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EN
Lake Nasser is a freshwater lake that supplies over 95% of Egypt’s freshwater budget. Therefore, the quality of water in the lake is critical for its conservation. In addition to assessing the metal pollution load, the quality of water and sediment in the lake was assessed by collecting water and sediment samples for metal content analysis. Lake Nasser is a warm monomictic water body with a single circulation cycle in the cold months. Dissolved oxygen content in bottom water samples often dropped significantly to levels below international guidelines, reflecting reduced rates of photosynthetic activity. Although 50% of the lake’s water samples contained Pb concentrations slightly above the World Health Organization’s (WHO) limit for drinking water, the metal pollution index did not exceed the critical level and was classified as low metal water pollution. Based on the geoaccumulation index (I-geo), the enrichment factor (EF) and the pollution load index, the sediments of Lake Nasser are practically uncontaminated with metals. Ni has the highest EF and I-geo values, while Ni and Cd contributed the most to the ecological risk and toxic risk index. The obtained results revealed that Cd and Ni in the sediments may pose a threat to organisms living in Lake Nasser.
EN
Coastal areas face greater risk in terms of health and the environment. They are the most vulnerable to impacts resulting from climate change. Coastal areas with higher population density also have more environmental problems, such as natural disasters. Environmental health risks from chemicals and microbes continue threatening people living on small islands. Therefore, this study aims to: 1) conduct a chemical risk analysis of heavy metals Pb, Cr(VI), and Ni; 2) analyse the microbial risk posed by drinking water consumed daily by people on small islands. A method used to analyse the chemical risk of heavy metals was the environment health risk assessment (EHRA), whereas to analyse the microbial risk in small islands, the quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was used. The results showed that the concentration of heavy metals in drinking water was <0.0012 mg∙dm-3 for Pb, <0.01 mg∙dm-3 for Cr(VI), and <0.0019 mg∙dm-3 for Ni. The three heavy metals showed worrying results. Assessment and obtained risk quotient were less than one (RQ < 1) in all samples. Meanwhile, the microbial analysis found Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Enterobacter sp., and Citrobacter sp., with risk characterised from low to high. Risk management is needed to control environmental health risks posed by heavy metals and the microbiological characteristics of drinking water on the small islands of the Spermonde Archipelago.
EN
Thermal waters have a global distribution and find extensive therapeutic use. In Morocco, which boasts more than twenty high-quality therapeutic thermal springs, few studies have focused on the quality of these waters. In this context, the present study evaluated the water quality using physicochemical, bacteriological, and radioactive parameters for the Benkachour thermal spring waters in Morocco. The results indicate that all chemicals, bacteriological, and radiological parameters are below the standards, except for global beta activity and temperature, which makes it hyperthermal, with an annual average temperature of 50.54°C. According to the Piper diagram, the water type is chloride-sodium-potassium. On the basis on these results, it was concluded that thermalism in the Eastern region of Morocco, specifically Benkachour in Oujda, can contribute to sustainable tourist development at the national and international levels due to the quality of the parameters analyzed and can be an effective complementary approach in the treatment of low-grade pathologies. The data from this study can serve as a baseline for assessing future changes and defining standards for the quality of hydrothermal baths as well as balneotherapy worldwide.
EN
In recent decades, the province of Taza has undergone extensive agricultural modernization, marked by an increase in industrial units such as modern oil mills and olive canneries. At the same time, rapid population growth has exacerbated an important problem, the deterioration of the quality of water resources in limited quantities. This study explored the heart of matter by meticulously sampling physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters at eight strategically chosen sites. Conducted in late July 2021, the survey focused on the surface waters of the Innaouene River, providing a timely and insightful examination of the complex dynamics of water quality in the context of modernization and demographic change. This work focused on the determination of physicochemical and microbiological parameters of water. The results of the analyses show that this river is subject to multiple constraints and reaches its tolerance level on most of its sections. A multivariate statistical approach: principal component analysis (PCA) has shown that water pollution in the Innaouene River is mainly related to untreated wastewater discharges into streams. Water quality is considered bad to very bad. Therefore, ecological and health impacts can occur.
EN
Water quality is an essential component in effective water management, specifically in the reservoir planning. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the water quality of the Malang Suko Reservoir, Malang Regency, Indonesia, by examining temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5). To achieve this goal, the dynamic system approach for reservoir management was employed, and the software used for water quality modelling was the System Thinking Educational Learning Laboratory with Animation (Stella). The analysis considered several contributing factors, such as settlements, agriculture, and temperature. The results showed that the water quality status of the Malang Suko Reservoir was moderately polluted. The dynamic subsystem simulation had a high level of accuracy with a mean absolute percentage error of 1.1% and 0% for the settlement and agricultural submodels, respectively. Therefore, several scenarios for managing the inflow of waste into the reservoir were suggested, with the role of the community being the most crucial.
EN
Clean water quality is a problem, especially for developing countries in Asia. Their efforts to maximize various sectors to become a developed country, for example in industrial activities, result in negative environmental impacts, especially for water quality. The wastewater that is directly discharged into river bodies without any treatment causes river water quality to become increasingly worse. The water quality index (WQI) is one of the tools used to assess river water quality. There have been many studies that examined the river water quality in Asia, but there are still few studies that discuss the river water quality as a whole in Asia, especially for developing countries where industrial activities are massive. This study discussed the trends in river water quality in developing countries in Asia. The results obtained showed that most river water quality in Asia falls into the medium to poor category, even poor in some situations, especially in the areas with dense populations and in the areas around rivers which are full of domestic and industrial activities. For this reason, there is a need for a more advanced WQI assessment which is carried out using scientific analysis using fuzzy logic so that the WQI value can be more accurate and QGIS can provide broader information. There needs to be cooperation and good relations between the community, stakeholders and the government in an effort to overcome river pollution which will become even worse by providing stricter regulations, establishing proper water treatment so that industrial or domestic waste water does not directly enter water bodies, and create appropriate policies. Therefore, it is important to be able to develop a river water quality assessment system, such as WQI to be more accurate so that these actions can be carried out.
EN
Phytoplankton are primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, their abundance is determined by environmental changes, so phytoplankton are often used as bioindicators of waters. The aim of this research was to determine the diversity and abundance of phytoplankton in Menjer Lake, to measure the environmental factors that determine the diversity and abundance of phytoplankton, and to determine the environmental factors that most influence the diversity and abundance of phytoplankton in Menjer Lake. This research uses a survey method in 5 areas (inlet, middle of the lake, aquaculture using floating net cage, tourism, and outlet). The parameters observed were the diversity and abundance of phytoplankton as well as the concentration of water quality parameters that determine the presence of phytoplankton (temperature, light penetration, pH, DO, TSS, TDS, PO4 and NO3). To determine the environmental factors that most influence the diversity and abundance of phytoplankton were analyzed using the principal component analyses method with Past 4.10 software. The community structure of phytoplankton in Menjer Lake was dominated by Bacillariophyta (83%). The factors determining the development of phytoplankton in Menjer Lake are influenced most by light penetration and PO4 concentration. The input of PO4 concentration from the water catchment area must be controlled to prevent phytoplankton blooming in Menjer Lake.
EN
Phu My species-habitat conservation area (PMCA) is a seasonal wetland area; thus, water quality plays an essential role in the development of organisms. Therefore, the study was carried out to assess surface water quality based on phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic composition at PMCA, which has been little studied. The phytoplankton, zooplankton and benthic samples were collected at six locations (N1-N6) of the habitats and canals in November 2021. Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (H’), Pielou index (J) and average score per taxon (ASPT) were used to assess pollution levels of surface water. A total of 71 species of phytoplankton belonging to five phyla (i.e., Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta, Bacillariophyta, Dinophyta and Chrysophyta), 57 species of zooplankton belonging to three phyla (i.e., Protozoa, Rotifera, Arthropoda) and two benthic species belong to two groups (i.e., Oligochaeta and Insecta) were detected. The phyla of Euglenophyta, Rotifera, and Insecta were the dominant groups in species composition and the phyla of Chlorophyta, Protozoa, and Insecta were dominated in terms of individual density. Species of Trachelomonas volvocina, Phacus torta, Euglena oxyuris, Arcella vulgaris, Brachionus bidentata, Lecane hastata, Lecane bulla, Lecance pyriformis and Polyarhtra vulgariis appeared at most of the studied sites, indicating the organic and nutrient pollution of the water bodies. The Shannon-Wiener biodiversity index (H’) and Pielou index (J) showed the water quality from moderate to severe pollution. The results of water quality classification according to ASPT and H’ of benthic animals had similar characteristics, indicating that the surface water is very dirty (heavy pollution). The current findings could be used to manage water quality in the future to conserve biodiversity. Furthermore, it helps to improve and expand methods for monitoring surface water quality in the conservation area, in addition to evaluating based on physical and chemical parameters.
EN
Corrosion and scaling occur in water distribution systems. However, not much data is available concerning this issue in Morocco. This study aimed to evaluate the corrosive and scaling potential of drinking water in the water distribution systems of several cities in Morocco using water stability indices and other physicochemical parameters. For this purpose, 100 samples were collected, mainly from the cities in the Rabat-Salé-Kenitra region of Morocco. The results of the physicochemical analysis of 100 collected samples show that the means of the pH, total alkalinity, calcium hardness, chloride, temperature, and total dissolved solids are 7.577 ± 0.23, 173.6± 52.04 mg/l as CaCO3, 212.57 ± 98.18 mg/l as CaCO3, 418.7 ± 407.75 mg/l, 25.16 ± 1.58 °C, 597.5 ± 435.74 mg/l, respectively. The mean values of the water stability indices are 0.1158 ± 0.38, 7.345 ± 0.68, 7.132 ± 0.86, and 12.41 ± 0.35 for the Langelier saturation index (LSI), the Ryznar stability index (RSI), the Puckorius scaling index (PSI), and the aggressive index (AI), respectively. The water samples show corrosive tendencies of 41%, 75%, 97%, and 13% based on the LSI, RSI, PSI, and AI, respectively, and are considered supersaturated and likely to scale, corrosive, and non-aggressive. The water samples in Rabat, Salé, Bouknadel, and Kenitra were mostly supersaturated with a tendency to scale, with the highest percentage of stable water while the water in Khemisset and Tiflet was mostly corrosive, with Tiflet recording the highest chloride content of 3220.1 mg/l. The scaling and corrosive potential of water varied depending on the source of water in each city. Therefore, it is essential to continuously supervise the stability of water at different points of water distribution systems, create an adapted approach for each city, and instill strict national standards for the physicochemical parameters that affect corrosion and scaling to ensure safe drinking water.
EN
This mini-review delved into the intricate interplay between agricultural practices and aquatic environments, highlighting the global imperative to enhance water quality. Drawing insights from diverse sources, it underscored the complex web linking water management and agriculture with the health of aquatic ecosystems. The expansion and intensification of agriculture have led to widespread fertilizer and pesticide use, impacting the water quality of groundwater, rivers, lakes, and marine habitats. Large-scale irrigation systems, while vital for food security, have inadvertently contributed to land and water salinity issues. As agricultural activities intensify, they often alter aquatic ecosystems, affecting aquatic fauna and overall ecosystem functioning. The sustainable use of chemicals and organic farming practices is paramount to mitigating environmental and ecological impacts. In the context of global changes, the adoption of ecologically based agricultural management strategies holds promise for enhancing sustainability and reducing the off-site consequences. The mini-review emphasized that integrated water resource management, advanced agricultural practices, and rigorous regulation are essential for tackling the critical water quality and quantity challenges linked to agriculture.
EN
The chapter is devoted to the problem of eutrophication. Methods and parameters for its assessment are described. Furthermore, the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea is discussed in detailed. Finally, the semi-Markov model of the eutrophication process is proposed, and its characteristics are determined.
12
Content available remote Proposed precision analysis of water quality monitoring embedded loT network
EN
Regarding the essential need for water in agriculture, water resource conservation is becoming a more critical issue that farming developers will consider. The quality instrument used for water monitoring in Farming is one factor to assist an agricultural section in achieving a high impact on their production. This article is presented the precision analysis of water quality monitoring embedded Internet of Things (IoT) Network whereby the proposed invention is a wireless embedded water monitoring system with multi-sensor. The highlight of a measuring instrument is its precision. This study demonstrates its calibration regarding the positive potential of the hydrogen ions (pH). The procedures of precision calibration are related to programming and actual measurement in several tests. The results found that the pH sensor with IoT communication only has a significantly lower erroneous of 0.77%.
PL
Jeśli chodzi o podstawowe zapotrzebowanie na wodę w rolnictwie, ochrona zasobów wodnych staje się coraz ważniejszą kwestią, którą będą rozważać deweloperzy rolnictwa. Instrument jakości używany do monitorowania wody w rolnictwie jest jednym z czynników pomagających sekcji rolniczej w osiągnięciu wysokiego wpływu na ich produkcję. W artykule przedstawiono precyzyjną analizę wbudowanej sieci Internet of Things (IoT) do monitorowania jakości wody, w której proponowanym wynalazkiem jest bezprzewodowy wbudowany wieloczujnikowy system monitorowania wody. Najważniejszym elementem przyrządu pomiarowego jest jego precyzja. To badanie demonstruje jego kalibrację w odniesieniu do dodatniego potencjału jonów wodorowych (pH). Procedury kalibracji dokładności są związane z programowaniem i rzeczywistym pomiarem w kilku testach. Wyniki wykazały, że czujnik pH z komunikacją IoT ma tylko znacznie niższy błąd wynoszący 0,77%.
13
EN
Given the significant consumption and future demand for water resources, this paper intends to find the conditions for using a flotation process with different water quality. One of the alternatives is using water under secondary treatment with industrial water mixtures to partly recycle domestic wastewater and maximize metallurgical benefits. Results show that using wastewater (only with secondary treatment) in flotation is detrimental to copper recovery. However, molybdenum recovery is significantly improved. For mixtures with 50 [%] wastewater, 50 [ppm] frother, 20 [ppm] collector, and pH 10, copper recovery decrease amounts to 0.4 [%], while molybdenum shows a 2.4 [%] recovery increase. In addition, copper concentrate grade decreases by 1.4 [%], while molybdenum grade remains. Therefore, using wastewater is viable, particularly in the case of molybdenum. So, this study proposes using of water mixtures in the copper depression stage to improve molybdenum recovery.
EN
Surface water samples from the area of Munzur Stream in Türkiye (a Ramsar site) were evaluated for their suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes using different water quality indices. The human health risks were assessed as well. The study was conducted over a period of 24 months from January 2019 to December 2021 by taking samples from nine stations every month in order to determine the water quality of Munzur Stream, located in Tunceli. According to the results, Munzur Stream is in good condition in terms of the quality of drinking water and irrigation water. The concentrations of heavy metals such as Cu, Ni, Fe and Hg were high, though the water quality parameter according to Türkiye Ministry of Forestry and Water Affairs Surface Water Quality Regulations (TSWQR) was significantly lower than the permitted limits. In Munzur Stream, the irrigation water for all stations was reported to be excellent, good and suitable in terms of SAR, Na% and MH, respectively. The principal component analysis data formed the four principal components, explaining 98.22% of the total variance. The sources of pollution in this area include the rock types of the basin, soil erosion, domestic waste water discharge and agricultural flow of inorganic fertilisers.
EN
This study was carried out to predict the zooplankton density in the Cip reservoir (Elazığ) with an artificial neural network, using some water quality parameters. The plankton samples were collected monthly from Cip Reservoir in 2021- 2022, using a standard plankton net from three stations. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, secchi disk, alkalinity, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were measured. The actual values of zooplankton density and results obtained from the artificial neural networks were compared. Mean absolute percent error (MAPE) values were calculated with actual values and ANNs values. ANNs values were determined to be close to the real data. MAPE percentage value at the first station was determined as 1.143 for Rotifer, 0.118 for Cladocera, and 0.141 for Copepoda. The MAPE percentage value at the second station was determined as 0.941 for Rotifer, 0.377 for Cladocera, and 0.185 for Copepoda. The MAPE percentage value at the third station was determined as 0.342 for Rotifer, 0.557 for Cladocera, and 0.301 for Copepoda. In the present study, it has been seen that artificial neural networks with a learning feature are successful in predicting zooplankton densities in an aquatic environment. It can be concluded from the study that ANNs are a powerful tool for understanding their relationships with the environment.
EN
The article analyzes the impact of nutrients (nitrates and phosphates) supplied from the land on the waters of the Puck Lagoon (Gdańsk Basin, southern Baltic). The study is based on the numerical modelling. The model data was verified by comparison with the in situ measurement data. The spatial and temporal variability of the concentrations of nitrate, phosphate, and chlorophyll a were analyzed. We came to the conclusion that the load of nutrients deposited from the land side to the waters of the Puck Lagoon is relatively small (but not negligible compared to the Vistula River). However, even when a little runoff enters the reservoir with a very limited water exchange, like the Puck Lagoon, there are periods when riverine nutrients load significantly affects the functioning of the ecosystem.
EN
This work evaluates the efficiency of Random Forest (RF) regression for predicting water quality indicators and investigates factors affecting water quality in 11 watersheds in Virginia, District of Columbia, and Maryland. Ten years of daily water quality data along with hydro-meteorological information (such as precipitation) and watershed physiology and characteristics (e.g., size, soil type, land use) are used to predict dissolved oxygen (DO), specific conductivity (K), and turbidity (Tu) across the selected watersheds. The RF regression model is developed for six scenarios, with an increasing number of predictors introduced in each scenario. The first scenario contains the smallest amount of information (water quality indicators DO, K and Tu), while scenario 6 contains all the available variables. The RF model is evaluated based on three statistical metrics: the relative root mean square error, the correlation coefficient, and the percentage of variance explained. In addition, the degree of importance for each predictor is used to rank their importance within each scenario. The model shows excellent performance for DO as the predicted variable. The model predicting K slightly outperforms the one predicting Tu. Scenario 4 (built based on water quality indicators, hydro-meteorological data, watershed physiology and land cover information) provided the best tradeoff between performance and efficiency (quantified in terms of the amount of information needed to develop the model). In conclusion, based on the RF model, land cover plays a significant role in predicting water quality indicators. In addition, the developed RF regression model is adaptable to watersheds in this region over a range of climates.
PL
Laboratoria badawcze w najbliższym czasie po ukazaniu się nowelizacji ustawy o zbiorowym zaopatrzeniu w wodę i zbiorowym odprowadzaniu ścieków oraz aktów wykonawczych czeka bardzo dużo pracy. Warto już teraz rozpocząć przygotowania do zmian i zaplanować właściwe działania, w tym inwestycje.
EN
This study aims to assess the quality of lagoon water used as a dumping ground for shrimp farming waste. The research uses the descriptive method. The research was conducted at the Shrimp Cultivation Site in the Banaran Kulon Progo Village, Special Region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The research focuses on physicochemical parameters, including temperature, pH, total suspended solid (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), ammonium (NH4-N), nitrate (NO3-N), and phosphate. The sampling technique is based on SNI 6989.57:2008. Sampling was carried out 48 times in 3 lagoons during rainy and dry seasons. Dialysis data was descriptively classified with the help of Storage and Retrieval of Water Quality Data System (STORET) and water quality was generally classified as C (moderately polluted) and D (heavily polluted) categories in dry and rainy seasons. The results showed that in the rainy season the highest pH, nitrate and phosphate levels of 8.3, and 6.1 and 20.8 mg∙dm-3, were up to 15% less than in the dry season in the same point. Thus, it can be concluded that these values from the STORET in the dry season are larger than those in the rainy season. The study results are expected to become a basis for the evaluation of the quality of shrimp farming wastewater so that environmental health can be controlled and the risk of waste pollution reduced.
EN
In this paper, the regression analysis technique is applied to a large water quality dataset for the Sitnica River in Kosovo. It has been done to assess the correlation between water quality parameters. The data are generated by a wireless sensors network deployed in Sitnica. A regression analysis is applied to four water quality parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and electrical conductivity. The correlation between each pair of parameters has been assessed by using the WEKA software package, which is a popular time-saving tool for data analysis in distinct domains. The data are pre-processed to exclude out-of-range values and then the assessment of correlation for the pairs of parameters is applied. In comparison to other pairs of water quality parameters, the results show that dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity correlate particularly closely with temperature. Regression equations of these two pairs of parameters may provide inferred information on dissolved oxygen and electrical conductivity about the Sitnica River. Such information may otherwise not be available to resource managers in Kosovo. Moreover, due to its easy to use and availability as an open-source software, WEKA may aid decision-makers on the management providing almost real-time information about surface water quality within the basin. This can be particularly useful especially in the case of continuous observation of water quality and a huge dataset gathered by using wireless sensors.
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