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EN
The determination of the height in the vertical reference frame in force in Poland is based both on national regulations (Council of Ministers Regulation, 2012) and on the resolution adopted by the EUREF subcommittee in Tromsø (Resolution No. 5, EUREF Symposium, 2000). Currently, the PL-KRON86-NH vertical reference frame is in use in Poland – a normal height system referred to a quasi-geoid of the average level of the Baltic Sea determined by the zero level of the mareograph in Kronstadt. According to the Regulation, by the end of 2019, Poland will adopt the PL-EVRF2007-NH vertical reference frame, i.e. a normal height system referred to the zero level of the mareograph in Amsterdam. The authors present a method of determining normal heights of seabed referred to the zero level of the mareograph in Amsterdam for coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. This method uses GNSS measurements, the EGM 2008 model and depth measuring methods typical for underwater mining.
EN
Research activities of Polish research groups in a period of 2015–2019 on reference frames and reference networks are reviewed and summarised in this paper. The summary contains the results concerning the implementation of latest resolutions on reference systems of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics and the International Union of Astronomy with special emphasis on the changes in the Astronomical Almanac of the Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw. It further presents the status of the implementation of the European Terrestrial Reference System 1989 (ETRS89) in Poland, monitoring the terrestrial reference frame, operational work of GNSS permanent IGS/EPN stations in Poland, operational work of the laser ranging station in Poland of the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), active GNSS station network for the realization of ETRS89 in Poland, validation of recent ETRS89 realization, expressed in ETRF2000 in Poland, and maintenance of the vertical control in Poland (PL-KRON86-NH). Extensive research activities are observed in the field of maintenance and modernization of gravity control not only in Poland, but also in Sweden and in Denmark, as well as establishment of gravity control in Ireland based on absolute gravity survey. The magnetic control in Poland was also regularly maintained. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.
3
Content available remote Znaczenie układów inercjalnych w nawigacji
PL
Nowoczesne systemy nawigacyjne, zarówno w nawigacji naziemnej, jak i lotniczej, wykorzystują technologie satelitarne oraz inercjalne. Następuje rozwój zintegrowanych systemów satelitarno-inercyjnych. W tym kontekście warto przyjrzeć się bliżej i zanalizować podstawowe pojęcia fizyczne, jak inercja i układ inercjalny. Okazuje się, że mimo pozornej elementarności i licznych zastosowań są one ciągle przedmiotem badań i dyskusji naukowych. Zarówno w systemach GNSS, jak i układach pomiarowych nawigacji inercjalnej inercjalne układy współrzędnych z jednej strony są wykorzystywane praktycznie, z drugiej – ich ścisła definicja podlega dyskusji i stanowi inspirację dla badań fizyki teoretycznej.
EN
In modern navigational systems, no matter whether land or air navigation is referred to, satellite and inertial technologies are applied. The result of that is the development of integrated satellite-inertial systems. In the light of this statement, it is worthwhile to take a closer look at and analyze basic physical concepts such as inertia and inertial system. It seems that, despite being apparently basic and thus used extensively, they are still the subject of research and discussion. Although in GNSS systems and inertial measurement systems, inertial reference systems are used, their definition is still the subject of a discussion and an inspiration to theoretical physics research.
PL
Sieć kontrolna służąca badaniu stabilności mostu kolejowego została zaprojektowana z uwzględnieniem podstawowych aspektów technicznych: stabilności podłoża, odpowiedniej lokalizacji punktów oraz warunków geometrycznych, jakie powinna spełniać osnowa do wyznaczania przemieszczeń. Liczbowe parametry projektowe zakładanej sieci to m.in. błąd położenia punktu oraz wskaźniki wyznaczalności oraz niezawodności globalnej. Pomiar sieci wykonany został klasycznymi technikami naziemnymi na bazie stanowisk centrowanych. W celu poprawy parametrów jakości technicznej sieci, zaproponowano wprowadzenie dodatkowych quasi-obserwacji kątowo- liniowych na bazie stanowisk swobodnych (bez centrowania). Kolejną propozycją było wykorzystanie idei sieci modularnych do wyznaczenia położenia punktów sieci kontrolnej. Prace obliczeniowe polegały m.in. na przeprowadzeniu wstępnej analizy dokładności oraz badaniu stabilności punktów osnowy.
EN
The control network used to study the stability of a railway bridge was designed with taking into account the basic technical aspects: the ground stability, the location of the points, and the geometric conditions that should be fulfilled by the control network to determine the displacement. The numerical design parameters of the proposed network include positional error, determinability and global reliability. Measurement of the network was made by classical terrestrial techniques on the basis of the survey stations centered over the marked points. In order to improve the technical quality of the network, additional angular-linear quasi-observations were proposed on the basis of free positions (without centering). Another suggestion was to use the idea of modular networks to determine the position of the control network points. Computational work consisted on, among others, performing a preliminary analysis of accuracy and examining the stability of the network points.
PL
W rozwiązaniach praktycznych wielu obszarów działalności naukowej, w przemyśle, biznesie oraz szeroko pojętej rozrywce bardzo często są wykorzystywane systemy wizyjne. Zwykle moduły odpowiedzialne za akwizycję, analizę i przetwarzanie obrazów są częścią większego, bardziej złożonego systemu na rzecz którego pracują, jednakże, choć znacznie rzadziej, mogą stanowić rozwiązanie autonomiczne. Metody i techniki stosowane w badaniach z wykorzystaniem systemów wizyjnych prowadzonych przez naukowców we wszystkich środowiskach fizycznych, tj. na lądzie, na wodzie i w powietrzu są podobne, a uzyskiwane wyniki zbieżne. W artykule tym dokonano analizy wykorzystania linii widnokręgu jako układu odniesienia przy wykonywaniu typowych zadań nawigacyjnych jednostek nawodnych, czy stabilizowania platformy nośnej dla innych systemów aktywnych.
EN
In practical solutions to many areas of scientific activity, in industry, business and broadly understood entertainment, vision systems are often used. Usually, the modules responsible for acquisition, analysis, and image processing are part of a larger, more complex system for which they work, but, albeit much less frequently, can be autonomous. The methods and techniques used in video-based research conducted by researchers in all physical environments, i.e. on land, water and air, are similar, and the results obtained converge. This article analyzes the use of the horizon line as a reference system for performing typical navigational tasks of surface vessels or stabilizing the platform for other active systems.
EN
The article examines the relationship between object-orientation and transformations of manufacturing processes. For this purpose, the information- enterprise was defined, as characterized by a change of balance between the processing of materials and processing of information. In section 1 the genesis of the considered transformations was identified, proposing their classification on three levels. Section 2 was devoted to the characteristics of the information-enterprise as an organization of self-learning, virtuality, networking and bio organization. The importance of industrial development trends 4.0 was mentioned. In section 3 features of object-oriented programming were connected to examples of solutions in industrial practice. The business model of information and its surroundings was defined. The summary pointed out the advantages of object-oriented approach to transformations in production.
7
Content available Reference frames and reference networks
EN
The summary of research activities concerning reference frames and reference networks performed in Poland in a period of 2011-2014 is presented. It contains the results of research on implementation of IUGG2011 and IAU2012 resolutions on reference systems, implementation of the ETRS89 in Poland, operational work of permanent IGS/ EUREF stations in Poland, operational work of ILRS laser ranging station in Poland, active GNSS station networks in Poland, maintenance of vertical control in Poland, maintenance and modernization of gravity control, and maintenance of magnetic control in Poland. The bibliography of the related works is given in references.
EN
Standardization has contributed significantly to comparable analysis methods for power quality parameters. However, in order to have undisputable results, the measurement values themselves should also be comparable. This can only be achieved by traceability to international measurement standards. For this reason, at VSL, the Dutch national metrology institute, a fully traceable reference setup was developed for calibration of power quality analyzers. In this paper, we show the calibration results of the critical components of the reference setup, we demonstrate its applicability by test measurements on the public low-voltage supply system for specific parameters, and show its ability to simulate and generate events that can be detected and analyzed by both the equipment under test and the reference setup.
EN
The article attempts to describe the progress of deformation of the surface of the Legnica-Głogów Copper Mining Area in the years 1967-2008. The state of deformation has been described with kinematical models of the displacement of points representing the area under research. It has been analysed whether there are possibilities of using a counter-propagation algorithm for estimating displacements of selected points for which an assumption has been made that during the research they were damaged or destroyed. The numerical procedures of the estimation of parameters of displacement models were carried out by means of traditional optimisation methods and neural networks.
PL
W treści artykułu podjęto próbę opisu przebiegu deformacji powierzchni terenu obszaru Legnicko – Głogowskiego Okręgu Miedziowego w latach 1967 – 2008. Stan deformacji został opisany modelami kinematycznymi przemieszczeń punktów reprezentujących badany obszar. Przeprowadzono rozważania dotyczące możliwości wykorzystania algorytmu kontrpropagacji do oszacowania przemieszczeń wybranych punktów, dla których przyjęto założenie, że w trakcie prowadzonych badań punkty zostały uszkodzone bądź zniszczone. Procedury numeryczne estymacji parametrów modeli przemieszczeń realizowano za pomocą tradycyjnych metod optymalizacji i sieci neuronowych.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono próbę określenia przemieszczeń pionowych punktów kontrolowanych położonych na obszarze Legnicko-Głogowskiego Okręgu Miedziowego. Przemieszczenia te zostały wyznaczone na podstawie wyników pomiarów niwelacyjnych prowadzonych w latach 1967–2000. W pierwszej kolejności w celu identyfikacji oraz wyeliminowania obserwacji odstających zostały zastosowane metody estymacji mocnych. Układ odniesienia zdefiniowano na podstawie algorytmu złożonego z dwóch etapów. Na pierwszym etapie wyznaczono moduł wektora przyrostów bazowych cech wewnętrznych, jakie wynikają z dwóch pomiarów okresowych (wyjściowego i aktualnego), na drugim etapie badana była reakcja układu obserwacyjnego w trakcie rozwiązywania kolejnych zadań wyrównawczych, wywołana wzrostem liczby punktów objętych założeniem stałości.
EN
The article presents an attempt to determine the vertical displacements of points located within the area controlled Legnica-Głogów Copper District. Displacements have been found on the basis of measurements carried out in leveling the years 1967 to 2000. In the first place to identify and eliminate gross errors the estimation method of strengths have been applied. Then, the calculations carried out in a reference system defined on the basis of the algorithm, consisting of two phases. The first stage concerns the initial identification, which consists in determining the unit vector basis of increments of internal characteristics, which stem from two periodic measurements (initial and current), the second step is to study the reaction of the observation in the course of solving the following adjustment tasks caused by increase in the number of points covered by the stability condition.
12
Content available remote ASG-EUPOS - a multifunctional precise satellite positioning system in Poland
EN
With the beginning of January 2007 the realisation of the ASG-EUPOS multifunctional precise satellite positioning system in Poland has begun. The system founded in Poland is a part of a larger project EUPOS®, involving the countries of the Central and Eastern Europe. The ASG-EUPOS system will consist of 86 reference stations placed evenly on the area of the country in distances around 70 km and two management centres located in Warsaw and Katowice. The system will render three real-time services (NAVGEO, NAVGIS and CODGIS) and two postprocessing-mode services accessible (POSGEO and POSGEO D). It’s planned to organise a technical service and supply the geodesy and cartography documentation centres with GNSS equipment. The whole system is to be built by the end of 2007 and will go into use with the beginning of 2008. The ASG-EUPOS system is realised utilising the resources of the European Regional Development Fund.
EN
The constitution of the German Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB) has started in 1985, subsequent to a successful pilot study concerning the feasibility. Since that time, a multitude of technological and methodical standards have been developed, which allow for a high quality of the storage-samples and of the specimen characterization. While the storage-samples are kept for retrospective analysis, by now, already comprehensive data on the material-developing in the environment are available due to a real time monitoring of selected environmental chemicals over a period of up to twenty years. Thus, spatial and temporal trends can be described. Since the state of knowledge on critical tissue concentrations in the sublethal range is extremely low at present, it is however not possible to accomplish a direct assessment of relevancy of the substance concentrations. Hence, within the scope of the German ESB Program, the following strategies on assessment of relevancy are observed: use of biomarkers, histopathological examinations, biometric specimen characterization, use of ecological indicator groups, and development of a reference system with analytical and biometric data. Thus, for example endocrine effects in male breams in the river Saar, which correlate directly to operational discharges from municipal sewage plants, could be detected. By histopathological examinations, fibrotic and necrotic tissue adaptations on the gonads had been ascertained cumulatively, which unambiguously imply a restricted fertility of the male breams. In the river Rhine, an improved growth along the timeline could be described on the basis of biometric characterization of breams, which is regarded as rate for the reaction to all structural and material changes in the water body. Presently, with the development of a reference system based on the data collected in the scope of the Environmental
EN
The aim of objects monitoring, carried out by a geodetic method, is to get any information about the casual and effect relationships which occur around the examined object. Application of a suitable measuring technique requires setting an advantageous network structure, which has to meet both the condition of measuring economy and assure the suitable characteristics of the determined parameters accuracy. The advantageous network structure may be obtained on the basis of selecting observations which contain the largest information content. The measurement results of the chosen network elements and the application of suitable methods of results processing enables to apply a correct identification of points of a reference system, and as a consequence, it also enables to define a correct model of the displacement. The process of setting an advantageous linear network structure on the basis of entropy of an observational system was presented in the paper.
PL
Celem monitoringu obiektów prowadzonych metodą geodezyjną jest uzyskanie informacji o związkach przyczynowo-skutkowych zachodzących w obrębie badanego obiektu. Zastosowanie określonej techniki pomiarowej wymaga ustalenia korzystnej struktury sieci spełniającej warunek ekonomiki pomiaru przy jednoczesnym zapewnieniu odpowiedniej charakterystyki dokładności wyznaczanych parametrów. Korzystną strukturę sieci można uzyskać na podstawie doboru obserwacji o największej zawartości informacji. Wyniki pomiarów wybranych elementów sieci oraz zastosowanie odpowiednich metod ich przetwarzania pozwala na prawidłową identyfikację zbioru punktów odniesienia i sformułowanie poprawnego modelu przemieszczeń. W artykule został opisany proces ustalenia korzystnej struktury sieci liniowej na podstawie entropii układu obserwacyjnego.
EN
The XXIV IAU General Assembly in Manchester in 2000, recommended to replace on 1 January 2003, the existing celestial reference systems with the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS). The International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) has formally been implemented in 1991, on the basis of the Resolution 2 of the XX IUGG General Assembly in Vienna in 1991. The ICRS consists of the ensemble of the Barycentric Celestial Reference System (BCRS) and the Geocentric Celestial Reference System (GCRS) with coordinate times Barycentric Coordinate Time (TCB) and Geocentric Coordinate Time (TCG), respectively. New celestial reference systems are built up on the basis of the relativistic theory of astronomical reference systems. Also new definition of the Intermediate Reference System (IRS) that links the celestial systems with the terrestrial system has been introduced. Orientation of the celestial IRS and the terrestrial IRS using CIP, CEO and TEO is discussed. Motion of the IRS with respect to the GCRS is determined by the new IAU 2000 precession-nutation model, while its motion with respect to the ITRS is determined by the Earth rotation parameters provided by the IERS. Presently used time systems and their actual definitions and mutual interrelations are discussed. Comparison of two approaches of computation of apparent places, the classical one and the IAU2000 one, illustrates the use of new reference systems.
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