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EN
Purpose: The aim of the article is to analyze and assess the role of logistics in the process of enterprise management during the COVID-19 pandemic on the example of selected manufacturing, trade and service enterprises. Design/methodology/approach: The article is based on the study of literature and own empirical research. The results of own empirical research presented in the study constitute the effects of more extensive research on an in-depth analysis of the logistics process management in Polish manufacturing, trade and service enterprises in 2019-2021 in the context of shaping enterprise results. The research was conducted in 2022 among 335 randomly selected small, medium and large Polish manufacturing, trade and service enterprises. Findings: The results of the research show that the strategic and operational management of logistics processes within the enterprise and between entities which are the links in the supply chain increasingly determined the economic and market results of the best surveyed enterprises and the supply chains they created during the COVID-19 pandemic. Thanks to adequately applied logistics to the occurred conditions, the best surveyed enterprises responded quickly and appropriately to the effects of the pandemic and created and maintained the competitive advantage. The analyzed enterprises did not use the full potential of logistics processes to reduce the negative influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on their results. The research confirmed that logistics played an extremely important role in the process of enterprise management during the COVID-19 pandemic. Research limitations/implications: The article presents only selected aspects of logistics in the process of enterprise management of the surveyed enterprises during the COVID-19 pandemic. Practical implications: The article offers logistics managers practical suggestions on how to use logistics to achieve above-average economic and market results in conditions of a pandemic. Originality/value: The article fills the cognitive and empirical gap regarding logistics in the process of enterprise management during the COVID-19 pandemic.
PL
Artykuł stanowi pierwszą część opracowania, którego celem jest przedstawienie wpływu pandemii COVID-19 na logistykę na przykładzie wybranych polskich przedsiębiorstw produkcyjnych, handlowych i usługowych. Artykuł powstał na podstawie studiów literatury oraz własnych badań empirycznych. Badania przeprowadzono w 2022 r. wśród 335 losowo wybranych małych, średnich i dużych polskich przedsiębiorstw produkcyjnych, handlowych i usługowych. W wyniku badań stwierdzono, że pandemia COVID-19 miała ogromny wpływ na logistykę we wszystkich badanych przedsiębiorstwach w latach 2020–2021. Zmiany uwarunkowań logistyki spowodowane pandemią nałożyły się na determinanty logistyki współczesnych przedsiębiorstw przed pandemią. Strategiczne i operacyjne zarządzanie procesami logistycznymi coraz bardziej determinowało wyniki ekonomiczne i rynkowe najlepszych badanych przedsiębiorstw w czasie pandemii COVID-19. Przedsiębiorstwa osiągające najlepsze wyniki w czasie pandemii realizowały strategię zarządzania łańcuchem dostaw, będącą w ciągłym stadium tworzenia, kształtowania się, charakteryzującą się błyskawiczną reakcją na zmieniające się wymagania klientów, warunki otoczenia oraz działania konkurentów, przy respektowaniu zasad zrównoważonego rozwoju. Najbardziej skuteczni menedżerowie logistyki w czasie pandemii podejmowali szybkie działania umożliwiające ograniczenie prawdopodobieństwa zakłócenia, zmniejszenie dotkliwości skutków zaistniałych zdarzeń oraz kreowanie i utrzymanie przewag konkurencyjnych przedsiębiorstw.
EN
The article constitutes the first part of the study, the aim of which is to present the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on logistics on the example of selected Polish manufacturing, trade and service enterprises. The article is based on the study of literature and own empirical research. The research was conducted in 2022 among 335 randomly selected small, medium and large Polish manufacturing, trade and service enterprises. As a result of the research, it was found that the COVID-19 pandemic had a huge influence on logistics in all surveyed enterprises in 2020–2021. Changes in logistics conditions caused by the pandemic overlapped with the logistics determinants of contemporary enterprises before the pandemic. Strategic and operational management of logistics processes increasingly determined the economic and market results of the best surveyed enterprises during the COVID-19 pandemic. Enterprises achieving the best results during the pandemic implemented the supply chain management strategy that was in a constant state of creation and development, characterized by an immediate response to changing customer requirements, environmental conditions and competitors' activities, respecting, at the same time, the principles of sustainable development. During the pandemic, the most effective logistics managers took quick actions so as to reduce the likelihood of disruption, decrease the severity of the effects of events, and create and maintain competitive advantages of their enterprises.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the article is to present the development perspective of the e-commerce market area and courier services, taking into account the time of uncertainty (the prospect of a pandemic), based on selected data from the Pointpack company and secondary data. Design/methodology/approach: The topic includes an analysis (case study) based on the example of Pointpack and data that has been examined by experts, as well as secondary data, a report on the state of the e-commerce market in Poland. Findings: The analysis showed a significant development of the e-commerce market and consumer activity despite the times of uncertainty (pandemic, war). Research limitations/implications: The research has been limited to data obtained from a single source and limited resources (a selected segment of the market and consumers), hence future research can be extended to different levels and theoretical areas. It is important to conduct further research in this area to increase their universality. An interesting comparative study would be an analysis of consumer behavior in the perspective of sending and receiving parcels in selected regions of the country. Practical implications: The described data and case study analyzes may indicate to organizations that the introduction of courier services to points of sale (or service) is today a necessity and a future in acquiring new customers. Social implications: The development of the e-commerce market associated with sending and collecting parcels in stores contributes to the development of CSR attitudes of the organization by reducing carbon dioxide to the environment and building responsible customer attitudes.
EN
Purpose: The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the capabilities of SAP ERP software in managing an organization's logistics subsystem, identify the main strengths and weaknesses of SAP ERP software in an organization, and identify the information requirements associated with identifying logistics activities. Design/methodology/approach: In preparing the article, the author used both theoretical and empirical research methods, particularly analysis, synthesis, deduction, induction, comparison, generalization, as well as scientific observation with casual observation technique. The qualitative methods mentioned above were used to analyze the literature on the subject. Analysis was used to deepen knowledge in the area of the issues under study, as well as to identify their interrelationships and the relationships that exist between them. Deduction, for the process of inferring the particular from the general. Induction was used during observation. Comparison was mainly used to identify similarities and differences in the use of SAP ERP software in the various logistics subsystems. Inference was used to develop conclusions, included at the end of this article. Using the aforementioned methods, it was possible to evaluate the functionality of SAP ERP software in the management of the enterprise's logistics subsystems, to identify the main advantages and disadvantages of SAP ERP software in the enterprise, and to identify the information needs related to logistics activities in the enterprise. Findings: Modern enterprises operate in a highly competitive environment, so they need to quickly adapt to changes occurring in their environment: near and far. This is possible thanks to the implementation of modern tools, methods or techniques that enable continuous management of all departments of the enterprise, including logistics system. Originality/value: This article is addressed to theoreticians and practitioners of business management. Theoreticians reading this article will find a sentiment of current data on SAP ERP software and the scale of possibilities for its use. Practitioners, in turn, will find useful tips on where SAP ERP software can be implemented or how to improve the form of its use in an enterprise.
EN
Purpose: This article presents the limitations and opportunities for implementing Industry 4.0 solutions in cluster enterprises in the context of the results of studies of their digital maturity. Design/Methodology/Approach: The article uses the following research methods: the analysis of domestic and foreign literature on the subject, the analysis of secondary sources (the results of research by other authors, the results of a study of digital maturity of enterprises belonging to several clusters in Poland and enterprises outside the clusters, the data of the Digital Economy and Society Index 2022 report), induction and deductive reasoning. Findings: Compared to EU countries, companies in Poland (especially SMEs) show a low level of digital maturity necessary to implement Industry 4.0 solutions (including big data technologies, cloud solutions, and artificial intelligence). In fact, this is a solid barrier to improving and maintaining the competitiveness of companies in the conditions of the fourth industrial revolution. Moreover, it stems from certain exo- and endogenous barriers. The research on behalf of the Future Industry Platform among companies participating in clusters revealed that their members show a higher degree of digital maturity than those outside such forms of network cooperation. It indicates more significant opportunities for cluster companies to implement Industry 4.0 solutions. Membership in a cluster represents an opportunity for them to reduce barriers to digitisation. The research results confirm that companies that are members of clusters are more innovative and competitive entities that can function more effectively and efficiently in the digital economy. Practical implications: The article discusses a unique methodology for measuring the digital maturity of enterprises from several clusters in Poland, which business entities can use and apply for self-assessment. The presented research results and information on the barriers and limitations of digitisation will allow government representatives and other institutions to choose appropriate tools to support enterprises in Poland (especially in the SME sector), facilitating the implementation of Industry 4.0 solutions. Originality/value: The study presents research results on cluster enterprises’ digital maturity using an innovative method. It discusses them in the context of existing limitations in implementing Industry 4.0 solutions in Poland. It highlights the importance of clusters for improving the ability of enterprises to effectively use digital technologies for the success of the enterprise in the conditions of the fourth industrial revolution.
EN
Purpose: The objective of the paper is to assess the degree of influence of determinants from the environment and the internal environment of SMEs on the growth of their innovation potential (IP) and to verify the moderating effect of the cooperation with external actors and financial condition on the relationship between the influence of external and internal determinants on the innovation potential of the investigated enterprises during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design/methodology/approach: To achieve the paper’s objective regression analysis has been applied. Findings: The paper presents the results of empirical research conducted among Polish SMEs during the pandemic period in 2021. The results reveal that financial condition constitutes a significant moderator of the relationship between determinants coming from the company's environment and their level of SME innovation potential. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that cooperation with entities responsible for helping to implement innovation significantly moderates the relationship between the influence of determinants coming from the internal environment of SMEs and their innovation potential. It has been also found, on the basis of a multivariate regression model, that among external determinants the strongest predictors of IP growth were socio-cultural and demographic factors, and among internal determinants: the quality management sphere and the financial sphere of the surveyed SMEs. Research limitations/implications: The main limitation of the conducted research is the impact of the pandemic conditions and also the location of the investigated SMEs in the region of the Lower Silesian Voivodship. Practical implications: The paper provides practical knowledge regarding the determinants of acting in the conditions related to a pandemic crisis. Originality/value: The paper provides new knowledge, analyses the external conditions and the internal environment of SMEs during the COVID-19 pandemic in the region, which is known as one of the most innovative in Poland. The research is addressed to research scholars, business pretensioners and policy makers of innovative policy.
7
Content available remote Trudno osiągnąć porozumienie
PL
Przedsiębiorcy muszą prowadzić działalność w taki sposób, by w jak najmniejszym stopniu oddziaływała na środowisko. Czasy, kiedy można było jedynie deklarować swoje działania na rzecz zrównoważonego rozwoju, powoli dobiegają końca. Coraz szybciej nadchodzi wymóg obowiązkowego raportowania i… ponoszenia kosztów z tym związanych.
EN
The development of industrial Internet technology enterprises plays an important supporting role in green water and green mountains, as a forestry industry with both economic value and ecological value. at present, it is facing a good opportunity for development. However, industrial Internet technology enterprises are faced with many risks, such as long investment cycle, low comparative income, and their ecological value is easy to be ignored. Based on FCFF model and LINEST function, this paper studies the enterprise value evaluation and ecological development. The main conclusions are as follows: (1) the economic value of industrial Internet technology enterprises is greatly affected by non-financial factors; (2) the excess income of industrial Internet technology enterprises is affected by ecological improvement. (3) under the background of green finance, the comprehensive operation ability of enterprises can be effectively improved through internal control of enterprises, formulation of government laws and supervision of social enterprises. This study has important theoretical and practical significance for China to scientifically and reasonably evaluate the value of industrial Internet technology enterprises.
11
Content available remote Research on the influence of external search strategy on enterprise innovation
EN
Based on the matching perspective, an analytical framework including external search strategy, organisational improvisation and structural flexibility is established. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of external search strategy on firm innovation. The results show that, first, market information search has a positive impact on innovation quality and innovation speed. Secondly, the influence of technical knowledge search on innovation quality is moderated by organisational improvisation and structural flexibility. Thirdly, technical knowledge search has a positive impact on the innovation quality of enterprises. Fourthly, technical knowledge search has a positive impact on the innovation speed of enterprises.
EN
Purpose: The paper aims to identify major components of the competitive potential of enterprises operating at the initial stage of the economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The research hypothesis H1 is advanced: the scope of business objects affects the selection of enterprise competitive potential components. The concept and nature of competitiveness are discussed and the subject matter of enterprise competitive potential is detailed. Design/methodology/approach: The theoretical section follows a thorough review of leading specialist literature. The empirical part, on the other hand, uses the exploratory factor analysis, which detects an optimum group of main factors and explains correlations among observable variables, serves to verify the hypothesis. The number of factors is determined by means of the Cattell scree and Kaiser criteria. Findings: The paper contains the results of research into 253 large enterprises in the Polish economy. Exploratory factor analysis is employed to define the statistically significant components of competitive potential of enterprises active in the initial phase of the economic crisis and the effect of business objectives is explored on the selection of the components of enterprise competitive potential. It is shown that, regardless of business objects, three factors, namely, innovative machinery and equipment, the financial condition of an enterprise, and human capital, are the key components of enterprise competitive potential. Practical implications: The results can be utilised by entrepreneurs as a guide to the selection of the components of enterprise competitive potential at the times of crises. Originality/value: The paper presents the results of original research into a representative group of large enterprises which can be generalised to the entire population assuming a confidence level of α = 95% and maximum error of β = 6%.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the article is to learn about the attitudes of innovative enterprises representatives towards the strength and importance of relations in regard to business environment institutions (BEI). Design/methodology/approach: The presented analyzes constitute a part of a broader study on the determinants of the quality of relations between enterprises in the quadruple helix. The article focuses on the enterprise – BEI. The research was carried out with the use of CATI method on a sample of 200 innovative enterprises Findings: The results show that in the case of the relationships strength and importance, communication is an important construct in relation to BEI. The significance of trust, commitment and satisfaction with regard to the strength and importance of the relationship between an innovative enterprise and BEI was not indicated. Moreover a high positive correlation was indicated between the individual relationship quality constructs. Research limitations/implications: The research sample is a limitation. The research was conducted on a sample of 200 innovative enterprises, but only 33% declared maintaining relations with BEI. Practical implications: The article indicates which quality constructs should be paid attention to by BEI in managing relations with enterprises. Originality/value: The article indicates that in some aspects of relationship management, communication is more important component than trust, commitment and satisfaction.
EN
Purpose: The aim of the article is to learn about the attitudes of innovative enterprises representatives towards the strength and importance of relations in regard to scientific/research and development institutions. Design/methodology/approach: The presented analyzes constitute a part of a broader study on the determinants of the quality of relations between enterprises in the quadruple helix. The article focuses on the enterprise - scientific institutions plane. The research was carried out with the use of CATI method on a sample of 200 innovative enterprises Findings: The results show that in the case of the relationships strength, communication is an important construct in relation to scientific and R&D institutions, while in the case of the relationships importance it is commitment. The significance of trust and satisfaction with regard to the strength and importance of the relationship between an innovative enterprise and scientific and research and development institutions was not indicated. Moreover a high positive correlation was indicated between the individual relationship quality constructs. Research limitations/implications: The research sample is a limitation. The research was conducted on a sample of 200 innovative enterprises, but only 22.5% declared maintaining relations with scientific and research and development institutions. Practical implications: The article indicates which quality constructs should be paid attention to by representatives of scientific and research institutions in managing relations with enterprises. Originality/value: The article indicates that in some aspects of relationship management, commitment and communication are more important components than trust and satisfaction.
EN
Aim: Running a business is correlated with incurring costs. These are related to the management of resources in enterprises, which is why they must be constantly analysed and controlled. Based on cost information, certain management decisions are made. The aim of the article is to present basic issues concerning the functioning of distribution costs in an enterprise. Design/methodology/approach: An analysis of a company's activities in terms of distribution costs was conducted. In addition, the article defines the logistical indicators and measures of an enterprise and presents expenses incurred for training in specific years. Determinations: The article presents the allocation of primary distribution costs, which are divided into storage costs, transport costs, inventory maintenance costs, and administrative costs through conducting an interview in the enterprise. Originality/Value: The results of the study can be used in the company's strategic distribution decisions.
EN
This article analyzes the expectations of the management board and managerial staff as opposed to the expectations and concerns of regular employees of the company. Communication between the decision-making and executive groups is presented as one of the key elements determining the proper operation of the quality management system in the enterprise. In the practical part, the results of the research covering the management and regular employees were presented and compared. The research is aimed at diagnosing the quality of information flow in the enterprise based on the quality management system in the assessment of both surveyed groups, determining the perception of the importance and scale of participation in the proposed corrective actions among the surveyed groups of respondents, and diagnosing the level of informing rank-and-file employees about the goals and importance of conducting internal and external audits. The research also covered the role of lower-level employees in the effective functioning of the company’s quality management system. An attempt was made to analyze the degree of participation of regular employees in the functioning of the quality management system in the enterprise. The article ends with the conclusions and proposals for future research.
EN
Research priorities in the field of occupational health and safety in the European Union include research on shaping an organization culture of prevention by introducing OSH management, strengthening the role of corporate social responsibility, disseminating science discoveries and examples of good practice. Ensuring an appropriate level of occupational health and safety not only affects the company's performance, but is also a legal and social obligation. Compliance with health and safety rules prevents work-related injuries and occupational diseases and is an element contributing to the company's success. Paper presents research findings in the area of problems concerning occupational health and safety management in SME sector in Poland in the context of its challenges that face different conditions.
EN
Introduction/background: Currently in Poland, it is becoming increasingly popular to implement activities related to social responsibility in organizations. Companies have begun to pay more and more attention to such issues as building relationships with the environment, as well as widely understood social interest or environmental protection has become important. Aim of the paper: The purpose of the article is to indicate the role of social responsibility and its relationship to the development of the organization using a selected example. Materials and methods: The study used the case-study method using a survey questionnaire tool. Results and conclusions: Based on the survey, it can be concluded that the employees of the surveyed enterprise have a positive view of social responsibility activities. The organization should focus on a strategy based on investing in solutions to improve the quality of life of employees, the local community, and strive to offset the negative impact on the environment.
EN
Nowadays innovations became the most important element of the country’s economic development, since they provide a qualitative increase in the efficiency of processes or end production demanded by the market. In this article, the innovation of processes, viz. the processes of logistic management of the production-economic organization is proposed. Innovations in logistics management, as a direction of logistics activity improvement provide the development of new tools (methods, criteria, indices) in methodological logistics’ groundwork, as well as improving the mechanism for the formation and functioning of micro- and macro-logistic systems. The aim of the research is to develop scientific and methodological recommendations for the application of logistics management innovations that involve designing the logistics system through the improvement of the enterprise’s organizational structure as an element of the economic macro environment. Logistic system designing approach is suggested, that anticipates an enterprise’s organizational structure formation under the process-matrix principle (unification of functional and process management approaches) and the establishment of the effective enterprise’s logistic service that plays the role of coordinator and integrator of its business-processes. Efficient organization structure formation, that provides logistics approach implementation in practical enterprises’ activity is grounded by authors. The result of the innovations in logistics management appliance is effective logistic system’s design, in which the coordinated material, informational and financial flows motion is carried out. In the result, it ensures efficient enterprise’s business-processes functioning and organic improvement of its organizational structure.
PL
Artykuł stanowi drugą część opracowania, którego celem jest prezentacja zmian w zarządzaniu łańcuchami dostaw przed pandemią COVID-19 i w pierwszych miesiącach pandemii oraz ocena wpływu tych zmian na budowanie przewagi konkurencyjnej na przykładzie wybranych polskich przedsiębiorstw produkcyjnych, handlowych i usługowych. Podjęto w nim próbę pogłębionej analizy najważniejszych, w przekonaniu autorki, aspektów zmian w zarządzaniu łańcuchami dostaw wybranych polskich przedsiębiorstw produkcyjnych, handlowych i usługowych w latach 2018–2020 oraz oceny wpływu tych zmian na proces budowania przewagi konkurencyjnej badanych firm.
EN
The article constitutes the second part of the study which aim is to present changes in supply chain management before the COVID-19 pandemic and in the first months of this pandemic as well as to assess the influence of these changes on building a competitive advantage on the example of the selected Polish production, trade and service enterprises. It attempts to carry out an in-depth analysis of the most important, in the opinion of the author, aspects of changes in supply chain management of the selected Polish production, trade and service enterprises in 2018–2020 and to assess the influence of these changes on the process of building a competitive advantage of the surveyed companies.
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