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Tectonic development of the Variscan belt in Central Europe included, besides important compression, also an extensional phase related to gravitational collapse, which governed the origin of many sedimentary basins and magmatic bodies. One of these bodies is the Benešov pluton, featuring primary magmatic fabrics as well as deformational fabrics, related to subsequent extensional stages. Recognition of these fabrics and their links to other significant extension-induced structures in the Bohemicum and Moldanubicum not only sheds new light on the pluton itself but also extends a general knowledge of deformational stages, accompanying gravitational collapse of the Variscan orogen. The authors found that this pluton was strongly strained in a normal-faulting regime under brittle-ductile conditions. The age of deformation is constrained by a magmatic age of 347 ±3 Ma and by the age of Carboniferous sedimentary cover. New data indicate a three-stage extensional history during the phase of gravitational collapse: (1) Tournaisian extension (~350–345 Ma) within arc-related tonalitic intrusions; (2) late Viséan to Serpukhovian extension (~332–320 Ma), connected to the brittle-ductile unroofing and origin of a NE–SW basin system; and (3) Gzhelian to Cisuralian extension (~303–280 Ma), related to normal faulting and sedimentation in “Permo-Carboniferous” troughs, elongated NNE–SSW. Consequently, the gravitational collapse studied involved a complex succession of individual extensional stages, rather than a simple process.
Content available remote The Orlica–Śnieżnik Dome, the Sudetes, in 2002 and 12 years later
During the 2002 meeting of Czech, Polish and Slovak tectonic community in Żelazno, the Sudetes, the Central European Tectonic Studies Group (CETeG) was established. 12 years ago, participants of the meeting made an excursion to the eastern part of the Orlica–Śnieżnik Dome (OSD), which was focused on a variety of gneisses with inserts of (U)HP eclogites and various enclaves. The 2014 meeting brought members of the CETeG to the OSD again and an accompanying field excursion was dedicated mainly to evolution of metasedimentary and metavolcanogenic rocks in the region. This paper is a short review of the results of the studies undertaken in the OSD by different research groups in the last 12 years. The review is set against a background of what we knew about the geology of the dome in 2002. A significant progress was made. P-T paths were determined for mica schists and marbles as well as for metarhyolites originated from the continental crust and metabasites derived from the mantle. New light was shed on the origin of various types gneisses in the OSD and their genetic and structural relationships. A plethora of isotopic studies helped to better constrain timing of igneous and metamorphic events in the Orlica–Śnieżnik complex. Ages clustered around 350–340 Ma are repeatedly obtained, yet scarcer older ages up to 390 Ma and their geological significance are open to debate. Tectonic evolution of the dome was revised and new geodynamic concepts were proposed. However the new data has created some new problems and some old problems are still to be resolved in the future.
In the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome, the West Sudetes, metagranites of 515-480 Ma age occur as coarse-grained augen gneisses (Śnieżnik type) in the middle of the dome, whereas fine-grained, often migmatitic gneisses (Gierałtów type) are located more externally. Both the origin and genetic relationships of the gneisses have been disputed for many years. In a quarry near Zdobnice, in the western part of the dome, migmatitic gneisses and a post-tectonic dyke of unfoliated biotite-hornblende high-K syenite occur. The migmatititc gneiss has mesosome with relic minerals, notably Ca-Fe garnet and pseudomorphs after Al2SiO5 polymorph (?), indicative of an early granulitic metamorphism at considerably high pressure and temperature. Retrogression at still high temperature of ~720-750°C under the upper amphibolite facies conditions was accompanied by migmatization which among others produced cross-cutting neosome veins of graphic granite. Zircons from the melt derived neosome and from the syenite dyke were analysed with SHRIMP II. The former yielded a concordia age of 485š12 Ma which is taken to constrain the waning stage of the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician migmatization. Migmatitic gneisses may have represented a metasedimentary-metaigneous Neoproterozoic crust that underwent multistage metamorphism, granulite facies inclusive, and then yielded to extensive partial melting between 515 Ma and 480 Ma. Our new data shows that the migmatization in the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome was concurrent with the intrusion of a granitic precursor of the augen gneisses and does not support the views that the migmatitic gneisses can be a derivative of the ~500 Ma granite. In the Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician, the porphyritic granite intruded in migmatitic country rocks which mantled the granitic core. Both lithologies were later ductilely sheared and deformed under lower conditions of the amphibolite and greenschist facies during the Variscan orogeny. Four zircon grains from the post-tectonic syenite dyke yielded a concordia age of 326š3 Ma, which is interpreted as the time of its intrusion. This constrains the ductile Variscan events in the studied region.
Field and laboratory works realized in last years allowed us to redefine one of the lithotectonic units of the western Sudetes, till now considered to be composed of Cambrian to Lower Carboniferous, stratigraphically coherent, volcano-sedimentary succession, as the Lower Carboniferous, probably lower Visean, wildflysch-to- flysch succession. This unit forms the westernmost part of the Kaczawa Complex and is situated at the boundary zone between the Kaczawa Mts. (Polish Sudetes) and the Görlitzer Schiefergebirge (Germany) or - at a larger scale - between the Sudetes and Lugian tectonostratigraphic zones of the Variscan orogen. Petrographical studies of rocks sampled from the larger allochthonous bodies (olistolithes and slide-sheets) of the wildflysch sequence have revealed some peculiar features of the lithic composition of this succession. They consist in the presence of: (1) - unmetamorphosed and metamorphosed volcanites with a distinct HP-overprint, characteristic of supra- subduction zones, gabbro-type plutonites, and relatively numerous detrital chromite grains indicating the occur- rence of ophiolite ultramafics in the source area; and (2) - large block(s) of rock composed of quartz (almost 100% SiO 2 ), previously interpreted as Palaeozoic quartz vein, now documented by the authors to be totally silicified primary evaporites, composed of gypsum (selenite), anhydrite and salt. The last finding would be of special significance as the first strong evidence of evaporites within the Variscan orogenic complex in Europe, if further studies confirm proposed here tectonic position of the silicified evaporites. General lithic composition of the Jędrzychowice/Ludwigsdorf wildflysch detrital material is characterised by the presence of such litholog ies, as: black and gray-to-green cherts, black shale mudstones and cherts, (turbi- dite-)siliciclastics, carbonates (both bioclastic and diagenetic), basic and acid, unmetamorphosed and epi-to- HP-metamorphosed volcanites, and gabbros and ultrabasites (the latter noted only by detrital chromites). Moreover, the siliciclastic material of the olistosthrome matrix discloses the presence of acid magmatic (granites) and high-grade metamorphics of gneiss-to- mica-schist type in the source areas. Such a compositio n of detrital material clearly reflects a typical tectonic mélange as the source terrane for the wildflysch deposit. It would mean that the Jędrzychowice/Ludwigsdorf wildflysch should be considered as the next, strong and unequivocal signal of large-scale tectonic mélange stage in a tectonic/geodynamic evolution of the Central European Palaeozoic orogenic system.
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