Laser beam welding (LBW) is a remarkable method for combining dissimilar materials, primarily when the unique amalgamation of metals is necessary. LBW, owing to attractive features, namely: low heat input, high heat concentration, high power density and low distortion is one of the more advantageous methods for, e.g., welding and repair of aircraft and turbine engine elements, constructed from superalloy. In this paper, the literature is scrutinized on diverse techniques that are associated with laser welding systems. The review is provided of several dozen research articles, involving an appropriate analysis. Initially, the analysis depicts various schemes that are contributed in different articles. Subsequently, the analysis also focuses on various particular features such as laser beam width and type of laser, and it also considers the heat treatment analysis that is contained in each of the articles reviewed. Furthermore, the present paper provides a detailed study regarding the performance measures and maximum performance achievements regarding each contribution accounted for. Finally, it indicates the various research issues, which can be useful for the researchers to carry out further research on laser welding systems. Of particular interest to the Readers of this journal is the fact of ample application of modelling, identification, data processing, image processing and AI tools in the respective surveyed studies.