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EN
The Kalina pond has been well known as a severely degraded area in the Silesia region, Poland. The environmental deterioration results from high contamination of water and bottom sediments with recalcitrant and toxic organic compounds, mainly phenol. The study was aimed at developing a bioremediation-based approach suitable for this type of polluted areas, involving microbiological treatment of water as a key and integral part of other necessary actions: mechanical interventions and the use of physical methods. During the initial biological treatment stage, autochthonous microorganisms were isolated from contaminated samples of water, soil and sediment, then subjected to strong selective pressure by incubation with the pollutants, and finally, cultivated to form a specialised microbial consortium consisting of five extremophilic bacterial strains. Consortium propagation and its biodegradation activity were optimised under variant conditions enabling bacteria to proliferate and to obtain high biomass density at large volumes allowing for the in situ application. After installing aeration systems in the pond, the consortium was surface-sprinkled to launch bioremediation and then both bacterial frequency and the contaminant level was systematically monitored. The complex remediation strategy proved efficient and was implemented on an industrial scale enabling successful remedial of the affected site. Treatment with the specifically targeted and adapted microbial consortium allowed for removal of most organic pollutants within a four-month season of 2022: the chemical oxygen demand (COD) value decreased by 72%, polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) level by 97%, while the content of total phenols and other monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTEX) dropped below the detection thresholds.
EN
This study examines the effectiveness of modified drinking water treatment residue (MDWTR) in removing Microcystis aeruginosa, as well as its collaborative action with poly aluminium chloride (PAC) for effective contaminant removal. In addition, the phosphorus adsorption capacities of MDWTR samples with differing particle sizes are evaluated. The results indicate that MDWTR alone has a positive effect on Microcystis aeruginosa removal, with S-type MDWTR(<90 μm) exhibiting the highest removal efficiency. Moreover, when combined with PAC, MDWTR’s removal efficiency is significantly enhanced, further validating its efficacy. The analysis of isotherms provides strong evidence for the substantial adsorption capacities of MDWTR samples, with various MDWTR types exhibiting distinct affinities. These results demonstrate MDWTR’s potential as adsorbent, Microcystis aeruginosa removing and emphasise its versatility in water treatment applications.
PL
Zanieczyszczenie środowiska wodnego mikroplastikami (MPs) jest obecnie problemem na skalę światową. Aby przeciwdziałać temu zagrożeniu, należy z jednej strony ograniczyć liczbę mikrocząstek tworzyw sztucznych przedostających się do środowiska, z drugiej zaś usunąć cząstki już w nim obecne. Jako jedne z głównych dróg przedostawania się mikroplastików do środowiska wodnego wymienia się oczyszczalnie ścieków. Żadna z obecnie dostępnych technologii oczyszczania ścieków nie jest specjalnie zaprojektowana do usuwania tych zanieczyszczeń, jednakże na tle innych procesów techniki membranowe wykazują w tym zakresie duży potencjał. Ponadto połączenie tych procesów z innymi, jak koagulacja czy procesy biologiczne, pozwala na prawie 100-proc. Usunięcie mikroplastików z matrycy. Najbardziej efektywnym rozwiązaniem w tym zakresie są bioreaktory membranowe (MBR), które łączą proces biologicznego oczyszczania ścieków z separacją membranową, wpisując się jednocześnie w trendy „zielonej chemii”. Niemniej jednak potrzebne są dalsze badania, szczególnie w obszarze zminimalizowania foulingu membran, który stanowi główną wadę w procesach membranowych.
EN
The pollution of the aquatic environment with microplastics (MPs) is currently a global problem. To counteract this threat, it is necessary, on the one hand, to limit the number of plastic microparticles entering the environment and, on the other hand, to remove particles already present in it. Wastewater treatment plants are mentioned as one of the main routes of the passage of microplastics into the aquatic environment. None of the currently available wastewater treatment technologies is specifically designed to remove these contaminants, but membrane techniques have great potential in this field as compared to other processes. Moreover, combining these processes with others, such as coagulation or biological processes, enables almost 100% removal of microplastics from the matrix. The most effective solution in this regard are membrane bioreactors (MBR), which combine the biological wastewater treatment process with membrane separation while being in line with the trends of „green chemistry”. Nevertheless, further research is needed, especially in the area of minimising membrane fouling, which is the main disadvantage in membrane processes.
EN
Nitrate contamination of drinking water is one of Iraq’s environmental problems in some of its most vital lands as a result of sewage sedimentation, agricultural fertilizer waste, and remnants of war. Iraqi egg waste (bio-calcium Iraqi eggshells) was tested to remove nitrates, which is considered one of the best investments to achieve industrial sustainability on the one hand and reduce environmental problems on the other. The optimum conditions for removal were pH = 6, 120 min, 0.5 g Iraqi eggshells, and 150 rpm where 95.73% of nitrates were removed by Iraqi eggshells. The equilibrium data analysis determined that the (Langmuir isotherm) model was the best for describing adsorption, while (pseudo-second-order) adsorption kinetics were significantly appropriate for demonstrating nitrate adsorption kinetics, and a statistical model for nitrate removal percentage was developed.
EN
Microplastic (MP) has been a new emerging contaminant in the municipal water supply. A water treatment process is a key to producing high-quality and safe drinking water. The performance of a conventional drinking water treatment plant (CDWTP) to remove MPs is questionable. This research aimed to investigate the performance of 2 CDWTPs in East Java in removing MPs. Full-stage treatment in two CDWTPs consisted of intake, pre-sedimentation, coagulation-flocculation, sedimentation, sand filter, and disinfection units. Five L water samples were collected with a grab sampling technique in the sampling points of intake and outlet of each water treatment unit. MP abundance and characteristics in each sample were determined using a Sunshine SZM-45T-B1 stereomicroscope and a Nicolet i10 FTIR spectrophotometer. Total MP removal efficiencies in CDWTPs I and II were 66 and 62%, respectively. The coagulation-flocculation unit performed the highest MP removal efficiencies (56%). The MP with 1–350 μm size achieved lower removal efficiencies (33–53%) than that with 351-<5,000 μm size (53–76%). The removal efficiencies of fiber, fragment, and film in the CDWTPs were 61–65%; 86–100%; and 100%, respectively.
EN
Processes of water purification from phosphates using a low-pressure reverse osmosis membrane were studied. It was shown that the concentration of phosphates in the permeate largely depends on their initial concentration in the water and increases along with the degree of permeate selection. It was established that when using the Filmtec TW3–1812–50 membrane for phosphate concentrations up to 20 mg/dm3, their concentration in the permeate does not exceed 2.5 mg/dm3 with a degree of permeate selection up to 90% when cleaning solutions in distilled and artesian water. This value is below the permissible level for drinking water. When the concentration of phosphates increases to 100 and 1000 mg/dm3, their content in the permeate increases sharply to the values significantly higher than the permissible level in both drinking and wastewater. When sodium orthophosphate was added to artesian water, the effectiveness of its purification on this membrane with respect to chlorides, sulfates, hardness ions, and hydrocarbons was high. This indicates that the cartridges with these membranes can be used both in industrial installations and in households for further purification of artesian and tap water to drinking water quality.
8
Content available remote Usuwanie mikroplastików z wód i ścieków
PL
W artykule opisano charakterystykę procesów oczyszczania wód i ścieków w zakresie usuwania mikroplastików (MPs). Pośród fizycznych metod oczyszczania za najbardziej efektywne w usuwaniu MPs uznaje się procesy membranowe oraz filtrację pospieszną. Metody chemiczne, takie jak: koagulacja, elektrokoagulacja czy zaawansowane utlenianie cechuje zróżnicowana efektywność, jednak są udoskonalane w kierunku poprawy wydajności usuwania MPs. W grupie metod biologicznych najbardziej efektywne są bioreaktory membranowe. Zastosowanie zróżnicowanych i wielostopniowych technologii oczyszczania wód i ścieków daje możliwość eliminacji MPs nawet w zakresie 98-100%. Ograniczeniem zastosowania efektywnej technologii są koszty eksploatacyjne, utylizacja odpadów oraz zapewnienie ograniczenia ponownej migracji MPs do środowiska.
EN
The article presents characteristics of the processes of water and wastewater treatment in the field of microplastics (MPs) removing. Among the physical methods of treatment membrane techniques and rapid filtration are the most effective in MPs eliminating. Chemical methods such as coagulation, electrocoagulation and advanced oxidation are moderately effective, but they are being improved to higher efficiency of MPs removal. In the group of biological methods, membrane bioreactors are the most effective. The use of diversified and multi-stage water and wastewater treatment technologies makes it possible to MPs eliminate even in the range of 98-100%. The application of effective technology is limited by operating costs and the problem of waste disposal, so that the removed MPs are not returned to the environment.
EN
The paper presents the characteristics of water production at a water treatment plant supplying rural areas. The main focus of the study was to determine the coefficients of daily (ND) and hourly (Nh) irregularities in water production that occur in rural areas and to analyse the impact of the use of storage tanks in the process line of the water treatment station on the values of hourly irregularity coefficients. In order to achieve the objectives of the study, the readings of the values of water produced at the station were used and compared with the amount of treated water entering the water supply system from the SCADA system from the water meter installed at the raw water inflow to the water treatment station and at the outflow from the retention tanks. Water outflows were considered over the year 2021. A technological start-up of the water treatment plant took place during the study period, but this did not significantly affect the increase in water outflows on an annual basis. The coefficient of daily unevenness calculated for the study period was 1.50, while the coefficient of hourly unevenness assumed the value of 1.84.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono charakterystykę produkcji wody w stacji uzdatniania wody obsługującej obszary wiejskie. Główną problematyką poruszaną w pracy było określenie współczynników nierównomierności dobowej (ND) i (Nh) godzinowej produkcji wody, które występują na obszarach wiejskich oraz analiza wpływu zastosowania zbiorników retencyjnych w ciągu technologicznym stacji uzdatniania wody na wartości współczynników nierównomierności godzinowej. Do osiągnięcia założonych celów pracy, wykorzystano odczyty wartości wody produkowanej w stacji i porównano je z ilością wody uzdatnionej trafiającej do wodociągu z systemu SCADA z wodomierza zainstalowanego na dopływie wody surowej do stacji uzdatniania wody i na odpływie ze zbiorników retencyjnych. Rozbiory wody rozpatrywano na przestrzeni roku 2021. W trakcie okresu objętego analizą miał miejsce rozruch technologiczny stacji uzdatniania wody, jednakże nie wpłynął on znacząco na wzrost rozbiorów wody w ujęciu rocznym. Obliczony dla okresu badawczego współczynnik nierównomierności dobowej wynosił 1,50, natomiast współczynnik nierównomierności godzinowej przyjmował wartość równą 1,84.
EN
In response to the trend toward sustainable management of by-products from the pulp and paper industry as well as plant waste, practical and economical methods are being developed to use them in a way that does not pose a threat to the environment. The main aim of the research was to study the possibility of using lignin and plant biomass as biosorbents for the removal of zinc ions from aqueous solutions. The secondary aim was to build an optimal multilayer system made of biosorbents selected during the research in order to obtain the highest sorption efficiency and to determine the best conditions of the sorption process. The effectiveness of zinc ion sorption was assessed using an appropriate combination of sorbents such as lignin, oat bran, rice husk, chitosan, pectin, sodium alginate, pine bark, coconut fiber and activated carbon, selected on the basis of literature data and the preliminary results of tests carried out using FTIR and AAS. The main component of the sorption system was lignin separated from black liquor. Results indicate that the best Zn sorption system was based on coconut fiber, lignin, and pine bark, for which the maximum sorption efficiency was 95%. The research also showed that the increase in the process temperature, the mass of biosorbents used and the alkaline pH are the factors that increase the efficiency of the sorption. It can be concluded that lignin and plant biomass can be used as ecological sorbents of zinc ions from water solutions. They are safe for the environment, produced from renewable sources, and are by-products or waste materials, which is part of the sustainable development and circular economy currently promoted in the EU.
EN
Environmental concern implies a degree of basic dynamism aimed at safeguarding ecosystems against any type of pollution and better management of the environment. Wastewater is mainly composed of water and other materials that represent only a small part of wastewater, but can be present in sufficient quantities to endanger public health and the environment, so before discharging wastewater into the natural environment, it is necessary to define its parameters to have information on the composition and qualitative and quantitative characteristics of wastewater and their impacts on the receiving environment. The goal of the conducted work was to determine the degree of wastewater pollution in Fez based on the results of physicochemical analysis of samples collected from various stations in 2021. The temperature varies between 24.6°C and 29.9°C in wet periods and between 26.5°C and 38.3°C in dry periods, the pH is alkaline to neutral with high turbidity levels, especially in wet periods, for dissolved oxygen, the wastewater of the city of Fez is under saturated in oxygen, which accentuates anaerobic fermentation and the release of bad odors, and the average values of the BOD5 are higher than 100 mg O2/l considered. These wastewaters are rated as being of very poor quality. COD values are greater than 500 mg of O2/l, which is considered the limit value for direct rejections. Nitrate concentrations are highest in S1, with a value of 12.83 mg/l in the dry period. The recorded contents of orthophosphates and total phosphorus do not vary significantly. The obtained values are higher than the WHO recommended wastewater discharge standards. At the conclusion of this research, it was discovered that the wastewater in the city of Fez is of poor to very poor quality.
EN
In this work, hydrochar using to modified nickel aluminum layered double hydroxide (hydrochar@NiAl LDH). The collected data by XRD indicate that 2θ of material at 11.38°, 22.90°, 35.20°, and 61.60°. The FTIR spectrum of hydrochar@NiAl LDH at wavenumber 3448, 1650, 1500–1600, 1348, 1056, and 500–800 cm-1. NiAl LDH and hydrochar have surface areas of 3.288 m2/g and 7.366 m2/g, respectively. The precursors enhance the composite’s surface area by 11.879 m2/g. NiAl LDH, hydrochar, and hydrochar@NiAl LDH have optimal pH values of 3, 6, and 6 respectively. The adsorption process is determined by the kinetic model of pseudo-second order and the model of Freundlich isotherm. NiAl LDH, hydrochar, and hydrochar@NiAl LDH had respective maximum adsorption capacities of 25.445, 21.008, and 25.773 mg/g. The increase in regeneration cycles decreases the percentage of adsorbed.
EN
Certain contaminants are termed as emerging (Contaminants of Emerging Concern, CEC) since all aspects of these pollutants are not known and their regulation is not ununiform across the nations. The CECs include many classes of compounds that are used in various industries, plant protection chemicals, personal care products and medicines. They accumulate in waterbodies, soils, organisms including humans. They cause deleterious effects on plant animal and human health. Therefore, alternative greener synthesis of these chemicals, sustainable economic methods of waste disposal, scaling up and circular methods using sludge for removing the contaminants are innovative methods that are pursued. There are several improvements in chemical waste treatments using electro-oxidation coupled with solar energy, high performing recycled granular activated charcoal derived from biomass are few advances in the field. Similarly, use of enzymes from microbes for waste removals is a widely used technique for bioremediation. The organisms are genetically engineered to remove hazardous chemicals, dyes, and metals. Novel technologies for mining economically the precious and rare earth elements from e-waste can improve circular economy. However, there is additional need for participation of various nations in working towards greener Earth. There should be pollution awareness in local communities that can work along with Government legislations.
EN
The paper presents the influence of the quality of water subjected to treatment on the filtration process, using self-cleaning DynaSand filters with contact coagulation. Technological factors directly influencing the filtration process and filtrate quality were identified, e.g. variable flows, retention time on filter bed and filtration speed. In addition, the purification process of rinse water in the Lamella separator and its impact on the filtration process were investigated. The Lamella separator combined with the flocculation tank, in which the coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation processes are carried out, is an excellent solution to the problem involving the formation of large amounts of rinse water after washing the sand bed of DynaSand filters. The rinse water of fast filters is cleaned on the Lamella separator and returned to the beginning of the filtration system, before DynaSand filters. This solution allows to minimize water losses in the discussed WTP.
EN
Functional polymers are increasingly being used as materials with a range of unique properties. Due to their structure and relatively high flexibility in a synthetic context, they are becoming highly relevant in a variety of applications. One of the numerous examples of the use of functional polymers is water treatment. Using the adsorption phenomenon, it is possible to remove or reduce the amount of harmful organic compounds and heavy metal ions in the water. This review provides information on both the synthesis methods and characterization of functional polymers in terms of their adsorption properties. Among others, this paper presents the results of research on functional polymers carried out by Professor Schroeder's research group. The research was mainly focused on the selective adsorption of dyes and heavy metal ions, which are significant water pollutants. The overall results show that the adsorption of the synthesized polymer materials is high influenced by parameters such as pH, temperature, contact time of the adsorbent with the adsorbate and the initial adsorbate concentration. In the case of the adsorption phenomenon, the Langmuir or Freundlich isotherm turned out to be the most appropriate model for the tested materials, while in the case of kinetic models, the highest R2 coefficient was usually obtained using the pseudo-second-order equation.
PL
W ciągu ostatnich lat światowa produkcja tworzyw sztucznych szybko się rozwinęła, a powstające z tych tworzyw śmieci stały się jednocześnie jednym z najszybciej rosnących strumieni odpadów komunalnych na świecie. Rozkład tworzyw sztucznych do mikro- i nanodrobin pogłębia dodatkowo problem zanieczyszczenia środowiska tymi materiałami. Ze względu na małą gęstość i mały rozmiar tych cząstek są one łatwo odprowadzane do kanalizacji ściekowej, a następnie do oczyszczalni ścieków, które są ich głównymi odbiorcami przed zrzutem do zbiorników wodnych. Żadna ze stosowanych obecnie technologii oczyszczania ścieków czy uzdatniania wody nie jest przeznaczona do usuwania cząstek tworzyw sztucznych. Efektywność usunięcia mikroplastików z zastosowaniem różnych metod, w tym fizycznych, chemicznych czy biologicznych, daje zróżnicowane wyniki. Najlepsze efekty w zakresie usunięcia mikroplastiku z wody i ścieków uzyskuje się, stosując technologie hybrydowe czy zaawansowane procesy oczyszczania trzeciego stopnia w technologii oczyszczania ścieków.
EN
In recent years, the global production of plastics has developed rapidly, and the waste generated from them has also become one of the fastest growing municipal waste streams in the world. The decomposition of plastics into micro- and nanoparticles additionally aggravates the problem of environmental pollution with these materials. Due to the low density and small size of these particles, they are easily discharged into the sewage system, and then to the wastewater treatment plants, which are their main recipients before discharging them into water reservoirs. Among various wastewater and water treatment technologies that are in use today, none is designed to remove plastic particles. The effectiveness of microplastics removal using a variety of methods, including physical, chemical and biological ones, produces varying results. The best effects in terms of removing microplastics from water and wastewater are achieved by using hybrid technologies or advanced tertiary treatment processes in wastewater treatment technology.
EN
At the current stage of discharge and treatment of municipal sewage and other types of wastewater in the territory of Ukraine, traditional technologies of biological treatment in aero-tanks by the process of aerobic oxidation involving active silt characterized by low efficiency are largely used. It was established that biological treatment and additional treatment of sewage involving hydrophytes are efficient. The research on wastewater quality and the efficiency of sewage treatment was conducted in three phases: Phase 1 – “the quality before treatment”, Phase 2 – “the quality after mechanical-biological treatment” at the existing municipal treatment plants, Phase 3 – “the quality after additional treatment by hydrophytes”. In order to determine the efficiency of using hydrophytes additional treatment, Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) and the perennial aquatic plant Lemna minor were planted in one treatment pond. The results of the experiment made it possible to determine high efficiency of using hydrophytes for additional sewage treatment. In particular, the efficiency of additional treatment in the treatment ponds removing the residue of suspended pollutants for 40 days was 32%, toxic salts – 13.0–23.0%, oil products – 30.0%, biogenic substances – 68.5–83.3%. It caused a drop in the values of chemical and biological oxygen demand for 5 days by 89.6% and 61.2%, respectively. The efficiency of sewage treatment removing toxic salts and oil products reached 97.7%, whereas in the case of mineral and organic pollutants – up to 99%. That contributed to a considerable increase in the wastewater quality by the criteria for fisheries. In particular, high nutritional value of Eichhornia crassipes and Lemna minor allowed obtaining 12.5 tons of hydrophyte wet mass that can be used as green manure, feeds for farm animals, poultry and fish.
EN
The work concerns the effects of the treatment of groundwater contaminated with iron and manganese compounds taken from quaternary deposits. In the treatment process, a simple reagent-free technology based on aeration and rapid filtration processes was used. The article presents an analysis of the results of the quality of treated and abstracted water in the years 2008–2020. The period analyzed covers the modernization of the WTP, which was carried out in 2012. The purpose of modernization was to increase the efficiency of the WTP. After the modernization of the station, the efficiency of iron and manganese removal was found to be very high (99%), and the sequence of technological processes used was correct. The devices operated in the WTP work effectively by treating the water directed to the distribution system, which meets the Polish and EU quality requirements for water intended for human consumption.
EN
Human and which serves to preserve the resource at the science forefront. Water of electromagnetic is old but addressed to popular the quantity of contaminants in a new way. The current study presents results related to the influence of an electromagnetic field (EMF) on synthetic water with Al2 Si2 O5 (OH) 4 (represented by Turbidity). The impact of an EMF as the only factor or as an intensifying element in stainless steel packing systems that limits pollutant concentrations in the treated water was analyses. The system that combined simultaneously stainless steel filling was most efficient. The electromagnetic treatment unit was designed and constructed for testing the treatment of syntheses water having turbidity. The influence of two variables on the efficiency of contaminant elimination during the function of the electromagnetic treating unit was checked. A significant dependence between the kind of system used reactor diameter and number of electrical coil windings were observed. The results showed that the PH values remain constant with EMF. The performance of the unit is determined by turbidity, the result shows greatest efficiency removal with 99.99% at the minimum diameter (2.54 cm), 99.99% in three reactors with three different numbers of coil turns.
EN
Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple and low-cost method of increasing water quality. However, it takes about 6 hours of exposure to solar radiation. The elimination of harmful pathogenic germs from drinking water can be accelerated using a combination of sun disinfection and nanotechnology. In this study, a hybrid water purification technique using solar water disinfection, Titanium Oxide (TiO2), and natural mineral clays was investigated. TiO2, natural kaolin clay nanoparticles, and a mixture of TiO2 and natural clay were added to contaminated wastewater containers at different concentrations. After that, the containers were exposed to sun light for different time intervals. Samples were then collected from all tests to measure the total counts of Total Coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) using the IDEXX system. The results showed that the addition of TiO2 and natural kaolin clay to wastewater with solar water disinfection reduced the total count of the pathogenic microorganisms and decreased the time needed time for the disinfection process compared to using solar energy alone. The results also showed that the optimum concentration of the TiO2, which yielded the shortest purification time and lowest levels of pathogenic microorganisms, was 0.006 g/ml. In co ntrast, the most effective concentratio n of natural clay was 0.0015 g/ml. Moreover, the results showed that the optimum concentration of the mixture of TiO2 and natural clay, which speeds up the purification time an d lowest the level of pathogen ic microorganisms was 0.006 g/ml for TiO2 and 1.2 g/ml for the natural clay.
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