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EN
Lake Nasser is a freshwater lake that supplies over 95% of Egypt’s freshwater budget. Therefore, the quality of water in the lake is critical for its conservation. In addition to assessing the metal pollution load, the quality of water and sediment in the lake was assessed by collecting water and sediment samples for metal content analysis. Lake Nasser is a warm monomictic water body with a single circulation cycle in the cold months. Dissolved oxygen content in bottom water samples often dropped significantly to levels below international guidelines, reflecting reduced rates of photosynthetic activity. Although 50% of the lake’s water samples contained Pb concentrations slightly above the World Health Organization’s (WHO) limit for drinking water, the metal pollution index did not exceed the critical level and was classified as low metal water pollution. Based on the geoaccumulation index (I-geo), the enrichment factor (EF) and the pollution load index, the sediments of Lake Nasser are practically uncontaminated with metals. Ni has the highest EF and I-geo values, while Ni and Cd contributed the most to the ecological risk and toxic risk index. The obtained results revealed that Cd and Ni in the sediments may pose a threat to organisms living in Lake Nasser.
EN
Heavy metals are a crucial group of chemicals extensively used in materials to meet human needs, eventually leading to contamination of aquatic ecosystems and accumulation in organism’s tissues. Heavy metals enter the aquatic ecosystem from various sources. Those metals that pollute aquatic waters are deposited in sediments, remain dissolved in water or accumulate in the food web of aquatic organisms. Benthic biota is believed to accumulate the highest levels of these metals, while other aquatic animals, such as fish, shrimp, and macroalgae, serve as significant sources of heavy metals intake through food and the environmental exposure. Ina study conducted in and around the east Java, Indonesia, the concentration of heavy metals in commercially important fish species, shellfish, and macroalgae were evaluated using an inductive couple plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). This study is very important because fishery resources are not only vital for exports but also serve as a primary source of essential food for local communities. The results showed that heavy metal concentration (Pb, Cd, and Hg) in samples were 12.3 mg∙dm-3 , 0.171 mg∙dm-3, and undetectable, respectively. This study showed that different metals were present in the samples at different levels, all of which fell within the maximum residual levels set by the EU and USFDA. The results of an analysis of food safety based on the Hazard Index showed values below 1 point, indicating that fishery products (fish, shrimp, and macroalgae) from the East Java Province are generally safe for human consumption.
EN
For effective waste management of mining industries is important to investigate their physical and mineralogical changes. For this purpose, X-raydiffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry (TG), derivative thermogravimetry (DTG), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) methods were used. Changes in the contents of mobile forms of heavy metals in rocks were investigated using an acetate-ammonium buffer solution with a pH of 4.8 after burning rocks at a temperature of 800–850°C. The obtained data indicated the significant role of the mineral composition in the thermal behavior of the rock samples and the subsequent influence of the thermal processes on the changes in the bioavailability of heavy metals.
EN
According to the data given in the article, the soil around the Samarkand chemical plant is strongly contaminated with heavy metals. The greatest pollution is noted within a radius of 1500–2000 meters from a chemical plant in the western and northern directions. In areas subject to the influence of heavy metals and arsenic, the use of mineral and organic fertilizers reduced the content of mobile forms of these elements in the soil and improved the growth and development of plants. As a result, crop yields increase, and the transfer of heavy metals into plants is reduced. The use of mineral and organic fertilizers in soils contaminated with these elements, along with increasing the yield of cotton, reduced the amount of element removed by the crop by 25–80% compared to the control variant. That is, in the variant where mineral and organic fertilizers were applied together (N250P175K125+ cattle manure, 30 t/ha), the largest reduction in the removal of these elements by the cotton crop was found in the cobalt (80%) and the lowest in the copper (25%).
EN
Wastewater from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) often requires further treatment before it can be safely reused. Lime is a common and affordable material used for this purpose, but its production can generate significant environmental impacts. This study developed an eco-friendly and effective lime substitute from eggshell waste for wastewater treatment. First, pre-treated wastewater effluent from WWTP El Jadida, Morocco, was collected and characterized. It was found that COD, BOD5, and TSS values showed non-conformity from Moroccan discharge standards, as well as high concentrations of heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), aluminum (Al), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), silver (Ag), beryllium (Be), copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co). These pollutants represent a potential risk to human health and the environmental ecosystem. To reduce this pollution, the optimal mass of lime powder obtained by thermal treatment of eggshell waste was determined by testing a concentration series of 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 g·L-1. The findings confirmed that the addition of the optimal dose of prepared lime (24 g·L-1) resulted in a significant reduction in pollution parameters, with abatement rates of 77% for BOD5, 63% for COD and 66% for TSS, respectively. Furthermore, the eco-friendly lime substitute also showed promise in reducing the colorization rate for dyes by 84% and removing heavy metals through precipitation. However, the generated by-product loaded with toxic pollutants should be encapsulated in eco-materials to ensure safe operation and contribute to a sustainable management strategy for wastewater treatment.
EN
The Tansrift mine is an open-pit exploitation mine that mines copper substances. It is located on the southwestern flank of the Beni Mellal Atlas, 9 km Northeast of Ouaouizaght village. The mining activity delivered about 650 000 t of 1.5% Cu, with an estimated reserve of 1 Mt to 1.32% Cu. In this study, seven hazardous heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, and Ni) have been studied in the tailing and exploitation of the Tansrift mining district. The geochemical analysis contents of the metals were measured in the samples collected from this area. In addition, the pollution indexes, including the geo-accumulation index, the enrichment factor, the contamination factor, and the pollution load index, were used to assess pollution levels caused by those heavy metals. The Igeo index revealed a high to extreme copper contamination with a value above 4. As for the contamination factor, extreme and moderate contamination is shown by the copper and chrome in the totality of the exploitation and tailing areas. Moreover, the pollution load index shows very high pollution in all samples. The climatic conditions are also affecting the pollution of the atmosphere by contaminated dust and the water table and watershed by the contamination from the tailings and mineralized structures.
EN
The study of the soil cover of urban landscapes of the Mykolaiv industrial-urban agglomeration, which is a complex multifunctional system, was carried out. A sampling strategy was developed and the sources of pollution were analyzed, taking into account the areas of intensive bombing and ammunition explosions. The levels of contamination by heavy metals (Сr, Zn, Hg, Pb, Ni, Cu, Mn) at the positions of environmental safety were established, and the danger coefficient Ko and the integral danger index (∑Ko (1+2)) were applied for chemical elements of the I and II danger classes. A geochemical anomaly of military origin was identified with an excess of the maximum permissible levels for the following chemical elements: Hg (57.1) > Сr (20.6) > Ni (9.6) > Cu (9.2) > Zn (5.3) > Pb (1.5).
EN
It is important to address metabolic and heavy metal issues in organic waste through sustainable development, circular economy principles and effective solid waste management, particularly focusing on composting as a crucial approach recognized in Morocco’s Green Generation Plan to reduce waste sent to landfills and mitigate greenhouse effects and gas emissions to fight against environmental pollution. This study aims to elevate the significance of organic waste in agriculture by employing composting technics, thereby mitigating its heavy metal content and safeguarding soil and farmland against various forms of contamination. This approach aligns seamlessly with the principles of sustainable development and the circular economy, advocating for responsible waste management and the augmentation of natural resource value. The findings of the study indicated a decrease in heavy metal levels across all composts, with a minimum values at the end of the composting in Gr compost recorded in all heavy metals analyzed (Pb – 0.1125 mg·kg-1, Cd – 0.08 mg·kg-1, Cr – 2.22 mg·kg-1, Zn – 10.88 mg·kg-1, Mn – 28.85 mg·kg-1, Cu –8.30 mg·kg-1, Fe – 545.18 mg·kg-1 and Ni – 1 mg·kg-1). The findings from the assessment of heavy metal levels in the examined compost samples demonstrate their adherence to regulatory standards. Consequently, these composts can be confidently employed as organic soil enhancers, contributing to the enrichment of agricultural soils and fostering plant growth, all while avoiding the potential hazard of undue metal contamination. This study comes to confirm and consolidate previous works findings regarding the valorization of organic solid waste through composting and to minimize their major environmental risks by reducing trace metal elements through this biological process.
EN
This study aimed to assess the ecological and human health risks of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the bottom sediments of the Pławniowice reservoir, which is located in the Silesian Voivodeship, one of the most polluted regions in Poland. Sediment samples were collected at 5 sampling points located along the main axis of the reservoir. The concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Avio 200 ICP-OES atomic absorption spectrometer (PerkinElmer Inc.). The geochemical quality classification, Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Ecotoxicological criteria, and Potential Ecological Risk Factor (ER) were used for the assessment of the ecological risk, while for the human health risks, the Hazard Quotient (HQ), Hazard Index (HI), Carcinogenic Risk (CR) and Total Carcinogenic Risk (TCR). The results of the ecological risk analysis indicated that among the studied metals, only Cd may pose a potential hazard to the fauna and flora of the reservoir. The results of the health risks assessment indicated that the primary exposure pathway for adults and children can be accidental ingestion of polluted sediments. In both cases, children are far more exposed to the health effects. Although the studied metals did not pose a direct threat to human health, due to the values of CRs and TCRs to Cd, Cr and Ni it is recommended to take appropriate steps to reduce the concentrations of these heavy metals in the bottom sediments by their periodical removal.
PL
Celem pracy jest ocena ryzyka ekologicznego i zdrowotnego związanego z obecnością metali ciężkich (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb i Zn) w osadach dennych zbiornika Pławniowice, który znajduje się w województwie śląskim, jednym z najbardziej zanieczyszczonych regionów w kraju. Próbki do badań pobierano w pięciu punktach rozmieszczonych wzdłuż głównej osi zbiornika. Stężenia metali ciężkich oznaczano przy użyciu spektrometru absorpcji atomowej Avio 200 ICP-OES (PerkinElmer Inc.). Do oceny ryzyka ekologicznego wykorzystano geochemiczne klasy czystości osadów, Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Ecotoxicological criteria oraz Potential Ecological Risk Factor (ER), z kolei do oceny ryzyka zdrowotnego użyto Hazard Quotient (HQ), Hazard Index (HI), Cancirogenic Risk (CR) oraz Total Carcinogenic Risk (TCR). Wyniki analizy ryzyka ekologicznego wskazują, że spośród badanych metali tylko Cd może stanowić potencjalne zagrożenie dla fauny i flory zbiornika. Ocena ryzyka zdrowotnego wykazała, że główną drogą narażenia dla dorosłych i dzieci może być przypadkowe połknięcie zanieczyszczonych osadów. Ponadto w obu przypadkach dzieci są bardziej narażone na skutki zdrowotne. Pomimo że analizowane metale nie stwarzały bezpośredniego zagrożenia dla zdrowia człowieka, to ze względu na wartości indeksów CR i TCR, w odniesieniu do Cd, Cr i Ni, zaleca się podjęcie odpowiednich działań w celu zmniejszenia stężeń tych metali ciężkich w osadach dennych poprzez ich okresowe usuwanie.
PL
Przedstawiono aktualny stan wiedzy z zakresu modyfikacji elektrod na potrzeby woltamperometrycznego oznaczania chromu, niklu oraz kadmu. Przegląd technik woltamperometrycznych stosowanych do oznaczania wybranych metali w elementach środowiska naturalnego z zastosowaniem nowatorskich materiałów elektrodowych obejmuje wiele wyselekcjonowanych źródeł literatury. Analiza danych literaturowych wykazała, że modyfikowana elektroda z najlepszymi właściwościami elektrochemicznymi dla oznaczania chromu(VI) to elektroda sitodrukowana modyfikowana syntezowanymi nanocząstkami złota (SPE-AuNPs) z granicą wykrywalności 3,1·10⁻¹¹ mol/L (oznaczanie prze- prowadzone techniką anodowej woltamperometrii stripingowej (ASV)). Dla oznaczania niklu(II) była to elektroda z węgla szklistego pokryta filmem bizmutu (GCE-BiFE) z granicą wykrywalności 1,7·10⁻⁹ mol/L (oznaczanie przeprowadzone techniką adsorpcyjnej woltamperometrii stripingowej (AdSV)), a dla kadmu(II) elektroda z węgla szklistego modyfikowana polimerem z nadrukowanymi jonami kadmu (GCE/Fe3O4@ SiO2@IIP) z granicą wykrywalności 1,0·10⁻¹⁰ mol/L (oznaczanie przeprowadzone techniką anodowej woltamperometrii stripingowej (ASV)).
EN
A review, with 23 refs., of voltammetric techniques used to det. Cr, Ni and Cd metals in the natural environment with the use of innovative electrode materials. The electrodes with the best electrochem. properties for the detn. of Cr(VI) (screen printing electrode modified with synthesized Au nanoparticles), Ni(II) (glassy carbon electrode covered with a layer of Bi) and Cd(II) (glassy carbon polymer-modified electrode with imprinted Cd ions) were discussed.
PL
Przedstawiono wyniki badań uwalniania metali ciężkich z mieszanki osadowo-popiołowej pod wpływem oddziaływania pH środowiska w szerokim zakresie wartości. Wyznaczono także stężenia metali ciężkich w podstawowym teście ługowania stosowanym w badaniu ziarnistych materiałów odpadowych. Wszystkie wyniki wymywalności porównano z zawartością całkowitą metali ciężkich w mieszance w celu oceny poziomu ich mobilności do środowiska gruntowo-wodnego. Proces wymywania metali ciężkich w dużej mierze zależy od faz mineralnych w odpadach oraz ich składu chemicznego, dlatego też parametry te były także przedmiotem analizy.
EN
Municipal sewage sludge and ashes from the combustion of solid fuels in households were mixed in a mass ratio of 1:1 on a dry basis, crushed and mineralized to det. the content of heavy metals. Grinded samples of the research material were stirred for 24 h in the leachant of various pH and the content of heavy metals in the obtained eluate was detd. using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The leachability results were compared with the total content of heavy metals in the mixt. in order to assess the level of their mobility into the water environment. The pH of the environment strongly detd. the mobility of heavy metals.
PL
Analiza jakości powietrza w wybranych lokalizacjach w latach 2021- 2022, wykorzystująca dane ze stacji pogodowych, które zawierały informacje o zanieczyszczeniach powietrza, takie jak stężenia pyłów zawieszonych PM10, NO₂, SO₂, C₆H₆, benzo(a)piren i metale ciężkie w PM10, potwierdziła istnienie problemów z zanieczyszczeniem powietrza, szczególnie w sezonie zimowym i obszarach o dużym natężeniu ruchu drogowego oraz pozwoliła na wyciągnięcie wniosków dotyczących wpływu emisji na środowisko i zdrowie społeczeństwa.
EN
Data from 2 measurement stations located in urban and industrialized areas were analyzed. The focus was on specific air pollutants, such as PM10, NO₂, SO₂, C₆H₆, benzo(a)pyrene and heavy metals (Pb, As, Ni, Cd). Concn. charts for substances confirmed the existence of air pollution problems, particularly during the winter season which clearly indicated a relationship between the level of pollution and the heating season.
EN
The exploitation of mineral resources can lead to the migration of potentially harmful substances into the natural environment, resulting in environmental degradation and pollution. The mining of polymetallic ores can have severe consequences due to the release of toxic elements such as arsenic (As) and heavy metals. Among the areas contaminated with toxic elements is the village of Czarnów in the Rudawy Janowickie mountains, where mining activities related to copper, arsenic, and gold extraction were likely initiated in the Middle Ages. This study aimed to investigate the geochemical anomalies of arsenic and heavy metals in the soil and their uptake by plants in this region. Portable XRF spectrometry was used to perform geochemical soil analyses in the former mining sites. The results showed clear geochemical anomalies in the arsenic and heavy metal content of soils, with concentrations exceeding permissible standards. The highest concentrations of As were found in the mining dumps, exceeding 100 000 ppm. Phytogeochemical analyses were conducted on raspberry leaves (Rubus idaeus) to determine the content of arsenic, lead, zinc, and copper using the ICP-MS method. The findings indicated that the high levels of individual elements found may pose a risk to the environment. The study demonstrates that even abandoned mining sites can be a source of pollution, and long-term monitoring of these areas is essential to mitigate their potential environmental impact.
PL
Procesy stosowane w oczyszczalniach ścieków nie gwarantują usuwania metali ciężkich, a jedynie sprawiają, że zanieczyszczenia te kumulują się w osadach ściekowych. Dlatego też zawartość metali w osadach ściekowych stanowi jedno z głównych kryteriów ograniczających wykorzystanie tej grupy odpadów do kondycjonowania i nawożenia gleb, jak również do rekultywacji i rewitalizacji terenów zdegradowanych w wyniku działalności człowieka. Obecność metali w osadach ściekowych wiąże się z potencjalnym zagrożeniem, zarówno w aspekcie ekologicznym, jak i zdrowotnym. Dlatego też, tak ważne jest monitorowanie zarówno ogólnej zawartości tych zanieczyszczeń w osadach ściekowych, jak również ich form chemicznych (specjacyjnych) występowania. Narzędziem ułatwiającym podjęcie decyzji o tym, czy dany osad ściekowy może być stosowany na cele przyrodnicze, w szczególności w rolnictwie, jest analiza potencjalnego ryzyka ekologicznego.
EN
The processes used in wastewater treatment plants do not guarantee the removal of heavy metals, but only make these pollutants accumulate in the sewage sludge. Therefore, the content of metals in sewage sludge is one of the main criteria limiting the use of sewage sludge for soil conditioning and fertilization, as well as for the reclamation and revitalization of areas degraded by human activity. The presence of metals in sewage sludge is associated with a potential threat, both in terms of ecology and health. Therefore, it is so important to monitor both the total content of these pollutants in sewage sludge, as well as their chemical (speciation) forms of occurrence. A tool facilitating the decision on whether a given sewage sludge can be used for natural purposes, in particular in agriculture, is the analysis of potential ecological risk.
EN
Contamination of water bodies by heavy metals is a continuously growing environmental issue. High concentrations of mercury (Hg) in river waters are a recognized environmental problem, because it is one of the most toxic heavy metal ions as it causes damage to the central nervous system. Its negative impact has led to the development of different methods for the treatment of effluents contaminated with Hg(II). The aim of this article is to evaluate the use of coffee (Coffea arabica) residues as adsorbent of Mercury in an aqueous solution. Four kinetic models, including intraparticle diffusion, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich kinetic models were applied to explore the internal mechanism of mercury adsorption. Results indicate that the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order models could accurately describe the adsorption process. It means that chemical adsorption play an important role in the adsorption of mercury by activated carbon. Meanwhile, the external mass transfer process is more effective in controlling the activated carbon mercury adsorption according to the fitting result of the pseudo-first-order model. The fitting to Langmuir’s model suggested that the material surface is energetically homogeneous. The technique of contaminated biomass encapsulation proved to be safe for short-term disposal when metal recovery is not desired.
EN
This study explains water quality in terms of seven heavy metals in the Upstream Citarum River and analyses human health risk (non-carcinogenic risk) for adults and children. Water samples were collected from five sampling locations along the Upstream Citarum River, i.e. from Majalaya Sub-District to Dayeuhkolot Sub-District. The contents of heavy metals were analysed by the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) variant 240 FS. The results of the analysis showed that the pollution index value, which was categorised as slightly polluted from the highest to the lowest value, was as follows: location 4 (4.220) > location 1 (3.764) > location 2 (3.219) > location 5 (2.967) > location 3 (2.800). Values of the hazard index (HI) for adults and children were as follows: Pb > Cr > Cd > Zn > Ni > Co > Cu. Pb and Cr have HI values greater than 1. This indicates that these metals can have a negative impact on public health. The HI in the ingestion pathway was greater than that of the dermal pathway, and the HI value for children was greater than that for adults. Further research is needed regarding the health risks from groundwater around the area which is used directly by the community because river water and groundwater systems are interconnected through streambeds.
EN
The study was carried out to assess ecological risks at the closed landfill in Cai Dau town, Chau Phu district, An Giang province. Soil samples were collected at six locations (S1-S6) at depths of 0-20 cm and 60-80 cm in the rainy season (November 2020) and dry season (March 2021). The soil quality was evaluated using eight heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr and As). The results showed that most monitoring sites had heavy metal contents within the allowable limits for agricultural land of QCVN 03-MT:2015/BTNMT. Some heavy metals have been found to migrate to the soil layer of 60-80 cm. The heavy metals accumulation (Igeo) in the two soil layers did not differ; Ni, Cr, Pb and As accumulated at non-polluting levels - moderate to high in the rainy season, while Cr and As only accumulated in the dry season. The composite pollution index (PLI) indicated that the locations around the landfill were polluted; however, the ecological risk ranged from low to moderate (potential ecological risk index (PERI) = 102-195) in the rainy season. Only about 50% of study sites during the dry season were contaminated and the risk was low (PERI = 44-68). However, the area around the landfill always poses potential risks due to the presence of heavy metals, including Ni, Cr, As and Pb. Monitoring the heavy metals in the surrounding landfill for the potential risks to human health and environment is needed.
EN
The article presents the results of monitoring the aftereffect of the use of excessive zonal doses of mineral fertilisers on soil contamination with heavy metals (HM). With traditional soybean cultivation technology, the level of soil contamination when applying excessive doses (N60 P180 K90) of fertilisers is quite high and indicates violations of the ecological balance of the agroecosystem. By the nature of the accumulation of heavy metals in meadow-chestnut soil, depending on the application of the studied doses (P60 K30, N30 P60 K30, N60 P180K90) of fertiliser, the content of HM (Pb, Zn, Cd) increases. The greatest contamination of the soil with Cu was revealed, the content of which increases to 3.2 mg∙kg-1 of soil, which is higher than the threshold of the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) - 3.0 mg∙kg-1. According to the level of contamination of the soil with copper, it belongs to the highly dangerous classes. In a comparative assessment of the level of soil contamination with HM, optimal norms of mineral fertilisers have been established, namely, against the background of effective resource-saving technology for growing soybeans. The application of fertilisers at a dose of P60 K30 and N30 P60 K30 does not significantly affect the level of soil contamination with HM, optimises the ecological state and nutrient regime of the soil, preserves and restores soil fertility indicators, and increases soybean productivity. This resource-saving technology provides a safe environment for soybean cultivation and a significant increase of 34.5-38.6% in crop productivity (0.53-0.76 Mg∙ha-1) and yield (2.57 Mg∙ha-1).
19
Content available remote Mathematical modelling technique to assess soil conditions
EN
This paper analyzes the results of studying contaminated soil samples from a combat zone (Sumy region, Ukraine). The authors proposed a mathematical model for simulating and assessing the impact of military operations on soil and groundwater. The mathematical model will make it possible to predict the occurrence of environmental emergencies and reduce the frequency of expensive experimental studies of soils contaminated with heavy metals.
EN
The possibilities of simultaneous removal of sulfates and heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn) from acid mine drainage have been investigated in two-section bioelectrochemical system (BES). The used BES is based on the microbial sulfate reduction (MSR) process in the anode zone and abiotic reduction processes in the cathodic zone. In the present study, the model acid mine drainage with high sulfate (around 4.5 g/l) and heavy metals (Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+) content was performed. As a separator in the laboratory, BES used an anionic exchange membrane (AEM), and for electron donor in the process of microbial sulfate reduction in the bioanode zone – waste ethanol stillage from the distillery industry was employed. In this study, the possibility of sulfates removal from the cathodic zone was established by their forced migration through AEM to the anode zone. Simultaneously, as a result of the MSR process, the sulfate ions passed through AEM are reduced to H2S in the anode zone. The produced H2S, having its role as a mediator in electron transfer, is oxidized on the anode surface to S0 and other forms of sulfur. The applicability of waste ethanol stillage as a cheap and affordable organic substrate for the MSR process has also been established. Heavy metals (Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+) occur in the cathode chamber of BES in different degrees of the removal. As a microbial fuel cell (MFC) operating for 120 hours, the reduction rate of Cu2+ reaches 94.6% (in waste ethanol stillage) and 98.6% (in the case of Postgate culture medium). On the other hand, in terms of Ni2+ and Zn2+, no significant decrease in their concentrations in the liquid phase is found. In the case of microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) mode reduction of Cu2+– 99.9%, Ni2+– 65.9% and Zn2+– 64.0% was achieved. For 96 hours, the removal of sulfates in MEC mode reached 69.9% in comparison with MFC mode – 35.2%.
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