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EN
This paper presents the results of experimental determination of the impact of floats on the aerodynamic characteristics of an OSA model in symmetric flow. The studies have been performed in the low-speed wind tunnel at the Military University of Technology (MUT, Warsaw, Poland). The aircraft model was examined at the dynamic pressure q = 500 Pa in the following angle of attack range α = -28⁰-+28⁰. The investigations have been performed for an aircraft model under plain configuration with floats and without floats. The influence of elevator and flap inclination on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model has also been analysed. The obtained values of aerodynamic drag coefficient, lift coefficient, pitching moment coefficient and lift-to-drag ratio have been presented in the form of tables and graphs. The studies performed demonstrated that the use of floats causes the increase of aerodynamic drag coefficient ϹD, maximum lift coefficient Ϲ Lmax as well as critical angle of attack α cr. The decrease of lift-to-drag ratio has also been observed. Its value in the case of the model with floats was up to 20% lower than in the model without floats. The studies also showed that the model equipped with floats had a lower longitudinal static stability margin than the model without floats.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki badań doświadczalnych wpływu pływaków na charakterystyki aerodynamiczne modelu samolotu OSA w opływie symetrycznym. Badania wykonano w tunelu aerodynamicznym małych prędkości WAT. Model zbadano przy ciśnieniu dynamicznym q = 500 Pa w zakresie kątów natarcia α = -28[deg]-+28[deg]. Badania wykonano dla modelu samolotu w konfiguracji "gładkiej" w wersji z pływakami i bez pływaków. Zbadano również wpływ wychylenia usterzenia poziomego oraz klap na podstawowe charakterystyki aerodynamiczne badanego modelu. Uzyskane wartości współczynnika oporu aerodynamicznego, współczynnika siły nośnej, współczynnika momentu pochylającego oraz doskonałości aerodynamicznej przedstawiono w formie tabel i wykresów. Przeprowadzone badania wykazały, że zastosowanie pływaków powoduje wzrost wartości zarówno współczynnika siły oporu aerodynamicznego, maksymalnej wartości współczynnika siły nośnej jak i wartości krytycznego kąta natarcia α kr. Zauważalny jest także spadek wartości doskonałości aerodynamicznej która dla modelu z pływakami jest nawet o 20% mniejsza od doskonałości uzyskanej dla modelu bez pływaków. Badania pokazały również, że model wyposażony w pływaki ma mniejszy zapas stateczności statycznej podłużnej niż model bez pływaków.
PL
Przedstawiono wybrane rezultaty badań eksperymentalnych dotyczące wpływu oblodzenia na aerodynamikę cięgien mostów podwieszonych, które wykonano w kilku ostatnich latach w ramach współpracy dwóch ośrodków naukowych.
EN
The paper presents the selected results of experimental investigations on the influence of icing on aerodynamics of cables of cable-supported bridges. The investigations were carried out over the past few years within the framework of international cooperation between two partner scientific institutions.
EN
The aerodynamics of powerboats used in inshore powerboat racing has a significant impact on their performance. The aerodynamic drag forces generated on individual elements of this type of boats were tested. The solid model of the boat developed in the CAD software was used for the calculations. The computational grid was generated, as well as the boundary conditions and the turbulence model, were determined. On the basis of such assumptions, the numerical calculations were carried out using the CFD method. The results from the numerical simulations consist of a description of the velocity and pressure distribution around the tested object and identification of the drag force on the components of the powerboat with a description of the relationship between them. Additionally, the variation of the drag force as a function of speed in the range from 0 to 60 m/s was presented. The tests were performed for 5 values of the angle of attack of the boat to the surface of water in the range from 0° to 12°. The scope of the research allowed for the development of a drag force map depending on the defined parameters. The test results can be used to optimize the shape of the boat structure in order to reduce the aerodynamic drag generated on its individual elements.
EN
This paper presents a generic algorithm designed to identify aerodynamic coefficients among the data specified in firing tables and projectile flight parameter data recorded during live fire tests. The algorithm and the concept of live fire testing shown here allow developing a mathematical model of projectile trajectory in the form of a modified motion model of a point mass. Potential applications of the model include fire control systems.
PL
W artykule zaprezentowano ogólny algorytm identyfikacji współczynników aerodynamicznych na podstawie danych zawartych w tabelach strzelniczych oraz na podstawie zarejestrowanych podczas strzelań poligonowych danych o parametrach lotu pocisku. Przedstawiony algorytm oraz koncepcja badań poligonowych pozwalają pozyskać model matematyczny ruchu pocisku w postaci zmodyfikowanego modelu ruchu punktu materialnego. Model taki może być wykorzystany np. w systemie kierowania ogniem.
EN
The work presents a three-dimensional modeling of air flow around the research object. The purpose of this work was to perform numerical calculations to identify the magnitude of the aerodynamic drag force generated on individual elements of a high energy efficiency vehicle body. This vehicle, specially designed for the Shell Eco-marathon competition, needs to show the lowest possible fuel consumption while maintaining the prescribed speed. Minimizing the drag force at an early designing stage plays an important role here. The calculations were performed using the ANSYS Fluent calculation solver. The result of the conducted research is a description of the velocity and pressure distributions around the tested vehicle as well as an identification of the drag force on the external surfaces of the components and a description of the relationship between them. The work also discusses the dependence of the drag force as a function of speed in the range from 0 to 12 m/s. The influence of the ground on the drag force in the case when the object was immobilized in relation to the walls at the flowing medium, as in a wind tunnel, was investigated. On the basis of the calculations performed, no impact of the ground on the generated drag force magnitude was found.
EN
The paper discusses the ways of structural optimization of composite automotive bodies, such as in race cars using electric and hybrid power sources. To reach these goals we were using CFD aerodynamic design check. Taking into account all the above mentioned issues, the integrated 3D-CAD race bolide body model prototype was designed, based on the concept of NACA profiles used in surface positive and negative curvatures generation to ensure better air overflow, stability, drag coefficient, downforce etc. The result of the integrated 3D-CAD race bolide body model is also presented as a real scale composite automotive body. This paper also discusses technological methods as well as problems and stages of real-life designing (from mould to ready composite part). The results can be useful for such consideration and on such issues as production and development of complex shape composite bodies, using readily obtainable and justified by cost-effectiveness materials and software.
PL
W artykule omówiono sposoby optymalizacji strukturalnej kompozytowych nadwozi samochodowych, takich jak samochody wyścigowe wykorzystujące elektryczne i hybrydowe źródeł energii. Aby osiągnąć te cele, korzystano z kontroli aerodynamicznej projektu CFD. Opracowano zintegrowany prototyp modelu nadwozia typu 3D-CAD oparty na koncepcji profili NACA, stosowany w generowaniu dodatnich i ujemnych krzywizn powierzchni, aby zapewnić lepsze parametry: stabilność, współczynnik oporu, siłę docisku itd. Rezultat zintegrowanego modelu nadwozia typu 3D-CAD z nadwoziem wyścigowym jest także prezentowany jako nadwozie kompozytowe w skali rzeczywistej. W artykule omówiono również metody technologiczne oraz problemy i etapy projektowania rzeczywistego (od formy do gotowej części kompozytowej). Uzyskane wyniki mogą być przydatne do produkcji złożonych brył kompozytowych, przy użyciu łatwo dostępnych i opłacalnych materiałów oraz oprogramowania.
EN
In order to evaluate the impacts of a motor vessel after installing wind sails, the aerodynamics of the sail should be accurately calculated. However most of the research on sails are based on stable wind instead of natural wind which is changing horizontally and vertically. In this paper wind tunnel tests are carried out based on stable wind field and simulated natural wind field, the results shown that there are 16–44% decrease in natural wind in terms of lifting coefficient and 11–42% decrease for drag coefficient. This would provide a valuable reference to the effectiveness evaluation of the impact of sails for sail assisted ships.
8
Content available remote Modelowanie i symulacja numeryczna dynamiki zrzutu bomby korygowanej
PL
W pracy przedstawiono proces modelowania dynamiki oraz wyniki symulacji lotu bomby lotniczej zrzucanej w warunkach spokojnej atmosfery. Opracowano model matematyczny ruchu przestrzennego bomby traktowanej jako bryła sztywna. W obliczeniach wykorzystano charakterystyki masowe i geometryczne opracowanej w Instytucie Technicznym Wojsk Lotniczych bomby ćwiczebnej LBĆw-10, którą poddano modernizacji w celu umożliwienia aktywnego sterowania jej lotem. Charakterystyki aerodynamiczne tej bomby określono, wykorzystując oprogramowanie PRODAS oraz na podstawie wyniku badań przeprowadzonych w tunelu aerodynamicznym. Pokazane przykładowe wyniki obliczeń numerycznych otrzymano z wykorzystaniem autorskiego oprogramowania.
EN
The paper presents a model of the bomb dynamics, which is dropped in calm weather conditions. The description of motion dynamics was based on the model of the rigid body and is dedicated to spatial motion simulation. The mass and geometric characteristics were referred to the LBC-10 training bomb, which had been developed at the Air Force Institute of Technology. Nowadays this bomb is modernized in order to enable the active control of the flight path. The aerodynamic characteristics of this bomb were determined using the PRODAS software and they were also based on the results of the wind tunnel tests. In the paper exemplary results of numerical calculations performed with the author's software are also shown.
9
Content available remote Analiza aerodynamiczna przedniego skrzydła bolidu Formuły Student
PL
Studenckie Koło Naukowe PolSl Racing w sezonie 2018 zaprezentuje nowy samochód wyścigowy z pakietem aerodynamicznym rozbudowanym o przednie oraz tylne skrzydło. Przedstawiono proces projektowania i optymalizacji geometrii przedniego skrzydła nowego bolidu. W analizach użyto narzędzia obliczeniowej mechaniki płynów (CFD). Analiza dwuwymiarowa skrzydła złożonego z dwóch profili pozwoliła na odrzucenie niespełniających wymagań wariantów geometrii. Jej optymalizacji dokonano z użyciem narzędzi optymalizacji algorytmami genetycznymi dostępnych w programie Ansys 18.1. Następnym krokiem było dodanie do geometrii drugiego profilu dodatkowego, zamodelowanie i zoptymalizowanie geometrii dwuwymiarowej skrzydła składającego się z trzech płatów. Analizę trójwymiarową przeprowadzono dla jednego, najlepszego ustawienia profili (wybranego w poprzednim kroku), do którego dodano obracające się koło. Jej celem było sprawdzenie zachowania strugi na całej rozpiętości skrzydła, dobranie odpowiedniej geometrii płyty końcowej oraz zamodelowanie całej geometrii przodu bolidu.
EN
SKN PolSl Racing in the season of 2018 will present a new racing car. One of the changes, comparing to the old car, is development of the aerodynamics and adding front and rear wing. In the herein engineering project is presented the design process of front wing for the car. The analysis was performed with CFD process. Two-dimensional analysis of wing geometry consisting of two airfoils allowed us to reject few variants of geometry which haven’t fulfill the requirements. The optimization of this analysis was performed by using genetic algorithm methods from Ansys 18.1 software. Next step was a two-dimensional analysis and optimization of geometry consisting of three airfoils. The three-dimensional analysis were performed for the best airfoil geometry with added rotating wheel to it selected in previous step. They were processed to examine air stream behavior alongside the wing and for selecting optimal endplate and modelling the geometry of car’s front.
10
Content available remote Modified virtual blade method for propeller modelling
EN
The emergence of large, propeller-based aircraft has revived interest in propeller design and optimization with the use of numerical methods. The flow complexity and computational time necessary to solve complicated flow patterns trailing behind rotating blades, created a need for faster than fully resolved 3D CFD, yet comparably accurate methods for validating multiple design points in shorter time. Improved Virtual Blade Method (VBM) for 2-bladed propeller, including method implementation, analysis and validation against 3D numerical and experimental data is presented. The study introduces adjustments to the original method, accounting for differences between VBM and fully resolved numerical models. These modifications prove to increase the model accuracy for the propeller under consideration and could potentially be applied for different blade configurations as well. The modified Virtual Blade Method allows one to compute the propeller performance with comparable accuracy to 3D CFD computation using only 10% of time needed for one computational point.
11
Content available remote Influence of the diffuser on the drag coefficient of a solar car
EN
The purpose of the research was to design a solar vehicle for Bridgestone World Solar Challenge competition which takes place biannually in Australia. The article, however, presents the aerodynamic research on the car body, especially on the exit diffuser. Numerous CFD simulations of different diffuser shapes were performed in ANSYS CFX software. The paper presents the results of pressure distribution on the body and velocity contours. The drag force acting on the car body is dependent on the pressure distribution. The article includes comparison of corresponding drag coefficient values for different cases. Furthermore, the variation of the lift force depending on the shape of the bodywork was also taken into consideration. The research shows that slight differences in the construction of the exit diffuser correspond to noticeable changes in the drag coefficient values (0.138 minimum, 0.168 maximum) and significant changes in the lift force (minimum 71 N, maximum 160 N).
12
Content available remote Experimental study of flow control over an Ahmed body using plasma actuator
EN
Ahmed Body is a standard and simplified shape of a road vehicle that’s rear part has an important role in flow structure and it’s drag force. In this paper flow control around the Ahmed body with the rear slant angle of 25° studied by using the plasma actuator system situated in middle of the rear slant surface. Experiments conducted in a wind tunnel in two free stream velocities of U = 10 m/s and U = 20 m/s using steady and unsteady excitations. Pressure distribution and total drag force was measured and smoke flow visualization carried out in this study. The results showed that at U = 10 m/s using plasma actuator suppress the separated flow over the rear slant slightly and be effective on pressure distribution. Also total drag force reduces in steady and unsteady excitations for 3.65% and 2.44%, respectively. At U = 20 m/s, using plasma actuator had no serious effect on the pressure distribution and total drag force.
13
EN
Ahmed Body is a standard and simplified shape of a road vehicle that's rear part has an important role in flow structure and it's drag force. In this paper flow control around the Ahmed body with the rear slant angle of 25˚ studied by using the plasma actuator system situated in middle of the rear slant surface. Experiments conducted in a wind tunnel in two free stream velocities of U = 10m/s and U = 20m/s using steady and unsteady excitations. Pressure distribution and total drag force were measured and smoke flow visualization carried out in this study. The results showed that at U = 10m/s using plasma actuator suppress the separated flow over the rear slant slightly and be effective on pressure distribution. Also, total drag force reduces in steady and unsteady excitations for 3.65% and 2.44%, respectively. At U = 20m/s, using plasma actuator had no serious effect on the pressure distribution and total drag force.
EN
A mathematical model for simulation of icing dedicated to simulation of ice accretion and its effects on aircraft aerodynamic characteristics in conditions of rime icing is presented. Pure rime icing occurs at lower temperatures than glaze icing and results in higher roughness of the surface of deposited ice. The model accounts for increased surface roughness, in terms of equivalent sand grain roughness, caused by deposited rime ice, which influences generation and dispersion of heat in the boundary layer. Increase of surface roughness is determined by analytical models created upon experimental data obtained in icing wind tunnels. Increased generation of heat is a result of increased tangential stress on the surface and is quantified in the temperature recovery factor determined numerically by a CFD solver. Effects of surface roughness on the intensity of forced convection are quantified by application of Colburn analogy between heat and momentum transfer in the boundary layer, which allows assessment of heat transfer coefficient for known friction coefficient, determined by CFD. The computational method includes determination of the surface distribution of mass of captured water in icing conditions. The model of freezing of captured water accounts for generation of heat due to latent heat of captured water droplets, temperature recovery in boundary layer and kinetic energy of captured droplets. The sinks of heat include forced convection, heating of super cooled droplets, conduction of heat through the ice layer and sublimation. The mathematical model is implemented as user-defined function module in ANSYS Fluent solver. The results include effects of deposited ice, including increased surface roughness on aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil.
EN
The article is close connected with building flying object, that fly like an insect (entomopter). Present work concerns on concept of aerodynamic model using artificial neural networks. Model is used in simulations of flight of entomopter. Aerodynamic model based on experimental data. Necessary data are taken from experiment performed in water tunnel on entomopter model. For this case dynamic test are required. Measurements are ducted during sinusoidal motion of whole model. Modelled object is dipterous. Each wing can perform various spherical motions (wing is rotated around point). The motion of the wing in this case was two-dimensional; it was rotated around two axis. As a model, specially trained neural network is used. For training are used data from measurement. Presented in this article approach is based on artificial neural networks. In this article, innovative concept of model, describing unsteady aerodynamics of entomopter was proposed. It was shown that it could be easily implemented as mathematical model. Unsteady effects related to many state variables can be easily captured. Model can be easily adopted to predict different states of flight by networks training on appropriate data. Test has to reproduce real conditions as close, as it is possible. In reality, it is challenging to design test that will reproduce similar motion.
EN
The paper presents research concerning the influence of computational domain discretization on the results of CFD analysis. Tetrahedral and polyhedral numerical mesh types are analyzed and the mesh convergence index is calculated. The obtained results are compared to the experimental measurements concerning the estimation of drag coefficient of the vehicle model. The research carried out indicates the great influence of pre-processing on the reliability of the obtained results. Moreover, the advantages of polyhedral mesh over tetrahedral mesh are pointed out in the paper.
EN
This paper presents part of the investigation into aerodynamics of the vertical take-off and landing multirotor. There are described the technology to design a research object and the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) setup to measure airflow around the aircraft. The around-the-aircraft speed distribution was investigated for an angle of attack of 0o and for four different configurations. The results are presented in form of vector velocity field of airflow on the plane of symmetry of the test object. The results enabled the characteristics of speed vs. the distance from the fuselage. It was observed that the push propeller and the main rotor impact the speed field around the fuselage.
PL
Omówiono badania aerodynamiczne statków powietrznych na przykładzie samolotów kategorii Very Light Aeroplanes oraz Very Light Jet. Badania numeryczne wykonano metodą objętości skończonych z wykorzystaniem specjalistycznego oprogramowania. Przedstawiono metodę przygotowania modelu numerycznego samolotu oraz sposób przeprowadzenia analizy aerodynamicznej. Przeanalizowano m.in. wpływ napędu na charakterystyki aerodynamiczne. Wyniki zaprezentowano w postaci wykresów składowych siły i momentu aerodynamicznego w funkcji kąta natarcia.
EN
The problems of an aircraft aerodynamic analysis based on the example of Very Light Aeroplanes and Very Light Jet category airplanes have been presented. A numerical calculations using finite volume method implemented in specialized software were performed. A method of preparing a numerical model of an airplane and the aerodynamic analysis methodology have been presented. An influence of an airplane propulsion on aerodynamic characteristics have been analyzed. A results have been shown in the graphs form of aerodynamic force and moment components as function of angle of attack.
19
Content available Air flow analysis around the autogyro fuselage
EN
The paper presents the results of the simulation of the air flow around the gyroplane without the influence of the rotor and pusher propellers. Three-dimensional calculations were performed using ANSYS Fluent software. Based on the calculations, the values of the drag force and the lift force on each component of the rotorcraft were determined. Based on the results obtained, the effect of angle of attack on the aerodynamic forces was obtained.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono wyniki symulacji opływu modelu wiatrakowca bez wpływu wirnika nośnego oraz śmigła pchającego. Trójwymiarowe obliczenia wykonano za pomocą programu ANSYS Fluent. Na podstawie przeprowadzonych obliczeń wyznaczono wartości siły oporu oraz siły nośnej działające na poszczególne części składowe statku powietrznego. W oparciu o uzyskane wyniki otrzymano wpływ kąta natarcia na siły aerodynamiczne.
EN
Simulations of ice accretion on airfoil in icing conditions were conducted using ice accretion model implemented by authors in ANSYS FLUENT CFD solver. The computational model includes several sub-models intended for simulations of two-phase flow, determination of zones of water droplets impinging on the investigated surface, flow of water in a thin film on airfoil surface and heat balance in air-water-ice contact zone. The method operates in an iterative loop, which enables determination of effects of gradual deformation of aircraft surface on airflow over the surface, which has impact on distribution of collected water, flow of water film over the surface and local freezing rates. The implementation of the method in CFD solver made it necessary to complement the mathematical model of determination of local rates of deformation of aircraft surface with modification of computational mesh around the surface, which must conform, to the deformed surface. Results of simulated ice accretion on NACA 0012 airfoil were compared with results of experiment conducted in icing wind tunnel for a 420 s long process of ice accretion in steady-flow, steady angle-of-attack conditions. Close agreement of values and location of maximum ice thickness obtained in experiment and in the flow, simulations can be observed. For the airfoil deformed with ice, contour determination of its aerodynamic characteristics at several other angles of attack was conducted proving dramatic degradation of its aerodynamic characteristics due to ice deformation.
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