Free vibrations of slender systems are the subject of many scientific and research works. In this work, the boundary problem of free vibrations of a compressed column, which is additionally heat loaded, is considered. The issue of heat flow in the column is solved using the Finite Element Method. Averaged distribution of material properties is obtained in individual segments of the column in subsequent heating times. The mathematical model of free vibrations takes into account the thermal expansion of the material and the effect of changing the Young's modulus resulting from the effect of heat load. The boundary problem of the free vibrations of the considered system is limited to the linear range (the linear component of natural frequency is considered). The influence of the heat source exposure time on the course of characteristic curves (on the plane: load – natural frequency) is determined. The results are presented for various column diameters.