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EN
Aim: To conduct a study on the effect of random setup errors inpatient for dose delivery in Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy plans using Octavius 4D phantom. Materials and methods: 11 patients with cancer of H&N were selected for this study. An IMRT plan was created for each patient. The IMRT quality assurance plans were transferred to Mosaiq workstation in a linear accelerator. These plans were delivered at the reference treatment position. Subsequently, the QA plans were delivered on the Octavius 4D phantom after introducing errors in various translational and rotational directions. The setup inaccuracies introduced varied from 1 mm to 5 mm along X, Y. These setup uncertainties were then introduced along X and Y direction simultaneously in equal measures. Similarly, IMRT plans were delivered also after introducing roll and yaw rotation of 1, 2 and 3 degrees in phantom. The deviation of gamma indices at all these positions was analyzed with respect to the reference setup position. Results: The percentage of points passing the gamma acceptance criterion decrease as we increase the setup error. The change is found to be very insignificant with setup error up to 2 mm along X, Y or XY direction. Similarly, the rotational error of up to 3 degrees is found to be acceptable. Conclusions: Small setup (< 2 mm) correction in patients may not adversely affect the dose delivery. But an error of similar magnitude in 2 directions simultaneously has a much greater impact on IMRT dose delivery.
EN
More than 40 years ago, Public Health England (PHE and its predecessor organizations) established a radon laboratory to deliver services for radon measurements in homes and workplaces in the UK [1]. A key factor in developing these services was to set up stringent quality control and assurance protocols to enable the delivery of reliable and accurate results. There are nearly 40 checkpoints in the process, most exceeding 94% pass rate, starting from a quality check of poly-allyl diglycol carbonate (PADC) polymer and ending with a result modified by seasonal and occupancy correction factors. This work aims to show how to obtain the reliable results of radon measurements.
3
Content available remote Czy aparaty USG należy testować? Doświadczenia własne
PL
Pierwsze próby wprowadzenia kontroli jakości w ultrasonografii zostały podjęte na początku lat 90. Od tego czasu wiele krajów (USA, Unia Europejska) wdraża przepisy i zalecenia dotyczące przeprowadzania kontroli jakości w tej dziedzinie. Do tej pory bardzo niewiele państw nie prowadzi kontroli jakości obrazowania w ultrasonografii. Jednym z nich jest Polska. W artykule opisano propozycję testów kontroli jakości obrazowania USG, które powinny zostać wdrożone w Polsce. Podczas opracowania protokołów testowych posiłkowaliśmy się wytycznymi AAPM oraz zaleceniami europejskimi. Testy kontroli jakości USG bazują na doświadczeniu własnym w przeprowadzeniu kontroli jakości obrazowania 53 urządzeń USG. Pomiary przeprowadzono za pomocą dwóch fantomów: CIRS 054GS oraz IBA (Gammex 403 GS LE). Tolerancję pomiarów zaczerpnięto z instrukcji i opisów fantomów oraz zaleceń europejskich i AAPM.
EN
First attempt at quality assurance in ultrasound imaging was introduced in the early 90’s. From then many countries (US, EU) implement regulations and recommendations for conducting quality assurance control tests in this field. Currently there are very few countries which have not established QA in ultrasound imaging. One of these countries is Poland. This article describes a proposal of quality control tests of ultrasound imaging that should be implemented in Poland. In the development of the test protocol, we followed AAPM and European recommendations. The quality control tests are based on our own experience in testing 53 ultrasound devices. Measurements were conducted using two different Ultrasound QA phantoms: CIRS 054GS and IBA (Gammex 403 GS LE). Tolerances for measurement parameters were taken from phantom instructions and descriptions and from the AAPM and EU recommendations.
EN
A house or any other building without walls is truly hard to imagine. The first thing usually associated with walls is, of course, masonry. Today, masonry walls perform a load-bearing function in buildings up to four above-ground floors, in the higher parts of the buildings they perform a protective and stiffening function. However, there is a widespread opinion that the designer does not have to check the bearing capacity of masonry structures because masonry are were stand, are standing and will stand. Not everyone, however, currently works the wall as it should. The problem is that a lot of emphasis is now placed on reducing construction times. Therefore, there are a number of factors affecting the quality of the masonry structure, which overall reduce their safety. The article presents the influence of the quality of masonry on the differentiation of bearing capacity and reliability of an example masonry structure. The analyses included various values γm of the partial factor, recommended in the national annex PN-EN 1996-1, depending on the category of masonry units, class execution of works and type of mortar. In addition, a decrease in load capacity and reliability caused by the increase of the initial eccentric resulting from the inaccuracy of the masonry wall was examined.
PL
Ciężko wyobrazić sobie dom, budynek bez ścian. Jeżeli myślimy o ścianach, to pierwszym skojarzeniem są mury. Dziś mury pełnią funkcję nośną w budynkach do czterech kondygnacji nadziemnych, w wyższych partiach budynków pełnią funkcję osłonową i usztywniającą. Powszechnie panuje jednak jeszcze opinia, że konstruktor nie musi sprawdzać nośności konstrukcji murowych ponieważ mury stały, stoją i stać będą. Nie każdy jednak obecnie mur pracuje tak, jak powinien. Problem polega na tym, że obecnie duży nacisk kładzie się na skrócenie czasu wznoszenia budynków. W związku z tym pojawia się szereg czynników wpływających na jakość wykonania konstrukcji murowej, które sumarycznie wpływają na zmniejszenie ich bezpieczeństwa. W artykule przedstawiono wpływ jakości wykonania muru na różnicowanie nośności i niezawodności przykładowej konstrukcji murowej. W analizach uwzględniono różne wartości współczynnika bezpieczeństwa, rekomendowanego w załączniku krajowym PN-EN 1996-1 [1], uzależnione od kategorii elementów murowych, klasy robót murarskich oraz rodzaju zaprawy. Ponadto zbadano spadek nośności i niezawodności spowodowany zwiększeniem mimośrodu początkowego wynikającego z niedokładności wykonania ściany murowanej.
EN
The quality of manufactured products itself has long been playing significant role in nowadays business as well as in customers satisfaction with all kinds of products and services provided. Since all of us face to the poor quality results on daily basis, it is necessary to deploy an appropriate set of quality tools in order to improve the total quality level. The quality level of supplied parts in terms of the product quality including the design, development, and manufacturing process has significantly been influencing the quality results of serial production. The contemporary business philosophy for supplier`s selection uses merely the only criterion, the lowest price. The article describes some problems stemming from this philosophy and practice, determines a systemic approach and proposes a solution in order to improve supplier`s reliability in terms of quality of supplied parts and customer satisfaction.
EN
The Ni-base superalloys are used in the aircraft industry for the production of aero engine most stressed parts, turbine blades or turbine discs. Quality of aero jet engine components has a significant influence on the overall lifetime of a jet engine as itself as well as the whole airplane. From this reason a dendrite arm spacing, grain size, morphology, number and value of γ' - phase are very important structural characteristics for blade or discs lifetime prediction. The methods of quantitative metallography are very often used for evaluation of structural characteristics mentioned above. The high-temperature effect on structural characteristics and application of quantitative methods evaluation are presented in this paper. The two different groups of Ni-base alloys have been used as experimental material: cast alloys ZhS6K and IN713LC, which are used for small turbine blades production and wrought alloys EI 698VD and EI 929, which are used for turbine disc production. Selected alloys have been evaluated in the starting stage and after applied heattreatment at 850°C for 24 hrs. This applied heat-treatment causes structural changes in all alloys groups. In cast alloy dendritic structure is degraded and gamma prime average size has grown what has a negative influence on turbine blade creep rupture life. Wrought alloys show partially grain boundary melting and grain size changed due to recrystallization what causes mechanical properties decreasing - ultimate tensile strength mainly.
EN
The paper presents partial results of qualitative analyzes conducted on the production line in the automotive industry. The subject of analyzes is the safety element for motor vehicles and meeting the quality requirements. The quality requirements that the manufacturer must meet are based on customer guidelines (automotive concern) for components manufactured for first assembly. The presented analyzes relate to the identification of production discrepancies and the results of statistical analyzes for the cutting process and component control for one type of cable. This work contains basic issues in the field of production management for elements intended for the automotive market, detailing the basic applicable rules and standards in this field. It also contains the results of the analysis and evaluation of the production process of the company operating on this market. A preliminary analysis of the causes of production problems and statistical analysis for the indicated process was presented.
8
Content available Project portfolio management and quality
EN
Main objective of the study is to analyse the impact of portfolio management on the level of quality in EU projects implemented in public universities. First part of the article is theoretical and prepared on the basis of a critical analysis of literature in the field of quality management in projects and project portfolios. Second part of the text was based on primary data collected during preliminary survey conducted among EU project managers implemented in public technical colleges in the 2014-2020 financial perspective. Literature studies and results of own research allowed to identify and assess threats affecting the quality level in EU projects that result from transition from the level of individual project management to the level of project portfolio management. Continuous improvement of quality is a characteristic feature of organizations using quality management systems, so the article indicates the need to have an internal quality assurance system at universities. Importance of organizational units managing EU projects in universities in ensuring that products and results of a project are of high quality have also been underlined.
PL
Artykuł ma na celu przybliżenie roli audytów zewnętrznych na przykładzie procesu weryfikacji ścieżki terapeutycznej w ośrodku radioterapii. W artykule prezentujemy wykonanie testu end-to- -end pozwalającego na uzyskanie akredytacji przez MD Anderson Cancer Center w zakresie procesu radioterapii. W styczniu 2019 r. Uniwersyteckie Centrum Kliniczne im. prof. K. Gibińskiego Śląskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Katowicach przeszło pomyślnie przez tego typu proces akredytacji i otrzymało certyfikat jakości. Opis poszczególnych etapów tego audytu zewnętrznego być może przekona czytelników, że testy takie są istotne dla całościowego sprawdzenia procesu radioterapii oraz umożliwiają udział w międzynarodowych badaniach klinicznych. Ośrodek audytujący IROC Houston Quality Assurance Center należący do University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center oferuje całościową usługę dostarczenia dedykowanych fantomów wraz z instrukcjami przeprowadzenia testów, a także opracowuje ich wyniki w postaci skonsolidowanego raportu.
EN
The scope of this article is the discussion of the role of external audits in the verification process of therapeutic chain, in a radiotherapy department. In this article an end-to-end test is presented, which allows for the accreditation by MD Anderson Cancer Center in the field of radiotherapy. In January 2019 Uniwersyteckie Centrum Kliniczne im. prof. K. Gibińskiego Śląskiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego w Katowicach passed successfully the accreditation process and received a quality certificate. The description of particular stages of this external audit may convince the readers that such tests are essential for a comprehensive control of the radiotherapy process and enable the participation in international clinical trials. The IROC Houston Quality Assurance Center of the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center provides a comprehensive service of delivering dedicated phantoms with test instructions, and also compiles the results in the form of a consolidated report.
PL
Praca skupia się na charakterystyce oraz procesie kontroli jakości nowej, megawoltowej energii promieniowana, która została zaimplementowana w medycznym akceleratorze liniowym Varian TruBeam. Użycie wiązki promieniowania o efektywnym potencjale przyspieszającym 2,5 MV redukuje dawkę promieniowania, jaką otrzymuje pacjent w trakcie obrazowania o około 50% oraz zapewnia znacznie lepszą jakość obrazu. W celu kontroli jakości nowej energii promieniowania dokonano pełnej charakterystyki wiązki poprzez wyznaczanie procentowej dawki głębokościowej, pomiar profili i kalibrację mocy dawki, wykonano test Winstona-Lutza, a także oceniono jakość obrazowania z użyciem fantomu Leeds TOR 18FG. Wyznaczone parametry umożliwiły opracowanie protokół QA, które stosowane są w praktyce klinicznej.
EN
This work describes the characteristics and quality control process of the new megavoltage energy, which was implemented on the Varian TruBeam medical linear accelerator. New beam, generated by 2,5 MV nominal accelerating potential reduces the dose of radiation received by the patient during imaging process by 50% and provides better image quality. In order to control the quality of 2,5 MV beam, full beam characteristic was performed by measure a percent depth dose, beam profiles and outputs calibration, the Winston-Lutz test was performed. The image quality was evaluated using the Leeds TOR 18FG phantom was evaluated. The determined parameters allowed to develop QA protocol, which are used in clinical routine.
11
Content available Measuring the impact of academic policy innovation
EN
This paper presents application of Data science models to the quality assurance processes at the university. In 2015 Narxoz University in Almaty, Kazakhstan introduced a major change to its academic policy. Final year bachelor students were required to complete team-based diploma projects, focused on solving real business problems, instead of writing standard, often purely descriptive and theoretical diploma theses. This article uses data science models (linear regression, logit and CART) to analyze the effects of this policy change on recent graduates’ employability and wage levels using results of telephone survey conducted among 1956 graduates in 2015 and 2016. Estimated models show that students who have firm plans to find jobs, acquire valuable competences when preparing bachelor diploma and actively participate in student life, have higher probability of employment and earn higher wages. It means that the process of writing bachelor diploma should be carefully designed and monitored and that student learning outcomes also depend on their extra-curricular activity. Such analysis provides deep and interesting insights into the learning and assessment processes and should be a part of annual quality assurance review in every university. For example, results indicate that grading practices at Narxoz require a major review, as graduates with higher GPA did not exhibit higher employability nor higher wages. Similarly, curricula of some specializations (majors) should be reviewed due to low employment rate of graduates. Appropriate changes have already been implemented at Narxoz in 2017. Finally, we found that economic shocks have much stronger short-term impact on recent graduates’ employability and wages than reforms of academic curricula.
EN
In modern computer networks, agent-based systems are widely used. The very fundamental usage of agents are for management systems e.g. supporting SNMP-based databases and multiple client-server communications. This paper describes the Pay&Require mechanism implementing a multi-agent approach for a QoS-enabled computer network. The unique features of the P&R system are its comprehensive approach to the cooperation of agents dedicated to traffic monitoring, the selective response to the QoSoriented admission of user requests, event-driven reconfiguration and transmission quality brokerage. The brokerage in quality purchase was based on different models – from a simple reactive agent to an agent with learning capabilities. The presented approach uses auctions in which agents (brokers) can buy quality parameters according to customer requirements. The use of auctions allows the dynamic pricing of data transmission services.
PL
We współczesnych sieciach komputerowych bardzo często wykorzystywane są systemy agentowe. Podstawowym zastosowanie agentów jest zarządzanie systemami, np. SNMP i komunikacja klient-serwer. W artykule opisano mechanizm Pay&Require w którym zastosowano podejście wieloagentowe do zapewniania QoS w sieciach komputerowych. Cechą wyróżniającą mechanizm P&R jest kompleksowe podejście do współpracy agentów odpowiedzialnych za monitorowanie ruchu, reakcja na żądania użytkowników dotyczące QoS, rekonfiguracja na podstawie zdarzeń i pośrednictwo w zakupie jakości. Pośrednictwo to opiera się na różnych modelach – od prostego agenta reaktywnego do agenta z możliwością uczenia. Prezentowane podejście wykorzystuje aukcje, w których agenci (pośrednicy) mogą kupować parametry dotyczące jakości zgodnie z oczekiwaniami klienta. Wykorzystanie aukcji pozwala na dynamiczne kształtowanie cen usług transmisji.
EN
The article addresses issues related to quality assurance in manufacturing companies based on the guidelines of quality maintenance pillar under the Total Productive Maintenance concept. The first part of the article presents the methodological steps for determining machine quality points. The second part contains a case study on the implementation of methodology in the manufacturing plant in the lighting industry. The article shows a positive influence of the methodology on the reduction of quality defects in the examined plant.
14
Content available remote Deklaracja zgodności WE dla maszyny – niebezpieczna rzeczywistość
PL
W opracowaniu przedstawiono luki w zapisach Dyrektywy Maszynowej, jako wynik bardzo negatywnej ekspertyzy elementu konstrukcyjnego linii technologicznej przetwórstwa spożywczego. Przedstawiono również propozycje zapewnienia sobie przez zamawiającego akceptowalnego poziomu jakości konstrukcji w istniejącej sytuacji.
EN
The article presents regulations or gap in regulations regarding welding in Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC. The base of the article were tests and analysis of destroyed construction part of transportation line in food industry. The way to ensure right quality of welding structures are presented.
PL
Integracja Polski z Unią Europejską powoduje konieczność zharmonizowania przepisów krajowych z przepisami europejskimi. Wymagania jakościowe złączy spawanych w mostach stalowych wg nowych zaleceń przedstawili autorzy w 11 publikacjach wydanych w latach 2002÷2017. Określone tam wymogi normowe w wielu przypadkach poddano krytycznej ocenie. Próbę rekapitulacji zaleceń konstrukcyjno-projektowych oraz badawczych, dotyczących złączy spawanych w mostach, przedstawionych w tych publikacjach omówiono w artykule.
EN
The integration of Poland with the European Communities induced the necessity for harmonization of national regulations with European ones. Quality requirements for welded joints in steel bridges were presented by the authors in 11 articles published in the years 2002÷2017. Standard requirements given there were subjected to critical remarks in many cases. The effort for recapitulation of structural and research recommendations for welded joints in bridges are presented in this paper.
PL
Celem artykułu jest identyfikacja aspektów oceny ryzyka w zakresie dostaw wyrobów obronnych i ich pozyskiwania. Na podstawie wyników badań empirycznych przeprowadzonych w CCJ WAT w procesach certyfikacji, wspartych przeglądem literatury przedmiotu, dokonano analizy problematyki zarządzania ryzykiem w kontekście nadzorowania wydanych certyfikatów systemu zarządzania jakością na zgodność z wymaganiami ISO 9001, w tym AQAP. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań przeprowadzonych w zakresie identyfikacji ryzyka związanego z potencjalnymi dostawcami wyrobów obronnych i usług z nimi związanych, a także wyniki badania ankietowego postrzegania ryzyka wśród personelu auditującego. Są to źródła wiedzy dla stron zawieranych umów dotyczących wyrobów obronnych i usług z nimi związanych. Prowadzą one do zwiększenia zaufania do dostawcy w procesie zapewnienia jakości, a w efekcie do poprawy jakości pozyskiwanych wyrobów i usług dla wojska.
EN
The aim of the article is to identify the problem of risk assessment in the aspect of defense product supply and acquisition. Based on the results of empirical research conducted in the CCJ WAT (Quality Certification Center) certification processes supported by the literature of the subject, the risk management issues were analyzed in the context of monitoring the quality management system certificates issued for compliance with the requirements of ISO 9001, including AQAP. The article presents the results of research carried out in the field of risk identification related to potential suppliers of defense products and related services, as well as the results of a survey of risk perception among the audit personnel. These are sources of knowledge for parties to contracts for defense products and related services. They lead to increased trust in the supplier in the quality assurance process and, as a result, to the improvement of the quality of obtained products and services for the army.
PL
Tworzenie systemów zarządzania jakością w medycznych laboratoriach diagnostycznych jest bardzo ważnym czynnikiem, który będzie warunkował jakość świadczonych usług diagnostycznych. Jakość badania laboratoryjnego dotyczy cech analitycznych i mikrobiologicznych wyniku badania i określenia jego wiarygodności i zgodności w granicach przyjętego zakresu błędu dopuszczalnego. Celem tej pracy jest przedstawienie praktycznych elementów zarządzania jakością widzianego z perspektywy diagnosty laboratoryjnego.
EN
Creating quality management systems in medical diagnostic laboratories is a very important factor that will determine the quality of diagnostic services. The quality of laboratory test concerns analytical and microbiological features of a test result and determines its credibility and compliance within the approved scope of possible error. The purpose of this article is to show practical process of the quality management seen from a perspective of health service employee.
18
Content available remote BIM blisko budowy
EN
Many innovative environmental technologies never reach the market because they are new and cannot demonstrate a successful track record of previous applications. This fact is a serious obstacle on their way to the market. Lack of credible data on the performance of a technology causes mistrust of investors in innovations, especially from public sector, who seek effective solutions however without compromising the technical and financial risks associated with their implementation. Environmental technology verification (ETV) offers a credible, robust and transparent process that results in a third party confirmation of the claims made by the providers about the performance of the novel environmental technologies. Verifications of performance are supported by high quality, independent test data. In that way ETV as a tool helps establish vendor credibility and buyer confidence. Several countries across the world have implemented ETV in the form of national or regional programmes. ETV in the European Union was implemented as a voluntary scheme if a form of a pilot programme. The European Commission launched the Environmental Technology Pilot Programme of the European Union (EU ETV) in 2011. The paper describes the European model of ETV set up and put to operation under the Pilot Programme of Environmental Technologies Verification of the European Union. The goal, objectives, technological scope, involved entities are presented. An attempt has been made to summarise the results of the EU ETV scheme performance available for the period of 2012 when the programme has become fully operational until the first half of 2016. The study was aimed at analysing the overall organisation and efficiency of the EU ETV Pilot Programme. The study was based on the analysis of the documents the operation of the EU ETV system. For this purpose, a relevant statistical analysis of the data on the performance of the EU ETV system provided by the European Commission was carried out.
EN
Production-related preliminary damage and residual stresses have significant effects on the functions and the damage development in fiber composite components. For this reason, it is important, especially for the safety-relevant components, to check each item. This task becomes a challenge in the context of serial production, with its growing importance in the field of lightweight components. The demand for continuous-reinforced thermoplastic composites increases in various industrial areas. According to this, an innovative Continuous Orbital Winding (COW) process was carried out within the framework of the Federal Cluster of Excellence EXC 1075 “MERGE Technologies for Multifunctional Lightweight Structures”. COW is aiming for mass-production-suited processing of special semi-finished fiber reinforced thermoplastic materials. This resource-efficient and function-integrated manufacturing process contains a combination of thermoplastic tape-winding with automated thermoplastic tape-laying technology. The process has a modular concept, which allows implementing other special applications and technologies, e.g. integration of different sensor types and high-speed automated quality inspection. The results show how to control quality and improve the stability of the COW process for large-scale production. This was realized by developing concepts of a fully integrated quality-testing unit for automatic damage assessment of composite structures. For this purpose, the components produced in the COW method have been examined for imperfections. This was performed based on obtained results of non-destructive or destructive materials testing.
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