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EN
With the agricultural industry being vital for regional food safety, the extreme conditions under which it operated in Ukraine during the first half of 2022 has offered a unique insight on vulnerabilities of supply chains as well as the necessity of ensuring transport and logistics support for grain supply chain using adaptive methods. During that time frame, existing infrastructure, logistics, and involved materials were at risk of being stolen or by being destroyed due to direct combat damage or resulting fires. Established food transportation routes suffered from blockades, destruction, or congestion. Switching modes of transport for crop grains proved difficult with the absence of required transport and logistics support. The switch to vegetable oil transport proved harder still. Meanwhile, the re-established naval transportation shed a spotlight on GIS instruments that became critical for the safety of regional food supply chain. This inspired the idea of implementing methods of assessing the safety of transport facilities with the direct participation of the user based on geographic information. These methods can be key in enabling new export routes as part of a stable grain supply chain, supporting logistics behind constructing pipelines for transportation of vegetable oils. As the food safety of the world depends on new export routes, ensuring their efficiency and security will always remain relevant.
PL
Aktualnie węzły przesiadkowe odgrywają kluczową rolę w publicznym transporcie zbiorowym. Niemal niemożliwe jest podróżowanie bez ich wykorzystywania. Łączą one różne środki transportu zbiorowego i są codziennie używane przez wielu pasażerów. Celem artykułu jest ocena wskaźnikowa węzłów przesiadkowych Kurdwanów P+R i Mały Płaszów P+R w Krakowie oraz analiza funkcjonowania parkingów P+R zlokalizowanych w pobliżu tych węzłów. Oba analizowane węzły integrują komunikację autobusową, tramwajową oraz indywidualną (parking P+R). Dzięki temu możliwe było porównanie węzłów oraz wskazanie ich słabych stron. W artykule omówiono pojęcie węzła przesiadkowego oraz przedstawiono zalecenia i wymagania co do ich tworzenia. Scharakteryzowano analizowane węzły poprzez opisanie ich lokalizacji, schematu oraz linii komunikacyjnych korzystających z tych węzłów. Zaprezentowano charakterystykę oraz obowiązującą taryfę parkingów P+R. Wykorzystano metodę AMPTI i badania sondażowe. Przedstawiono wyniki przeprowadzonej analizy oraz sformułowano wnioski wynikające z analizy.
EN
Nowadays, interchanges play a key role in public collective transport. It is almost impossible to travel without using them. They connect different modes of public transport and are used by many passengers on a daily basis. The aim of the article is to evaluate the Kurdwanów P+R and Mały Płaszów P+R transfer nodes in Kraków and to analyse the functioning of P+R car parks located in the vicinity of these nodes. Both analysed nodes integrate bus, tram and individual transport (P+R car park). This made it possible to compare nodes and identify their weaknesses. The article discusses the concept of a transfer node and presents recommendations and requirements for their creation. The analysed nodes were characterized by describing their location, scheme and communication lines operating in the nodes. The characteristics and the applicable tariff of P+R car parks were presented. The AMPTI method and surveys were used. The results of the analysis were presented and the conclusions resulting from the analysis were formulated.
EN
The present paper is aimed at sharing practical experience of organizing active interaction with Maritime English students of remote groups in conditions of permanent online teaching and learning processes. The authors explore various strategies that can be integrated into the design and development of tailored e-books and tutors’ e-courses to foster high level of Maritime English students’ online interaction. In addition, the use of modern digital tools for the successful running of e-books and e-courses is discussed as well as the role these tools play in promoting atmosphere of interaction to allow students be deeply engaged into learning activities and contribute to genuine discussion. A few aspects considered with regard to the process of designing e-books and e-courses are accessibility of learning materials, integration of design elements, and development of students’ online community, encouraging discussions and application of effective assessment methods. The study examines their experience of teaching Maritime English using Moodle and Zoom platforms. The findings of the study can be useful for educators to promote more interactive online learning.
EN
Performance modelling and assessment of Water Supply System (WSS) is a critical activity in system management process. It contributes into producing indicators necessary for the optimisation of the system operation, maintenance, safety, and resources use. The Water Supply Network (WSN) is a major component of any WSS. Assessing the performance of the WSN requires the development of dynamic-probabilistic models and the use of performance notions that are beyond the local availability and reliability of a cluster of pipes (mains, connections, and distributions) or nodes. The proposed performance notions are fully described in terms of performance-levels. The proposed modelling scheme is applied on a real WSN that has slightly been modified to preserve the didactic quality of the chapter and render the modelling scheme accessible at its first uses. Once the use of the scheme is mastered, its exploitation for real and complex WSN is straight forward.
EN
The geothermal potential is challenging to assess, as on the one hand it requires subsurface parametric description; on another – the variable surface influences the potential and geological conditions. In the article, the author presents a novel method for assessing geothermal potential and its environmental impact. The procedure is implemented to evaluate the geothermal potential of the Lublin trough. Geological modelling and GIS analyses are used to determine prospective areas where geothermal water accessibility and sufficient head demand occur in the direct vicinity. Maximal geothermal heat production is estimated, and upon that – possible avoided emissions of air pollutants. The study results indicate that this region's geothermal resources are of low temperature (<50°C), so the only opportunity for exploitation is the direct use of geothermal water in objects or the operation of ultra-low-temperature district heating systems. The main geothermal energy production potential of the Lublin trough is in its northern part, close to the Warszawa trough and nearby main fracture zones. In total, up to 300 GWh of geothermal heat per year might be produced and consumed in the study area if residential and commercial objects could take advantage of ultra-low-temperature district heating system. It would lead to locally significant limitation of air pollutant emissions and decreased fossil fuel consumption.
EN
This work focuses on the fact that the realities of today’s Ukrainian economy require not only recovery but also an increase in the volume of production of products produced by energy-intensive enterprises in the industry to the pre-crisis level, which stimulated the following: an increase in the demand for fuel and energy resources (FER); the increase in the cost of imported natural gas and oil, which became an excessive burden for domestic economic entities and the state budget and led to increased dependence on the geopolitical influence of the Russian Federation; the weakening of Ukraine’s position on the global energy market as a transporter of energy resources; increased competition in the global, national and regional markets of FER under the influence of the growth of general demand, etc. It was confirmed through analysis that the priority of the state policy in the field of the energy security of Ukraine will continue to be the stimulation of the implementation of energy-saving measures and the improvement of the efficiency of the use of FER by attracting all possible incentives at all levels of management. A visualized model is proposed which will make it possible to systematically manage the processes of the effective use of FES; an action algorithm has been developed that will allow solving problems that arise in changing external and internal environments, simplifying the decision-making procedure regarding the effectiveness of the use of FER, and reducing their specific costs. The assessment and forecasting of the energy efficiency of Ukraine’s economy was conducted using additive and multiplicative convolutions, which made it possible to forecast the energy efficiency index until 2035 in accordance with the adopted energy strategy of the state. It was determined that the strategic directions of increasing energy efficiency and realizing the energy potential of Ukraine remain the technological and structural restructuring of the economy, social infrastructure, and the creation of the economic, managerial and legal mechanisms necessary for the implementation of the state energy efficiency policy.
PL
Niniejsza praca koncentruje się na założeniu, że realia dzisiejszej ukraińskiej gospodarki wymagają nie tylko ożywienia, ale także zwiększenia wielkości produkcji wyrobów wytwarzanych przez przedsiębiorstwa energochłonne w przemyśle do poziomu sprzed kryzysu, który stymulowały następujące czynniki: wzrost popytu na paliwa i surowce energetyczne (FER); wzrost kosztów importowanego gazu ziemnego i ropy naftowej, który stał się nadmiernym obciążeniem dla krajowych podmiotów gospodarczych i budżetu państwa oraz doprowadził do zwiększenia zależności od geopolitycznych wpływów Federacji Rosyjskiej; osłabienie pozycji Ukrainy na światowym rynku energetycznym jako przewoźnika surowców energetycznych; wzrost konkurencji na światowych, krajowych i regionalnych rynkach FER pod wpływem wzrostu ogólnego popytu itp. W wyniku analizy potwierdzono, że priorytetem polityki państwa w dziedzinie bezpieczeństwa energetycznego Ukrainy będzie nadal stymulowanie wdrażania środków oszczędzania energii i poprawa efektywności wykorzystania FER poprzez przyciąganie wszelkich możliwych zachęt na wszystkich poziomach zarządzania. Zaproponowano wizualizację modelu, który umożliwi systematyczne zarządzanie procesami efektywnego wykorzystania FES; opracowano algorytm działania, który pozwoli na rozwiązywanie problemów pojawiających się w zmieniających się środowiskach zewnętrznych i wewnętrznych, upraszczając procedurę podejmowania decyzji dotyczących efektywności wykorzystania FER i zmniejszając ich specyficzne koszty. Ocenę i prognozowanie efektywności energetycznej gospodarki Ukrainy przeprowadzono przy użyciu splotów addytywnych i multiplikatywnych, co umożliwiło prognozowanie wskaźnika efektywności energetycznej do 2035 roku zgodnie z przyjętą strategią energetyczną państwa. Ustalono, że strategicznymi kierunkami zwiększania efektywności energetycznej i realizacji potencjału energetycznego Ukrainy pozostają technologiczna i strukturalna restrukturyzacja gospodarki, infrastruktury społecznej oraz stworzenie mechanizmów ekonomicznych, zarządczych i prawnych niezbędnych do realizacji państwowej polityki efektywności energetycznej.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono tematykę związaną z korozją stali podczas geologicznej sekwestracji dwutlenku węgla. Ma to związek z tworzeniem się środowiska korozyjnego w obecności wody w środowisku CO2. Następuje wówczas pogorszenie się właściwości stali w wyniku jej reakcji z otaczającym środowiskiem i przechodzeniem wolnego metalu w związki, co wpływa w znacznym stopniu na bezpieczeństwo pracy urządzeń oraz stan rur stalowych. Opracowaną procedurę symulacji zjawiska korozji, metodykę badań, analiz i oceny korozji zweryfikowano testami laboratoryjnymi. Do testów zastosowano próbki stali L-80 (13Cr) wycięte z rury eksploatacyjnej. Natomiast środowisko korozyjne stanowił wilgotny czysty dwutlenek węgla o zawartości wody destylowanej wynoszącej 5000 ppm. Testy korozji przeprowadzono dla dwóch temperatur (40°C i 80°C) i dwóch ciśnień (8 MPa i 20 MPa), umożliwiających uzyskanie CO2 w fazie nadkrytycznej. Na podstawie wykonanych fotografii powierzchni stali nie stwierdzono widocznej korozji. Po testach korozji powierzchnie kuponów miały nadal charakter metaliczny, błyszczący. Wyznaczone na podstawie ubytku masy wartości szybkości korozji także nie wykazały procesu korozji stali w środowisku zawilgoconego CO2 dla zadanych warunków T i P. Dodatkowo wykonane obrazowanie i analiza powierzchni stali pod mikroskopem optycznym pozwoliły na zaobserwowanie początku tworzenia się korozji ogólnej (równomiernej) i wżerowej (miejscowej). Określono wielkości charakteryzujące wżery (średnią i maksymalną głębokość). Głębokość powstałych wżerów była rzędu od 0,00569 mm do 0,017 mm. Największą głębokość uzyskano w teście 4 (T = 80°C i P = 20 MPa). Na tej podstawie wyznaczono wartości szybkości korozji oraz wykonano dodatkową teoretyczną analizę głębokości korozji po 1 roku, 10, 50 i 100 latach. Pozwoliła ona stwierdzić, że niebezpieczna głębokość wżerów dla stali L-80 (13Cr) pojawi się po okresie 10 lat.
EN
This paper discusses steel corrosion during geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. It is caused by formation of a corrosive environment in the presence of water in the CO2 environment. A deterioration of steel properties is a result of its reaction with the surrounding environment and the transition of free metal into compounds. This has a significant impact on the operational safety of equipment and steel pipes. The developed procedure for simulating the phenomenon of corrosion, the methodology of research, analysis and corrosion assessment were verified by laboratory tests. L80 (13Cr) steel samples cut from a service pipe were used for the tests. The corrosive environment was humid pure carbon dioxide with a content of distilled water of 5000 ppm. Corrosion tests were carried out for two temperatures (40 and 80°C) and two pressures (8 and 20 MPa), enabling CO2 to be obtained in the supercritical phase. No visible corrosion was found on the basis of the photographs of the steel surface. After the corrosion tests, the surfaces of the coupons were still metallic and shiny. The corrosion rate values determined on the basis of mass loss also did not show the corrosion process of steel in an environment moistened with CO2 for the given conditions T and P. Additional imaging and analysis of the corrosion pit surface under the optical microscope made it possible to observe the beginning of the formation of general (uniform) and pitting (local) corrosion. The values characterizing the pits (average and maximum depth) were determined. The depth of the resulting pits ranged from 0.00569 mm to 0.017 mm. The greatest depth was obtained in test 4 (T = 80°C and P = 20 MPa). On their basis, it was suggested to determine the value of the corrosion rate and perform an additional theoretical analysis of the corrosion depth after 1, 10, 50 and 100 years. This would enable the emergence of dangerous depth of pits for steel L-80 (13Cr) after a period of 10 years to be observed.
EN
The article presents the results of monitoring the aftereffect of the use of excessive zonal doses of mineral fertilisers on soil contamination with heavy metals (HM). With traditional soybean cultivation technology, the level of soil contamination when applying excessive doses (N60 P180 K90) of fertilisers is quite high and indicates violations of the ecological balance of the agroecosystem. By the nature of the accumulation of heavy metals in meadow-chestnut soil, depending on the application of the studied doses (P60 K30, N30 P60 K30, N60 P180K90) of fertiliser, the content of HM (Pb, Zn, Cd) increases. The greatest contamination of the soil with Cu was revealed, the content of which increases to 3.2 mg∙kg-1 of soil, which is higher than the threshold of the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) - 3.0 mg∙kg-1. According to the level of contamination of the soil with copper, it belongs to the highly dangerous classes. In a comparative assessment of the level of soil contamination with HM, optimal norms of mineral fertilisers have been established, namely, against the background of effective resource-saving technology for growing soybeans. The application of fertilisers at a dose of P60 K30 and N30 P60 K30 does not significantly affect the level of soil contamination with HM, optimises the ecological state and nutrient regime of the soil, preserves and restores soil fertility indicators, and increases soybean productivity. This resource-saving technology provides a safe environment for soybean cultivation and a significant increase of 34.5-38.6% in crop productivity (0.53-0.76 Mg∙ha-1) and yield (2.57 Mg∙ha-1).
9
Content available remote The influence of ecoenvironment factors on the development of skiing
EN
Skiing depends on the external environment, in which material, energy and information are frequently exchanged, and this external environment greatly affects the quality of skiing’s existence. In this article, an ecosystem assessment algorithm based on ANN (Artificial Neural Network) is put forward. Based on this, a skiing development model under the influence of ecosystem factors is constructed to explore the influence of ecosystem factors on skiing development. The simulation results show that after many iterations, the error of this method is better than that of the comparison algorithm in ecosystem analysis, with the error reduced by 28.17 % and the recall rate reaching 94.65 %, which is improved by 16.88 % compared with the comparison algorithm. Therefore, this model can provide theoretical support for studying the influence of ecological and environmental factors on the growth of skiing. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the regional landscape ecosystem, the eco-environmental impact assessment of the ski resort project predicts the impact of project construction on the regional landscape ecosystem. It explores ways and means to maintain the ecological integrity of the natural system to carry out project construction on the premise of protecting the local ecosystem and building a natural and artificial composite landscape ecosystem with reasonable structure and high efficiency.
10
Content available Kryteria oceny schronień tymczasowych
PL
Artykuł stanowi element dyskusji na temat roli dostępności architektonicznej w kształtowaniu bazy lokalowej dla uchodźców w obiektach, które mogą zostać wykorzystane jako schronienia w obliczu prognozowanych zmian sytuacji demograficznej w krajach Unii Europejskiej, a wynikających z wielowymiarowych przyczyn, w tym niestabilnej sytuacji społeczno-politycznej, gospodarczej czy środowiskowej. Celem pracy jest analiza aktualnych standardów dla prowadzenia akcji humanitarnych pod kątem wytycznych w zakresie dostępności obiektów pełniących funkcję przestrzeni tymczasowego pobytu uchodźców, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem osób zagrożonych wykluczeniem z uwagi na niepełnosprawności, oraz opracowanie na tej podstawie wstępnej propozycji kryteriów oceny możliwości użytkowania i zamieszkania istniejących budynków w sytuacji nagłego kryzysu migracyjnego.
EN
The article is part of a discussion on the role of architectural accessibility in shaping the housing base for refugees in facilities that can be used as shelter in the face of foreseen changes in the demographic structure in European Union countries, resulting from multidimensional reasons, including the unstable socio-political, economic or environmental situation. The work aims to analyze current standards for conducting humanitarian actions in terms of guidelines regarding the accessibility of buildings serving as spaces for the temporary stay of refugees, with particular emphasis on people at risk of exclusion due to disabilities, and to develop, on this basis, a preliminary proposal of habitability assessment criteria for existing facilities potentially used in the event of a sudden migration crisis.
EN
Keeping proper soil moisture is essential in growing good quality and efficient fruit yield. To that effect, soil moisture level must be controlled, to maintain proper watering. A smartphone application was developed to operate a smart farm watering system. It monitors the soil’s moisture and launches sprayers to water dried areas. The system’s architecture was built in a distributed client-server computing system, in a small computing grid. The grid was built across long range (LoRa) communication networks with the same ID, but different addresses. In terms of integration, the system was built using autonomous microprocessors, which consist of a server and five client microprocessors. A smartphone was used as the server of a central controller, and four moisture detection modules and a water spraying system module were used as autonomous clients. The server was inter-connected with the clients via a star-type topology network in the polling processes. Each client module autonomously analyzes the measured digital voltage of the moisture sensor plugged into the soil. When the server sends queries regarding the status of the moisture level, the client sends the request signal to the server using the LoRa communication technology. The communication between the server and the clients is based on the LoRa communication technology. The LoRa-to-Bluetooth converter is used to connect the Bluetooth and the LoRa signal. The field test was performed in a watermelon field, with an area of approximately 6600 m2. The water spraying system constructed with LoRa communication technology could successfully manage and control the moisture level in the field test.
PL
Utrzymanie odpowiedniej wilgotności gleby jest niezbędne do uzyskania dobrej jakości i wydajnego plonu. W tym celu należy kontrolować poziom wilgotności gleby. Do obsługi inteligentnego systemu nawadniania gospodarstwa opracowano aplikację na smartfona, która monitoruje wilgotność gleby i uruchamia opryskiwacze do podlewania przesuszonych obszarów. Architektura aplikacji została zbudowana w formie rozproszonego systemie obliczeniowego klient-serwer, na bazie małej sieci obliczeniowej dalekiego zasięgu (LoRa) o tym samym ID, ale różnych adresach. Do integracji system wykorzystuje autonomiczne mikroprocesory składające się z serwera i pięciu mikroprocesorów-klientów. Jako serwer centralnego sterownika wykorzystano smartfon, a jako autonomiczne klienty cztery moduły wykrywania wilgoci oraz moduł systemu zraszania wodą połączone z klientami za pomocą sieci o topologii gwiazdy. Każdy moduł kliencki autonomicznie analizuje zmierzone napięcie cyfrowe czujnika wilgotności umieszczonego w glebie. Kiedy serwer odpytuje o poziom wilgotności, klient wysyła sygnał do serwera za pomocą technologii komunikacji dalekiego zasięgu (Low-Range technology, LoRa). Komunikacja pomiędzy serwerem a klientami oparta jest na technologii komunikacyjnej LoRa i zintegrowana z Bluetooth za pomocą konwertera. Eksperyment polowy przeprowadzono na polu arbuzów o powierzchni około 6600 m2. System zraszania wodą skonstruowany w technologii komunikacji LoRa z powodzeniem kontrolował poziom wilgotności w teście polowym, i zarządzał nim.
EN
Caffeine is a purine-like alkaloid, a widely consumed psychostimulant, found in many plant species of which coffee beans, tea leaves, guarana, and cocoa beans are the most well-known. Furthermore, caffeine is an additive used in the food and beverage industry, it occurs in cola-type beverages and formulated caffeinated beverages or energy drinks, and in some dietary supplements. Due to the increasingly available offering of caffeine-containing products on the market, it is necessary to monitor the amount of caffeine consumed in the context of safety concerns for young women. The aim of this study were 1) to assess caffeine intake in relation to the dose considered by the EFSA as safe for adults in the general healthy population, and 2) to identify the main sources to caffeine intake among young women in Poland. The study was conducted from March to April 2021 in a group of 152 Polish young women aged 18 to 30 years (23.3±5.6). The study was carried out using the CAWI technique with the use of a 20-item food-frequency questionnaire to assess the frequency of consuming caffeine-containing products. The mean daily caffeine intake from all sources was 232 mg (95th percentile: 549 mg), which based on body weight (bw) was 2.88 mg/kg bw/day (P95: 7.62 mg/kg bw). The assessment of caffeine intake showed that in the studied group of women there is a risk of consuming excessive amounts of caffeine. In approx. 19% of women the dose of 5.7 mg/kg bw per day was exceeded, significantly more often in women aged 18-24 than in women aged 25–30 (23% vs 15%; p=0.036). In about 19% of women the daily intake was high (≥400 mg), in half of women (about 51%) it was moderate (200-400 mg), and in about 30% - it was low (<200 mg). Major contributors to caffeine intake were coffee (39%) and tea (34%), a smaller share included energy drinks and cola-type beverages and (12% and 9%, respectively). Approx. 20% of young women, whose caffeine consumption exceeded the safe level of caffeine intake, should limit the consumption of products which are the main sources of caffeine in their diet. In order to improve and shape the correct eating habits of young women, it is necessary to undertake educational activities aimed at the appropriate food choices of the assortment and the control over the amount of consumed caffeine-containing beverages.
PL
Kofeina jest purynowym alkaloidem wywołującym określone efekty fizjologiczne, występującym w wielu gatunkach roślin, w tym w ziarnie kawy, liściach herbaty, guaranie i ziarnach kakaowca, także jest dodawana do napojów energetyzujących, napojów typu cola i jest składnikiem niektórych suplementów diety i środków farmaceutycznych. Ze względu na wzrastający trend rynkowej oferty produktów spożywczych zawierających kofeinę konieczne jest monitorowanie wielkości jej spożycia. Celem badania była ocena spożycia kofeiny w odniesieniu do dawki uznanej przez EFSA za bezpieczną dla ogólnej populacji oraz określenie produktów i napojów będących głównymi źródłami kofeiny w diecie młodych kobiet w Polsce. Badanie przeprowadzono od marca do kwietnia 2021 r. w grupie 152 młodych kobiet w wieku od 18 do 30 lat (23,3±5,6). Zastosowano technikę CAWI z wykorzystaniem 20-punktowego kwestionariusza częstotliwości spożycia produktów zawierających kofeinę. Wykazano, że średnie dzienne spożycie kofeiny wyniosło 232 mg (95-percentyl: 549 mg), co w przeliczeniu na masę ciała stanowiło 2,88 mg/kg mc. (P95: 7,62 mg/kg mc.). Stwierdzono, iż w badanej grupie młodych kobiet istnieje realne zagrożenie spożycia nadmiernej ilości kofeiny. U ok. 19 osób odnotowano przekroczenie dawki 5,7 mg/kg mc, istotnie częściej u kobiet w wieku 18-25 lat niż w wieku 25–30 lat (23% vs 15%; p=0,036). W przypadku ok. 19% osób spożycie kofeiny było duże (≥400 mg), u połowy osób (ok. 51%) na poziomie umiarkowanym (200-400 mg), a w przypadku ok. 30% - małe (<200 mg/dzień). Głównymi źródłami kofeiny w diecie młodych kobiet były kawa (39%) i herbata (34%), mniejszy udział stanowiły napoje energetyzujące (12%) oraz napoje typu cola (9%). Podsumowując, w przypadku ok. 20% badanych kobiet, u których stwierdzono przekroczenie bezpiecznej dawki, zalecane jest ograniczenie spożycia produktów będących głównymi źródłami kofeiny. Dla poprawy i kształtowania prawidłowych zwyczajów żywieniowych młodych kobiet konieczne są działania edukacyjne mające na celu zwrócenie uwagi na odpowiedni dobór asortymentu i ilości spożywanych napojów.
EN
The presence of water, food and energy crises, both at the global and regional levels, as well as their deterioration under conditions of climate change, with an insufficient level of technical condition of existing irrigation systems, increase the strategic importance of irrigation as the guarantor of the agricultural sector sustainable development. This makes it necessary to increase, foremost, energy and overall (technical, technological, economic, and environmental) efficiency of the closed irrigation network of irrigation systems. In this regard, the complex that includes organisational-technological, technical, and resource-saving groups of measures was developed. Estimation of energy and overall efficiency of the closed irrigation network of irrigation systems at the implementation of developed complex were executed on the example of the agricultural enterprise located in the Petropavlovsk district of the Dnipropetrovsk region of Ukraine. For this purpose, machine experiment based on a use of the set of optimisation, forecasting and simulation models was implemented, including the model of climatic conditions, the model of water regime and water regulation technologies, as well as the model of crop yields on reclaimed lands. According to the obtained results, established that implementation of the complex reduces the consumption of irrigation water by 2.2-30.7% and electricity consumption by 12.9-38.2%. The rate of specific costs decreases from 1.6 to 1.32-1.47, and the coefficient of environmental reliability increases by 5.6-16.7%. At the same time, the profitability index increases from 1.07 to 1.75-2.57, and the discounted payback period decreases from 18 to 8-5 years.
EN
Today, environmental water degradation all over the world comes about due to the growth of urban, industrial and agricultural activities. As a result of these discharges without any prior treatment, the quality of river waters in Kosovo has deteriorated greatly. On the basis of the research that has been done so far in the rivers of Kosovo, it was shown that Drenica is one of the rivers that are constantly exposed to the discharge of industrial waters. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to analyze the impact of water discharged from Feronikeli on the water quality of the Drenica River and the possibility of its protection. The realization of this study is focused on the evaluation of physico-chemical parameters of the water of the Drenica River, the content of heavy metals in the water, the analysis and comparison of the results obtained using the standard for the assessment of the ecological status of surface waters of Romania (GD 161). Laboratory assays were developed according to standard analysis methods (APHA). The results obtained, analyzed and compared with the values of the parameters according to the standard referred to in this research, confirm that the water of the Drenica River belongs to the class of water with “good quality” only in the source area, while in other flow stations river, especially in the third station S3 (Ferronikel industrial zone), water has “poor quality”, passing into the category of “very poor quality”. Therefore, in order to improve the current situation, it is recommended to apply the best environmental practices and proper management of industrial waste.
EN
The article concerns the opinion on stationary and remote examinations carried out during the COVID-19 pandemic, perceived from the perspective of the assessed students. The study aimed to find out about the students' perspective on remote final and midterm exams at The Maria Grzegorzewska University and to attempt to compare it with the traditional examination. The subject of the research was, among others, the forms of checking knowledge and skills, problems arising during the exams, as well as the way of taking into account the special needs of the exam-takers. The students' opinions on the above-mentioned issues and their preferences regarding the examination situation were taken into account. The research used the method of diagnostic survey. The obtained results indicate that students during remote exams declare a higher level of stress related to potential technical problems, and in the case of stationary examinations the problem is chaos, noise and distraction. Regardless of the form of the exam, a similar percentage of students declare that they do not cheat - 73.53% during full-time exams, 68.49% pass fair during remote exams. The most common form of cheating during remote examinations is the use of previously prepared notes (21.85%), and 2.52% use the help of colleagues.
EN
The article concerns the opinion on stationary and remote examinations carried out during a pandemic, perceived from the perspective of examiners. The aim of the study was to find out about the perspective of academic teachers on remote examination at The Maria Grzegorzewska University and to compare it with the traditional, stationary exams. The subject of the research were, inter alia, the forms of checking knowledge and skills used by lecturers, the motivations driving their choice, problems arising during the exams, as well as the way of taking into account the special needs of the examinees. The research used the method of diagnostic survey. The obtained results indicate that, according to the lecturers, the students' independence during remote exams is smaller and the intensity of using unauthorized help by them is greater. Remote exams generate more problems - technical and related to the dishonesty of students. Lecturers hardly recognize and take into account the special educational needs of students during remote exams.
PL
W pracy analizie poddano wyniki pomiarów czasu otwartego zaprawy klejącej do płytek ceramicznych po czasie nie krótszym niż 30 minut uzyskane przez 27 laboratoriów uczestniczących w programie porównań międzylaboratoryjnych. Uzyskane wyniki zostały statystycznie opracowane zgodnie z wymaganiami normy ISO 13528 i ocenione zgodnie z kryteriami analizy z-score zawartymi w normie EN ISO/IEC 17043. 22 z 24 laboratoriów jakie nadesłały wyniki pomiaru czasu otwartego potwierdziły swoje kompetencje uzyskując wynik „zadowalający” zgodnie z przyjętymi kryteriami oceny. Wynik uzyskany przez jedno laboratorium został sklasyfikowany jako „wątpliwy”, zaś kolejne laboratorium uzyskało wynik „niezadowalający”. Z perspektywy laboratoriów uczestniczących w porównaniach międzylaboratoryjnych uzyskane wyniki należy ocenić jako satysfakcjonujące i tym samym laboratoria potwierdziły swoje kompetencje. Należy jednak odnotować znaczny rozrzut wyników pomiaru czasu otwartego - 22 laboratoria, których wyniki zostały sklasyfikowane jako „zadowalające”, uzyskały wyniki od 0,1 N/mm2 do 1,0 N/mm2. Tak znaczny rozrzut wyników pomiaru czasu otwartego wyznaczanego poprzez oznaczenie przyczepności jednoznacznie wskazuje, że ta metoda ma zbyt małą dokładność i nie powinna być wykorzystywana w procesie oceny i weryfikacji stałości właściwości użytkowych zapraw klejących do płytek ceramicznych.
EN
The study analyzed the results of open time measurements of ceramic tile adhesives after not less than 30 minutes, obtained by 27 laboratories participating in the interlaboratory comparison program. The obtained results were statistically analyzed following the requirements of ISO 13528 and assessed under the z-score analysis criteria contained in the EN ISO/IEC 17043. 22 out of 24 laboratories that sent the results of the open time measurement confirmed their competencies, obtaining a “satisfactory” result following the evaluation criteria. The result obtained by one laboratory was classified as “questionable”, and another received the result as “unsatisfactory”. From the perspective of laboratories participating in interlaboratory comparisons, the obtained results should be assessed as satisfactory, and thus the laboratories confirm their competence. However, a wide scatter of the results of the open time measurement should be noted - 22 laboratories, the results of which were classified as “satisfactory”, obtained results from 0.1 N/mm2 to 1.0 N/mm2. Such a wide scatter of the results of open time measurements determined by the adhesion strength indicates that this method has too little accuracy, and it should not be used in the assessment and verification of constancy of performance of ceramic tile adhesives.
EN
Purpose: The main aims of the article are to analyse the waste electrical and electronical equipment management system and present a conceptual framework for evaluating the collection system for this group of waste. Design/methodology/approach: The research methods used in the article were desk research analysis of available source data on the structure and functioning of WEEE management systems. An additional approach to the research referred to the statistical data on waste collection of the following groups of waste Findings: WEEE management systems are widely described in the literature because this waste are source of significant and rare secondary raw materials. However, it is still a problem to create a fully efficient system for collecting this group of waste. Research limitations/implications: The main limitation in carrying out the research is the lack of current data on the quantity and quality of electrical and electronical waste which can be used for the production Practical implications: Further research will focus on using the approach presented to investigate the effectiveness of the different WEEE collection solutions and the possible improvement of these systems Originality/value: The analysis carried out indicates the need to reconstruct the WEEE management system. This approach to assessing the effectiveness of the system can be used to compare different WEEE collection options.
EN
Purpose: The main aims of the article are to analyse the waste electrical and electronical equipment management system and present a conceptual framework for evaluating the collection system for this group of waste. Design/methodology/approach: The research methods used in the article were desk research analysis of available source data on the structure and functioning of WEEE management systems. An additional approach to the research referred to the statistical data on waste collection of the following groups of waste Findings: WEEE management systems are widely described in the literature because this waste are source of significant and rare secondary raw materials. However, it is still a problem to create a fully efficient system for collecting this group of waste. Research limitations/implications: The main limitation in carrying out the research is the lack of current data on the quantity and quality of electrical and electronical waste which can be used for the production. Practical implications: Further research will focus on using the approach presented to investigate the effectiveness of the different WEEE collection solutions and the possible improvement of these systems Originality/value: The analysis carried out indicates the need to reconstruct the WEEE management system. This approach to assessing the effectiveness of the system can be used to compare different WEEE collection options.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono sposób ilościowej oceny technologiczności konstrukcji obróbkowych uchwytów specjalnych. Przyjęte uproszczone kryteria oceny uwzględniają zarówno złożoność konstrukcji w aspekcie czasochłonności wykonania elementów składowych i ich montażu, jak i cechy użytkowania uchwytów. W pracy zamieszczono studium przypadku związanego z zaprojektowanym wariantowo oprzyrządowaniem przedmiotowym do obróbki dźwigni żeliwnej.
EN
The paper presents a method of quantitative assessment of manufacturability of the construction of specialized fixtures used in machining. The assumed, simplified assessment criteria include both the complexity of the construction with respect to time-consumption of manufacturing the components and their assembly, as well as the features of the usage of fixtures. The paper contains a study case connected with variably designed functional hardware for machining a cast-iron lever.
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