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Content available Somatotypes in sport
The submitted article deals with the evaluation of the somatotype of persons and determination of a suitable somatotype for se-lected sports. In the introduction the method for determining and evaluating a somatotype according to Carter and Heath is characterised. The processes used for calculating the individual components – endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy – are presented as well as a de-scription of these elements. The calculated components are subsequently put into a somatograph. The evaluation of a somatotype is of great benefit and offers a guideline with the selection of sporting activities; it subsequently helps assign athletes into a suitable posi-tion where they will be able to best develop their talents in view of their bodily construction. In this work two types of sports are evaluated – basketball and bodybuilding. With each sport the measurements which give the prerequisites for the given sport are presented. The selec-tion of the presented sports was made with regard to the different requirements and demands in the scope of bodily constitution. The aim of the presented paper is to assess physical parameters of subjects groups in relation to selected sports (basketball and bodybuilding). Based on the body constitution to determine the conditions for developing the physical condition and success in the appointed sports. Another objective is to compare the rating form and equation methods for somatotype determination. The sample consist 32 subjects with age between 22-28 years of both sexes, who are dedicated to basketball, or bodybuilding at amateur level.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between somatotype, muscle torque, maximal power output and height of rise of the body mass centre measured in akimbo counter movement jump (ACMJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), and power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts in female volleyball players. Fourteen players participated in the study. Somatotype was determined using the Heath–Carter method. Maximal muscle torque was measured under static conditions. Power output was measured in 5 maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts, 10 s each, at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0 and 12.5% of body weight (BW). All jump trials (ACMJ, SPJ and CMJ) were performed on a force plate. The mean somatotype of volleyball players was: 4.9-3.5-2.5. The value of the sum of muscle torque of the left upper extremities was significantly correlated only with mesomorphic component. Mesomorphic and ectomorphic components correlated significantly with values of maximal power measured during ACMJ and CMJ. Power output measured in maximal cycle ergometer exercise bouts at increasing external loads equal to 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5% of BW was significantly correlated with endomorphy, mesomorphy and ectomorphy.
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