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EN
Two types of composites, consisting of pure magnesium matrix reinforced with two commercially used carbon fibers, were systematically studied in this paper. The composites fabricated by the pressure infiltration method, were subjected to quasistatic and dynamic compression tests. Morphology of fiber strands was observed using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The application of carbon fibre reinforcement led to the stiffening of tested materials, resulting in the limitation of the possible compression to approx. 2.5%. The performed tests revealed the remarkable difference in compression strength of investigated compositions. The cause of that effect was that GRANOC fiber reinforced composite exhibited insufficient bond quality between the brittle fibers and the ductile matrix. T300 reinforced composite presented good connection between reinforcement and matrix resulting in increased mechanical properties. Investigated composites demonstrated higher mechanical strength during deformation at high strain rates. Microscopic observations also proved that the latter fibers with regular shape and dense packaging within the filaments are proper reinforcement when designing the lightweight composite material.
EN
The paper presents results of investigation of microstructure and micro-hardness for material of ZnO varistors applied to 110 kV surge arrester and surge arrester counter. The research combined two pairs of varistors, each consisted of one varistor subjected before to operation, while the other one was brand new unit and constituted a reference. All varistors were made of the same material by the reputable manufacture. The tests revealed a different degree of the material degradation for varistors subjected before to operation. This also refers to different degradation mechanism observed for the material of these varistors, if typical effects of degradation of aged ZnO varistors were considered as a reference. Physical state of spinel in the microstructure had a significant impact on the material degradation, however a considerable loosening of the microstructure associated with bismuth oxide was observed too. It was surprising, since the precipitates of the bismuth oxide phase most often showed very good binding to the ZnO matrix and high resistance to associated electrical, thermal and mechanical effects. The degradation effects in the ZnO matrix proved to be limited only.
EN
The paper presents investigations of microstructure of varistors of damaged surge arrester counters. A similar ZnO varistor, not subjected before to operation, was a point of reference in this research. The results of investigations of the ZnO varistors show an untypical phase composition of their material, which was characterized by unsatisfying homogeneity and cohesion. The degradation processes of varistor material in the subsequent stages were recognized and described. A harmful impact of humidity inside the untight surge arrester counter on its operation and its ZnO varistors was proved. Some conclusions being the result of the operation checking of surge arrester counters were presented too.
PL
W pracy przedstawione zostały doświadczenia z eksploatacji liczników zadziałań, które stanowiły inspirację do badań pochodzących z nich warystorów ZnO. Badana była mikrostruktura elementów pochodzących z uszkodzonych liczników zadziałań. Odniesienie stanowił analogiczny warystor, z licznika który nie był w eksploatacji. Badania wykazały nietypowy skład fazowy tworzywa badanych warystorów oraz niską jednorodność i spoistość ich czerepu. Opisano i udokumentowano procesy degradacji tworzywa o zróżnicowanym nasileniu. Wykazano szkodliwy wpływ wilgoci we wnętrzu rozszczelnionego licznika zadziałań na jego funkcjonowanie, w tym na umieszczone w nim warystory ZnO. Przedstawiono ponadto wnioski dotyczące kontroli eksploatacyjnej liczników zadziałań.
EN
The paper presents experience from exploitation of surge arrester counters. There was documented destructive influence of humidity inside the untight surge arrester counter on its operation and ZnO varistors within. There were presented examinations of microstructure of varistors of damaged surge arrester counters. A point of reference was similar ZnO varistor, not subjected to operation before. Investigations revealed that material of varistors had an untypical phase composition and was characterized by unsatisfying homogeneity and cohesion. There were recognized and described the subsequent stages of the degradation processes of varistors material. Conclusions resulting from the operation checking of surge arrester counters were also presented.
EN
The paper presents the microscopic and mechanoacoustic study of degradation processes of the porcelain material C 130 type. This kind of material is used in the production of the most durable and reliable electrotechnical elements. Raw material composition of the studied porcelain was modified. This had an impact on the inner properties, cohesion and – in consequence – on operational properties of the material. Using mechanical-acoustic and microscopic methods of testing of small-size samples that were subjected to compression, it was possible to distinguish successive stages of degradation of the porcelain structure. These stages were generally typical of the porcelain materials. In the authors’ opinion, they are connected to the ageing process happening over many years of work under operating conditions. Optimization of composition and technological properties – important during technological processes – resulted in a slight decrease in inner cohesion of the porcelain. When compared to the reference material – typical domestic C 130 material, mechanical strength was somewhat lower. Carried out investigations proved that resistance of the investigated material to the ageing degradation process – during long term operation – also decreased. The improvement of technological parameters and the reduction in the number of defective elements occurred simultaneously with some decrease in the operational parameters of the material. To restore their initial high level, further work is needed to optimize the raw material composition of the porcelain.
EN
The paper presents the test results for the microstructure of ZnO varistors comprising high voltage gapless surge arresters. The tests were performed on varistors produced in different periods and by various manufacturers. The research was inspired by different characteristics of changes in values of current flowing through surge arresters as a function of changes in values of system voltage in a 220 kV substation, and the temperature in a multi-year cycle. Furthermore, the effects of varistor microstructure degradation following a failure of an unsealed surge arrester were investigated. The results provided the grounds for assessment of ZnO varistor microstructure parameters in terms of their durability and resistance to degradation processes.
EN
This article presents the results of an examination performed on a set of samples of glass-epoxy core rods used in composite insulators with silicone rubber housings. The goal of the examination was to test the aging resistance of the core material when exposed to Direct Current (DC) high voltage. Long term exposure of a glass-epoxy core rod to DC high voltage may lead to the gradual degradation of its mechanical properties due to the ion migrations. Electrolysis of the core material (glass fiber) may cause electrical breakdown of the insulators and consequently lead to a major failure. After being aged for 6000 hours under DC high voltage, the samples were subjected to microscopic analysis. Their chemical composition was also examined using Raman spectroscopy and their dielectric losses and conductance in the broad range of frequencies were tested using dielectric spectroscopy.
EN
During the course of the study it involved tool steel C105U was used. The steel was austempered at temperatures of 130°C, 160°C and 180°C respectively. Methods of acoustic emission (AE) were used to investigate the resulting effects associated with transformations and a large number of AE events were registered. Neural networks were applied to analyse these phenomena. In the tested signal, three groups of events were identified of: high, medium and low energy. The average spectral characteristics enabled the power of the signal spectrum to be determined. After completing the process, the results were compiled in the form of diagrams of the relationship of the AE incidence frequency as a function of time. Based on the results, it was found that in the austempering of tool steel, in the first stage of transformation midrib morphology is formed. Midrib is a twinned thin plate martensite. In the 2nd stage of transformation, the intensity of the generation of medium energy events indicates the occurrence of bainite initialised by martensite. The obtained graphic of AE characteristics of tool steel austempering allow conclusions to be drawn about the kinetics and the mechanism of this transformation.
EN
The paper presents investigation of the properties of the surface and the material stiffness – flexibility of series of samples taken from the sheds of the composite insulators. The insulators were previously subjected to wheel test. The wheel test and 1000 h salt fog test are regarded as alternative examination of the material resistance to the effects of electrical surface discharges. There were investigated two series of the samples of the composite insulators sheds. Examined specimens, made of HTV silicone rubber, were taken from the sheds of medium-voltage composite insulators of two different manufacturers. Insulators of both types passed the 1000 h salt fog test without reservation. Meanwhile, the wheel test can provide a basis for better distinguishing between physical properties of the tested materials. In the case of the insulators of one of the manufacturers the wheel test result was negative. Cross puncture effect of the sheds took place in several places. In addition, sheds were covered with dark coating of varying thicknesses. The results of the study indicated a significantly stronger influence of electrical and temperature factors on the sheds under investigations during the wheel test than in the case of the 1000 h salt fog test. It can be stated that these tests cannot be considered as alternative and it seems that wheel test enables better distinguishing between properties of the materials.
EN
Two different barite ore (barium sulfate BaSO4) specimens from different localizations were tested and described in this paper. Analysis of the microstructure was performed on polished sections, and on thin sections using X-ray microtomography (micro-CT), and optical microscopy (MO). Microtomography allowed obtaining three-dimensional images of the barite aggregate specimens. In the tomograms, the spatial distribution of the other polluting phases, empty space as well as cracks, pores, and voids – that exceeded ten micrometers of diameter-were possible to visualize. Also, the micro-CT allowed distinguishing between minerals of different density, like SiO2 and BaSO4. Images obtained and analyzed on thin sections with various methods using the optical microscopy in transmitted light delivered additional information on the aggregate microstructure, i.e. allow for estimation of the different kinds of inclusions (like the different density of the minerals) in the investigated specimens. Above methods, which were used in the tests, completed each another in order to supply a set of information on inclusions’ distribution and to present the important differences of the barite aggregate specimens microstructure.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań mikrostruktury warystorów ZnO, wchodzących w skład beziskiernikowych ograniczników przepięć wysokiego napięcia. Badania obejmowały warystory wykonane w różnych okresach i przez różnych producentów. Inspiracją do podjęcia badań były różniące się charakterystyki prądów płynących przez ograniczniki w funkcji napięcia systemu w rozdzielni 400 kV oraz temperatury, w cyklu rocznym. Ponadto badane były efekty degradacji mikrostruktury warystorów po awarii rozszczelnionego ogranicznika przepięć. Uzyskane wyniki dały podstawę do oceny parametrów mikrostruktury warystorów ZnO z punktu widzenia ich trwałości i odporności na procesy degradacji.
EN
The article presents the results of investigation of microstructure and degradation of ZnO varistors of the high voltage surge arresters. The research included varistors made at different times and by different manufacturers. The inspiration to undertake the study were differing characteristics of currents flowing through the limiter as a function of surge voltage system of 400 kV and temperature on an annual basis. In addition, there were studied the effects of the microstructure degradation of the varistors from the surge arrester after the breakdown. The results gave the basis for the evaluation of the microstructure parameters of the ZnO varistors from the point of view of their durability and resistance to degradation processes.
EN
The subject of this study was investigation of the factors that have a decisive influence on the resistance of siliceous porcelain to degradation processes. There was tested material C 110 type, which is widely used for the production of low-voltage (LV) elements such as insulators and bushings. On the basis of mechanical-acoustic and microscopic research of small-sized samples, which were subjected to compression, there were distinguished successive stages of degradation of the material structure. In the authors* opinion, they have a reference to the ageing process, taking place during many years of work under operating conditions. Thus, it was possible to assess the structural factors that determine the durability and reliability of LV electroinsulating elements. The results were related to electrical aluminous porcelains.
EN
The results of the investigation of both mechanical and acoustic emission (AE) behaviors of Mg4Li5Al and Mg4Li4Zn alloys subjected to compression and tensile tests at room temperature are compared with the test results obtained using the same alloys and loading scheme but at elevated temperatures. The main aim of the paper is to investigate, to determine and to explain the relation between plastic flow instabilities and the fracture characteristics. There are discussed the possible influence of the factors related with enhanced internal stresses such as: segregation of precipitates along grain boundaries, interaction of solute atoms with mobile dislocations (Cottrell atmospheres) as well as dislocation pile-ups which may lead to the microcracks formation due to the creation of very high stress concentration at grain boundaries. The results show that the plastic flow discontinuities are related to the Portevin-Le Châtelier phenomenon (PL effect) and they are correlated with the generation of characteristic AE pulse trains. The fractography of broken samples was analyzed on the basis of light (optical), TEM and SEM images.
EN
The paper presents a method of pore connectivity analysis applied to specimens of cement based composites differing in water to cement ratio. The method employed X-ray microtomography (micro-CT). Microtomography supplied digitized three-dimensional radiographs of small concrete specimens. The data derived from the radiographs were applied as an input into the application based on the algorithm called ‘random walk simulation’. As the result a parameter called diffusive tortuosity was established and compared with estimated porosity of examined specimens.
PL
Artykuł prezentuje metodę wyznaczania parametru charakteryzującego intensywność połączeń mikroporów w zastosowaniu do próbek kompozytów z matrycą cementową, różniących się stosunkiem wodnocementowym. Metoda bazuje na wynikach badań z zastosowaniem mikrotomografii rentgenowskiej. Analizowano zdigitizowane zestawy danych, opisujące trójwymiarową reprezentację mikrostruktury niewielkich próbek wykonanych z betonu. Przygotowane w ten sposób skany mikrostruktury zastosowano jako dane wejściowe wprowadzone do oprogramowania wykorzystujacego algorytm ‘przypadkowo migrujących cząstek wirtualnych’. W ten sposób wyznaczono parametr mikrostruktury znany jako krętość dyfuzyjna. Parametr ten porównano z porowatością obserwowaną wyznaczoną dla zbadanych próbek przy wykorzystaniu analizy jasności voxeli w analizowanych próbkach.
15
Content available remote Influence of microstructure on the properties of siliceous electrical porcelain
EN
The paper presents the microscopic and mechanoacoustic study of degradation processes of the porcelain material C 110 type. Smallsized samples, derived from the low voltage insulator, were subjected to a slow, quasi-static compression, with simultaneous recording of acoustic emission descriptors. There were distinguished consecutive stages of the material degradation. Obtained results were compared with the images of the microstructure of low-voltage insulator materials after many years of operation. On this basis, there were distinguished the factors determinant of the short-term strength of porcelain and its resistance to ageing processes under operating conditions.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono mikroskopowe oraz mechanoakustyczne badania procesów degradacji w tworzywie porcelanowym rodzaju C 110. Próbki małogabarytowe, pochodzące z elementu elektroizolacyjnego niskiego napięcia, poddawane były powolnemu, quasi-statycznemu ściskaniu, z jednoczesną rejestracją deskryptorów emisji akustycznej. Na podstawie badań mikroskopowych ściskanych próbek wyróżniono etapy degradacji materiału. Wyniki konfrontowano z obrazami mikrostruktury tworzywa izolatorów niskonapięciowych po wieloletniej eksploatacji. Wyróżniono czynniki mające wpływ na wytrzymałość krótkotrwałą oraz odporność tworzywa na starzenie się w warunkach eksploatacyjnych.
EN
The research was carried out on steel 100CrMnSi6-4 under isothermal austempering resulting in forming the duplex structure: martensitic and bainitic. The kinetics of transformation was controlled by the acoustic emission method. Complex phase transformations caused by segregation and carbide banding occur at the low-temperature heat treatment of bearing steel. At the temperature close to Ms, a certain temperature range occurs where an effect of the first product of prior athermal martensite on the bainitic transformation can be observed. In the registered signal about 15 million various events were registered. There were considered three types of acoustic emission events (of high, medium and low energy), with relatively wide sections and with different spectral characteristics. It was found that the method of acoustic emission complemented by the application of neural networks is a sensitive tool to identify the kinetics of bainitic transformation and to show the interaction between martensitic and bainitic transformations.
PL
Badania realizowano na stali 100CrMnSi6-4 poddanej hartowaniu izotermicznemu, prowadzacemu do utworzenia struktury duplex: martenzytyczno-bainitycznej. Kinetykę przemian kontrolowano metodą emisji akustycznej. Przy niskotemperaturowej obróbce cieplnej stali łożyskowej występują złożone przemiany fazowe spowodowane segregacją i pasmowością węglików. W temperaturze zbliżonej do Ms, występuje pewien zakres temperatury, gdzie zaznacza się oddziaływanie wcześniejszego produktu przemiany martenzytycznej na przemianę bainityczną. W zarejestrowanym sygnale zarejestrowano około 15 milionów różnych zdarzeń. Uwzgledniono trzy rodzaje zdarzeń emisji akustycznej (o wysokiej, średniej i niskiej energii) o względnie szerokich przedziałach, o różnej charakterystyce widmowej. Stwierdzono, że metoda emisji akustycznej uzupełniona o zastosowanie sieci neuronowych jest czułym narzędziem do identyfikacji kinetyki przemiany bainitycznej oraz oddziaływania przemiany martenzytycznej na przemianę bainityczną.
EN
In the paper two advanced methods for testing cement based composites are described and compared. These are X-ray microtomography and optical microscopy. Microtomography supplies three-dimensional images of small concrete specimens. In the tomograms all cracks, pores and other voids and inclusions, that exceed a few micrometers, are shown. Such visualisation can become a valuable tool for analysis of the basic material properties. Images obtained on thin sections and analysed with various methods on optical microscopes supply additional information on material microstructure that cannot be obtained in tomograms. For example it is relatively easy to determine zone penetrated by CO2 ingress. These two methods, presented on examples of tests, complete each another in order to supply a set of information on composition and defects of tested composite materials.
PL
W artykule przedstawiono dwie nowoczesne metody analizy struktury materiałów kompozytowych ze spoiwem na bazie cementu. Są to mikrotomografia komputerowa oraz optyczna analiza cienkich szlifów. Mikrotomografia pozwala na uzyskanie trójwymiarowych obrazów niewielkich próbek betonowych. Na tomogramach widoczne są układy rys, porów i innych pustek, których wymiary przekraczają kilka mikrometrów. Przestawienie tych obiektów w przestrzeni jest ważnym narzędziem do analizy podstawowych właściwosci materiału. Obrazy uzyskane na cienkich szlifach w mikroskopie optycznym, analizowane następnie różnymi metodami, dostarczają dodatkowych informacji o mikrostrukturze materiału, które nie mogą być dostrzeżone na tomogramach. Stosunkowo łatwo jest np. uzyskac obrazy stref skarbonatyzowanej matrycy cementowej. Obie przedstawione metody uzupełniają się wzajemnie i pozwalają na otrzymanie zbioru informacji o składzie i defektach badanych materiałów kompozytowych.
EN
The paper presents the evaluation of the mullite hypothesis explaining the strength of porcelains. There was researched the influence of the mullite phase on the short- and long-term mechanical strength of electrotechnical porcelain of different types (C 110, C 112, C 120 and C 130). The total mullite phase content, the size and distribution of precipitates and dispersed single crystals in the glassy matrix were considered. Mechanoacoustic and microscopic techniques as well as ultrasonic testing were used during the investigation. The role of the mullite phase in the increase of strength and resistance to aging processes of electrical porcelain of various types was described. Mullite hypothesis is valid in reference to siliceous (C 110), cristobalite (C 112) and aluminous C 120 type materials of a typical raw components content and phase composition. In the case of modern strengthened C 120 and C 130 type aluminous materials advantageous are only dispersed fine mullite needles. The precipitates of mullite phase, especially of bigger size, are undesirable.
PL
W pracy przedstawiono ocenę teorii mulitowej wzmocnienia porcelany, w odniesieniu do tworzyw elektrotechnicznych. Przedmiotem badań był wpływ fazy mulitowej na krótko- i długotrwałą wytrzymałość mechaniczną elektroporoelan rodzaju C 110, C 112, C 120 oraz C 130. Rozpatrywana była sumaryczna zawartość fazy mulitowej. wielkość i rozłożenie jej wydzieleń oraz niezaglomeryzowanych kryształów w osnowie szklistej. W badaniach wykorzystano metodę mechanoakustyczną, techniki mikroskopowe (MO i SEM) oraz metodę ultradźwiękową. Przedstawiono rolę fazy mulitowej w podwyższeniu odporności na procesy starzeniowe porcelany elektrotechnicznej różnego rodzaju. Stwierdzono słuszność teorii mulitowej w przypadku tworzyw kwarcowych (C 110), krystobalitowych (C 112) oraz wysokoglinowych rodzaju C 120 o typowym - tradycyjnym składzie surowcowym i fazowym. W zastosowaniu do nowoczesnych, wzmocnionych tworzyw wysokoglinowych rodzaju C 120 oraz porcelan rodzaju C 130 korzystnie działają rozproszone w osnowie, niezaglomeryzowane igłowe kryształy mulitu. Wydzielenia mulitu, zwłaszcza o większych rozmiarach, są niepożądane.
19
PL
W pracy przedstawiono badania wpływu fazy mulitowej na krótko- i długotrwałą wytrzymałość mechaniczną elektroporcelan rodzaju C 110, C 112, C 120 oraz C 130. Rozpatrywana była sumaryczna zawartość fazy mulitowej, wielkość i rozłożenie jej wydzieleń oraz niezaglomeryzowanych kryształów w osnowie szklistej. W badaniach wykorzystano metodę mechanoakustyczną, techniki mikroskopowe (MO i SEM) oraz metodę ultradźwiękową. Przedstawiono rolę fazy mulitowej w podwyższeniu odporności na procesy starzeniowe porcelany elektrotechnicznej różnego rodzaju.
EN
The paper presents the research of the influence of the mullite phase on the short- and long-term mechanical strength of the electrotechnical porcelain of different types (C 110, C 112, C 120 and C 130). The total mullite phase content, size and distribution of precipitates and dispersed single crystals in the glassy matrix were considered. During investigation mechanoacoustic and microscopic techniques as well as ultrasonic testing were used. The role of the mullite phase in the increase of resistance to aging processes of electrical porcelain of various types was described.
20
Content available remote Badania powierzchni elementów wewnętrznych ograniczników przepięć
PL
W artykule przedstawiono wyniki badań powierzchni nieuszkodzonych i uszkodzonych podczas eksploatacji elementów wewnętrznych ograniczników przepięć. Elementy te wytypowano na podstawie uprzednio wykonanych charakterystyk prądowych pod napięciem sieciowym. Stwierdzono, że analiza kształtu prądu płynącego przez ogranicznik może być pomocna w ocenie jego stopnia zdegradowania oraz może stanowić podstawę dopuszczenia go do dalszej eksploatacji.
EN
The paper presents results of surface investigations of internal elements of surge arresters being in good working order or defected. The elements were selected on the basis of wave-form of current characteristics and their parameters, obtained at line voltages. It was found that analysis of the wave-form of current which flows through an surge arrester can be useful for evaluation of its current degradation level. It allows also to take up the decision concerning further operation of the surge arrester.
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