement technique, and L-shape ribbed bars, for flexural strengthening of lightweight reinforced concrete (RC) beams. 18 RC beams including 14 lightweight RC beams and four normal-weight concrete beams were designed. The beams were strengthened with glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate in bending tests. Test parameters included: (1) different FRP materials (glass bars and carbon sheets), (2) longitudinal steel reinforcement ratio, and (3) type of strengthening technique used (NSM reinforcement or hybrid). The ultimate tensile strength, deflection, compressive and tensile strain of concrete, and failure mode of the beams were examined under four-point flexural test. Results showed that the ultimate strength of all RC beams increased between 33 and 105% compared to the control beam. The ultimate strength of beams reinforced with CFRP in the mid-span region was 10% higher than that of beams strengthened at both ends, although the former exhibited 28% lower ultimate deflection. The ultimate strength and deflection of RC beams strengthened with combined steel reinforcing bars and GFRP bars were 10% and 108% higher, respectively, compared to those of RC beams strengthened with GFRP bars only. Hybrid L-shape ribbed bars beams showed a considerably higher ductility (up to 170% increase in the ultimate deflection) compared to other beams. The comparison of the experimental results of the ultimate strength of the beams with ACI440-2R guidelines indicated a reasonable and conservative prediction of the code expression.
EN
In recent years, manufacturing industries have demanded high-performance materials for structural components development due to their reduced weight, improved strength, corrosion, and moisture resistance. The outstanding performance of polymer nano-composites substitutes the use of conventional composites materials. This study is concerned with the machining of MWCNT and glass fiber-modified epoxy com posites prepared by a cost-effective hand layup procedure. The investigations were carried out to estimate the generation of the thrust force (Th) and delamination factors at entry (DFentry) and exit (DFexit) side during the drilling of fiber composites. The effect of varying constraints on the machining indices was explored for obtaining an adequate quality of hole created in the epoxy nano-composites. The outcome shows that the feed rate (F) is the most critical factor influencing delamination at both entry and exit side, and the second one is the thrust force followed by wt.% of MWCNT. The statistical study shows that optimal combination of S (1650 Level-2), F (165 Level-2), and 2 wt.% of MWCNT (Level-2) can be used to minimize DFentry, DFexit, and Th. The drilling-induced damages were studied by means of a high-resolution microscopy test. The results reveal that the supplement of MWCNT substantially increases the machining efficiency of the developed nano-composites.
EN
The geometric accuracy of gears obtained by injection molding before and after finishing by shaving process has been compared. Significant assumptions in the application of this method to the finishing of polymer gears are presented. There is a clear influence of the applied technology on the dimensional stability improvement of the tested gears rim made of composite PA66 matrix containing 35 wt % glass fibers. The tested gears made of the composite materials used in some drive systems can successfully replace this type of machine elements made of metals.
PL
W pracy porównano dokładność geometryczną kół zębatych otrzymanych metodą wtryskiwania przed i po obróbce wykańczającej metodą wiórkowania. Przedstawiono istotne założenia dotyczące zastosowania tej metody do obróbki wykańczającej polimerowych kół zębatych. Zaobserwowano wyraźny wpływ zastosowanej obróbki na poprawę stabilności wymiarowej wieńca badanych kół zębatych z kompozytu na osnowie PA66 zawierającego 35% mas. włókna szklanego. Koła zębate z badanych materiałów kompozytowych mogą z powodzeniem być zamiennikami tego typu elementów wykonanych z metali.
EN
Graphite/talcum powder double-coated glass fibre felt composites were prepared using glass fibre felt as the base material, graphite as the surface absorbing agent, talcum powder as the underlying absorbing agent, epoxy resin E44 as the adhesive and low molecular 650 polyamide as the curing agent. The influences of the surface graphite content and underlying talcum powder content on the dielectric properties and conductivity of glass fibre felt composites were the main focus of the investigation. Results showed that when the frequency is less than 103 Hz, the values of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant for double-coated glass fibre felt composites are largest when the surface graphite content is 50%. When the frequency is larger than 106 Hz, the value of the real part of the conductivity is largest when the graphite contents are 40% and 50%. When the frequency is less than 104Hz, the real part of the dielectric constant of the glass fiber mat composites is the largest when the talc content is 40%, and when talc content is 60%, the imaginary part of dielectric constant of glass fiber mat composites is the largest. The maximum loss tangent value for the composites occurs when the talcum powder content is 40%. When the frequency is larger, the value of the real part of the conductivity increases gradually.
PL
W pracy przygotowano podwójnie powlekane kompozyty filcu z włókna szklanego w postaci grafit/talk. Użyto filcu z włókna szklanego jako materiału bazowego, grafitu jako powierzchniowego środka pochłaniającego, talku jako podstawowego środka pochłaniającego, żywicy epoksydowej E44 jako kleju i poliamidu 650 o niskiej masie cząsteczkowej jako środek utwardzającego. Głównym przedmiotem badań było określenie wpływu zawartości grafitu powierzchniowego oraz zawartości proszku talku na właściwości dielektryczne i przewodność kompozytów z filcu z włókna szklanego. Wyniki wykazały, że gdy częstotliwość jest mniejsza niż 103 Hz, wartości części rzeczywistej i urojonej stałej dielektrycznej dla podwójnie powlekanych kompozytów z filcu z włókna szklanego są największe, gdy zawartość grafitu powierzchniowego wynosi 50%. Gdy częstotliwość jest większa niż 106 Hz, wartość rzeczywistej części przewodnictwa jest największa, gdy zawartość grafitu wynosi 40% i 50%. Maksymalna wartość tangensa strat dla kompozytów występuje, gdy zawartość talku wynosi 40%. Gdy częstotliwość jest większa, wartość rzeczywistej części przewodnictwa stopniowo wzrasta.
EN
In this work, the composite samples required to investigate their thermal properties were fabricated employing the conventional hand lay-up technique, followed by a light compression molding process. A fixed weight of plain woven glass fiber and epoxy with four different types of fillers as calcium carbonate (CaCO3), aluminum oxide (Al2O3), magnesium oxide (MgO) and titanium oxide (TiO2) or copper oxide (CuO) of different weights (5, 10 and 15 g) were studied. According to thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), it was observed that the melting point (Tm) and glass-transition temperature (Tg) are affected by the presence of CuO and TiO2, which indicate the degree of composite crystallinity established by the stronger interfacial interaction by the CuO than that of the TiO2 particles and the amorphous region of the chain. These studies were supported by examination of the surface morphology of the composites by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
EN
Fiber injection molding is an innovative approach for the manufacturing of nonwoven preforms but products currently lack a homogeneous fiber distribution. Based on a mold-integrated monitoring system, the uniformity of the manufactured preforms will be investigated. As no universally accepted definition or method for measuring uniformity is accepted yet, this article aims to find a suitable uniformity index for evaluating fiber injection molded nonwovens. Based on a literature review, different methods are implemented and used to analyze simulated images with given distribution properties, as well as images of real nonwovens. This study showed that quadrant-based methods are suitable for evaluating the basis weight uniformity. It has been found that the indexes are influenced by the number of quadrants. Changes in sample size do not affect the indexes when keeping the quadrant number constant. The quadrants-based calculation of the coefficient of variation showed the best suitability as it shows good robustness and steady index for varying degrees of fiber distribution.
EN
The high-strength concrete having a better compressive strength demeanor can be manufactured by the addition of the fibers which eliminates the inherent weakness, the brittle failure due to lack of tensile strength. In this study, an experimental study covering the enhancement of the mechanical characteristics and the investigation of the performance against the aggressive acid attack of high-performance cementitious composites (HPCC). For this, steel and glass types of fiber were employed in the manufacturing of HPCC, as either single or hybrid at various levels. The HPCC mixtures were designed at a constant water-to-cementitious ratio of 0.25. Portland cement and microsilica were employed in the manufacturing as cementitious material whereas the aggregate was the mix of river and quartz sands. 14 HPCC mixtures were designed and the flowability, unit weight, compressive and flexural strengths, sorptivity index, ultrasonic pulse velocity were tested at various ages. Besides, the loss in the strength, mass, and dimension of HPCC mixtures was also measured after exposure of the mixtures 1- and 2-month aggressive sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Additionally, the experimental results were statistically evaluated through general linear model ANOVA. Based on the results, the highest compressive strength values were observed in the HPCC mixture manufactured with steel fiber. The lowest losses in both flexural and compressive strengths were observed in the mixtures produced with microsilica. Steel fiber addition increased the compressive strength not only after applying the normal curing regime but also after exposing the sulfuric acid. Both flexural and compressive strength of HPCC mixtures were influenced by fiber type and volume fraction. The addition of glass fiber decreased compressive strength.
EN
The research on obtaining composites based on phenol-formaldehyde resin (PFR) with modified phlogopite quaternary ammonium salt (QAS) reinforced with hybrid glass and basalt fiber was carried out. The influence of the reinforcement structure (glass mesh weave) and the type of fiber on the performance properties of the obtained composites were assessed, especially in terms of their use a grinding wheels reinforced with modified hybrid glass and basalt fiber meshes. Based on the obtained research results, it was found that composites reinforced with a glass fiber layer mesh with a matrix of phenol-formaldehyde resin filled with modified phlogopite are characterized by higher mechanical strength, abrasion resistance and dynamic strength of the disk compared to unmodified composites.
PL
Przeprowadzono badania nad otrzymaniem kompozytów na osnowie żywicy fenolowo-formaldehydowej (PFR) z flogopitem zmodyfikowanym czwartorzędową solą amoniową (QAS) wzmacnianych hybrydowymi siatkami z włókna szklanego i bazaltowego. Oceniono wpływ struktury wzmocnienia (splotu siatki szklanej) oraz rodzaju włókna na właściwości użytkowe otrzymanych kompozytów, zwłaszcza w kontekście ich zastosowania w charakterze ściernic. Na podstawie uzyskanych wyników badań stwierdzono, że kompozyty wzmocnione siatką warstwową z włókna szklanego z osnową żywicy fenolowo-formaldehydowej napełnionej zmodyfikowanym flogopitem charakteryzują się większą wytrzymałością mechaniczną, odpornością na ścieranie oraz wytrzymałością dynamiczną tarczy niż kompozyty niemodyfikowane.
EN
In recent years, the increased interest in the design and fabrication of lightweight polymer composites with various combinations and stoichiometry is due to their enhancement of electrical, mechanical, thermal, and biological properties compared to the properties of conventional materials. With that view, the present study deals with the effects of low density polyethylene composites (LDPE) reinforced with epoxy resin, glass fiber, carbon fiber, and Kevlar towards the mechanical, thermal, and water absorption properties. The mechanical studies showed that the LDPE composite reinforced carbon fiber has the best tensile properties compared to other composites and this can be mostly due to the proper bonding and associated interaction between the polymeric matrix and the bidirectional layer of the fibers. Also, the carbon fiber reinforced composite has superior properties of impart energy compared to the other composites and the non-reinforced ones and this is attributed to the crystalline nature of carbon fiber. Further studies of the thermal properties indicated that the retention of thermal stability for all the fiber-reinforced polymer composites, while the water absorption revealed a considerable increase in the weight of Kevlar fiber-reinforced composite. From the overall analysis, the enhanced properties of LDPE matrix reinforced fibers are linked to the morphological changes that occurred and are directly affected by the nature of the fiber.
PL
Zwiększone w ostatnich latach zainteresowanie projektowaniem i wytwarzaniem lekkich kompozytów polimerowych wynika z ich lepszych właściwości elektrycznych, mechanicznych, termicznych i biologicznych w porównaniu z cechami materiałów konwencjonalnych. Zbadano wpływ rodzaju wzmocnienia (włókno szklane, włókno węglowe i włókno Kevlar) na właściwości mechaniczne, termiczne i absorpcję wody laminatowych kompozytów polietylenu małej gęstości (LDPE) z żywicą epoksydową. Stwierdzono, że kompozyt LDPE z włóknem węglowym, w porównaniu z innymi kompozytami, wykazuje najlepszą wytrzymałość na rozciąganie, co może wynikać głównie z interakcji polimerowej osnowy z dwukierunkową warstwą włókien. Ponadto kompozyt ten ma większą zdolność przenoszenia energii niż pozostałe badane kompozyty, co można przypisać krystalicznej budowie włókna węglowego. Badania właściwości termicznych wykazały stabilność termiczną wszystkich kompozytów polimerowych wzmocnionych włóknami oraz znaczną absorpcję wody kompozytu wzmocnionego włóknem Kevlar.
EN
The mechanical properties of composites based on polyamide 6 (PA6), polyamide 66 (PA66) and polyphthalamide (PPA) reinforced with fiberglass were tested. Flexural strength, Shore and Rockwell hardness and also notched and without a notch impact strength according to Charpy were determined. The best results of the strength tests were observed for the PA66 composite with 35 wt % fiberglass. The analyzed composite materials can be successfully used in the production of substitutes for machine elements made of metal.
PL
Zbadano właściwości mechaniczne kompozytów na bazie poliamidu 6 (PA6), poliamidu 66 (PA66) oraz poliftalamidu (PPA) wzmocnionych włóknem szklanym. Oznaczono wytrzymałość na zginanie, udarność wg Charpy’ego z karbem i bez karbu, twardość Shore’a oraz Rockwella. Najlepsze właściwości wytrzymałościowe wykazywał kompozyt PA66 z udziałem 35% mas. włókna. Oceniane materiały kompozytowe z powodzeniem mogą być stosowane do produkcji zamienników elementów maszyn wykonanych z metali.
EN
Preventive maintenance is beneficial to minimize unexpected breakdowns in industries with continuous production. Composite structures are used for naval applications like ship hulls and marine propellers. In most of the industries, composite structural health analysis using experimental and numerical model are available for damage detection and estimate the residual life of composite beams. The present work is focusses on identification of damage and estimate residual life of composite healthy and cracked beams. Free vibrational analysis is carried out on composite beam made of Glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) with a different crack orientation. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) spectrum analyzer associated with engineering data management (EDM) software utilized for experimental analysis to detect presence of damage in cracked composite beam. Finite element method (FEM) software called Analysis of composite pre/post (ACP) available in ANSYS R3 is used to compare the natural frequency results of healthy composite beam with cracked composite beam with different ply orientations. For validation of numerical modal evaluation, the consequences acquired from ANSYS R3 Finite element analysis (FEA) software are in comparison with experimental results received by impact hammer method. The fatigue life of a damaged composite beam is estimated the use of “Hwang and Han’s” fatigue life equation.
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