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EN
The work discusses physicochemical phenomena related to interactions between the inhaled particles and the surface of pulmonary fluid which contains the lung surfactant. Dynamic surface phenomena which arise due to periodical variations of the interfacial area during breathing cycle are the extraordinary feature of this system and they are strictly related to the mechanics of ventilation and the pulmonary mass transfer processes. Presence of foreign material such as inhaled micro- and nanoparticles with different size, surface properties and morphology may alter these phenomena which may have some health consequences. This effect is discussed on two examples: mineral particles (CeO2) and carbonaceous particles emitted from diesel engine running on two different fuels. Two experimental methods of research in this field are presented: the Langmuir balance and the oscillating pendant drop. The results show the sensitivity of dynamic surface properties of the lung surfactant on exogenous materials which may be introduced to the respiratory system by inhalation of dusty air. Some physicochemical interpretation of these results is presented.
PL
Określono właściwości fizykochemiczne kilku sterydowych preparatów do nebulizacji (atomizacji leków inhalacyjnych występujących pierwotnie w postaci ciekłej), wyznaczono wydajność atomizacji oraz wielkość kropel powstających w dwóch typach nebulizatorów. Po wyliczeniu depozycji płucnej leków, zbadano ich oddziaływanie z modelowym surfaktantem płucnym przez pomiar dynamicznych właściwości powierzchniowo czynnych. Wyniki wskazują na możliwość zaburzenia funkcji surfaktantu płucnego po inhalacji leków sterydowych.
EN
This work is focused on determination of physicochemical properties of several nebulization (i.e. atomization of liquid medicines before inhalation) glucocorticoids, their aerosolization rate in two types of nebulizers and thef droplet size distribution in obtained therapeutic aerosol. After calculation of doses deposited in the lungs, direct interactions of drugs with the pulmonary surfactant were measured in a model system using the dynamic surface tensiometry. The results suggest a possible perturbation of surfactant functions by inhaled nebulized drugs.
PL
W pracy przebadano właściwości teologiczne modelowego śluzu oskrzelowego oraz ich zmiany pod wpływem wybranych nanocząstek, w tym agregatów występujących w spalinach silnika Diesla oraz cząstek ditlenku ceru. Wyniki wskazują, że przy określonych poziomach stężeń cząstek dochodzi do zaburzenia właściwości Teologicznych śluzu w sposób specyficzny dla każdego rodzaju cząstek. Sugeruje to potencjalny wpływ wdychanych zanieczyszczeń pyłowych na właściwości śluzu i procesy transportu masy w drzewie oskrzelowym.
EN
This work is focused on the measurements of rheological properties of model mucus and determination of their changes caused by contact with selected particles, including diesel exhaust nanoaggregates and CeO2 nanoparticles. The results show that studied particles modify mucus rheology in a way dependent on a particie type and concentration. This suggests a potential influence of inhaled nanoparticulate air contaminants on mucus properties and mass transfer processes on the surface of bronchial tree.
PL
Przebadano wpływ wielościennych nanorurek węglowych (MWCNT) na właściwości monowarstwy fosfolipidowej (DPPC) użytej w roli fizykochemicznego modelu surfaktantu płucnego. W oparciu o wyniki badań wykonanych na wadze Langmuira- Wilhelmy’ego stwierdzono, że zarówno hydrofobowe jak i hydrofilowe (utlenione) MWCNT już przy stężeniach rzędu 10-3÷10-2 mg/(cm3 fazy ciekłej) zmieniają ściśliwość powierzchni woda-powietrze zawierającej DPPC. Zmiany mechanicznych cech powierzchni, wynikające z wpływu nanomateriałów na charakter oddziaływań międzycząsteczkowych w warstwie powierzchniowej surfaktantu płucnego, mogą mieć znaczenie dla przebiegu procesów wymiany masy w obszarze pęcherzykowym płuc. Prowadzi to wniosku, że oddychanie powietrzem zawierającym nanorurki węglowe (jako aerozolu) może stwarzać zagrożenie dla prawidłowego funkcjonowania układu oddechowego.
EN
Influence of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MCWNTs) on the surface-active properties of phospholipid monolayer (DPPC) at the air - water interface were investigated. The studied system, based on the Langmuir-Wilhelmy film balance, provides a basic physicochemical model of the lung surfactant and allows one to investigate the dynamic interfacial effects. The surface compressibility of DPPC monolayer contaminated with hydrophobic or hydrophilic (oxidized) MWCNTs was altered already at low concentration of nanoparticles in the range of 10-3÷10-2 mg/(cm3 of liquid). Observed effects are probably due to modified intermolecular inter-actions at the interface, and - if happen in vivo - may influence the mass transfer properties in the pulmonary region of the respiratory system. It is concluded that breathing with air contaminated by aerosolized carbon nanotubes may be not safe because of a potential influence of this nanomaterial on the dynamic surface activity of the lung surfactant.
PL
Opracowanie dotyczy oceny zmienności wybranych charakterystyk termicznych na 4 wybranych stacjach meteorologicznych w obrębie atlantyckiego i syberyjskiego sektora Arktyki w okresie 1979-2013. Arktykę Atlantycką reprezentuje stacja w Hornsundzie (SW Spitsbergen) oraz w Danmarkshavn na wschodnim wybrzeżu Grenlandii. W pobliżu granicy obu regionów znajduje się stacja Dikson. Natomiast Arktykę Syberyjską dobrze reprezentuje stacja Ostrov Kotielnyj w archipelagu Wysp Nowosyberyjskich. Zmienność i trendy średniej temperatury powietrza oraz liczby dni mroźnych (Tmax<0°C) i dni z przejściem temperatury przez 0°C (Tmin≤0°C ^Tmax>0°C) przedstawiono w ujęciu rocznym i sezonowym. Znaczne ocieplenie w świetle średniej rocznej temperatury powietrza z trendami rzędu od +0,6°C do 1,0°C/10 lat znajduje odzwierciedlenie w tendencji spadkowej liczby dni mroźnych w obu regionach. Natomiast odmiennie kształtują się tendencje w występowaniu dni z przejściem temperatury przez 0°C, które są wzrostowe w Arktyce Atlantyckiej i spadkowe w Arktyce Syberyjskiej.
EN
An increase in the air temperature is an evident manifestation of contemporary climate change. In the Arctic this trend began to be significant in the middle of the nineties and has been accompanied by significant changes in the frequency of thermally characteristic days. This paper discusses the directions and the rate of changes in the average annual and seasonal air temperatures, the number of ice days (Tmax<0°C) and the number of days with freeze-thaw events (Tmin≤0°C^Tmax>0°C) in both the Atlantic Arctic and The Siberian Arctic in the period 1979-2013. Four meteorological stations were considered: Danmarkshavn, Hornsund, Dikson, Ostrov Kotielnyj. In this paper annual courses of the above mentioned characteristics of air temperature are recognized and their trends are calculated from annual and seasonal perspectives. Trend magnitude was assessed with least square method and its significance was tested with Mann-Kendall test. Trends were calculated for several long-term periods starting with the 30-year period of 1979-2008 followed by further periods of which each was lengthened by a year in relation to preceding period, e.g. 1979-2009, 1979-2010 etc. Such an approach enables the trends stability assessment. At the stations considered average monthly air temperature was varying in the range from about -30°C in February at Ostrov Kotielnyj station to slightly more than +5°C in July and August at Dikson station. The mildest thermal conditions characterize Hornsund station where average monthly temperature in winter months reaches about -10°C and during four months (June-September) it is above 0°C. Statistically significant increase in the average annual air temperature of magnitude of +1.0°C or +0.8°C per 10 years was found at all the stations. Trends in the seasonal air temperature were also positive however not always significant. The strongest increase of the rate of more than +2.0°C per 10 yrs was found at Hornsund in winter for the period of 1979-2013. Spring air temperature showed significant increasing trends for all of the long-term periods at the station in Siberian Arctic (Ostrov Kotielnyj) and Dikson. At both Ostrov Kotielnyj and Danmarkshavn stations significant increase of temperature in this season started from the period of 1979-2010. Trends in autumn temperature were significant and stable at most of the stations. At Dikson station exclusively an increase in temperature reached statistical significance slightly later - in the period of 1979-2011. Significant changes in average air temperature caused changes in the frequency of thermally characteristic days. Trends in the frequency of both ice days and days with freeze-thaw events were less significant. The frequency of ice days has been diminishing at all of the stations but significant were mostly annual trends. Significant decrease of the ice days was found at Ostrov Kotielnyj and Danmarkshavn stations in spring and at Hornsund station in summer. In summer significant were also trends for the longest of the multiyear periods analysed at Ostrov Kotielnyj and Danmarkshavn stations. In autumn downward trends were stable at Ostrov Kotielnyj station. At other stations trends in this index were significant only for the period of 1979-2013. A direction of trends in the frequency of days with freeze-thaw event is less stable. In the case of annual index values trends were negative at Ostrov Kotielnyj and Dikson stations whereas at other stations they were positive. Trend directions in the frequency of days with Tmin≤0°C^Tmax>0°C varied depending on season. In spring and autumn trends were positive at majority of the stations. However, they were significant only in spring at Ostrov Kotielnyj and Danmarkshavn stations. In summer trends in this index were negative. This decrease was the strongest and the most pronounced at Dikson station.
EN
The paper aims to present the structure of weather types at two meteorological stations Galle and Nuwara Eliya (Sri Lanka). The weather type is determined as a generalized characteristic of the weather by features and gradation of selected meteorological elements. All available data on daily average, maximum and minimum air temperature, the average daily total cloud amount and the daily precipitation amount come from OGIMET database and have been used to designate weather types. The analysis was performed for the period April 2002 - March 2012. The weather types were designated based on the modified A. Woś (2010) classification of weather types. The frequency of groups, subgroups, classes, and types of weather were determined. Additionally, determined frequency of sequences of days with the same weather type. The analysis allows to conclude, that the structure of weather types at both stations was poorly differentiated. There were very stable weather conditions. In Galle, the most frequent was very warm, partly cloudy weather, without precipitation (920) and in Nuwara Eliya warm, partly cloudy weather without precipitation (820).
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PL
Opracowanie przedstawia strukturę typów pogody na stacji Ostrov Kotelnyj znajdującej się w archipelagu Wysp Nowosyberyjskich. Analizę przeprowadzono dla okresu XII 1999 – XI 2011. Typy pogody wyznaczono w oparciu o zmodyfikowaną klasyfikację typów pogody J. Ferdynusa (1997, 2004, 2013). Na podstawie dobowych danych termicznych, średniego zachmurzenia, sumy opadów atmosferycznych i prędkości wiatru wydzielono 486 typów pogody. W tym celu wykorzystano dane z internetowej bazy depesz synoptycznych OGIMET. Opisano częstość występowania poszczególnych grup, podgrup, klas i typów pogody oraz ciągi dni z typami pogody. Wykonana analiza pozwala stwierdzić, że w badanym okresie struktura typów pogody na Wyspach Nowosyberyjskich charakteryzuje się dużą liczbą obserwowanych typów pogody, przy niewielkiej częstości występowania większości z nich. W skali roku dominowały pogody mroźne. Najczęściej notowano pogodę wyjątkowo mroźną, z zachmurzeniem umiarkowanym, bez opadu i ze słabym wiatrem (typ 2201 – 6,99%), nieco rzadziej występowały pogody przymrozkowo-odwilżowe z dużym zachmurzeniem i opadem oraz słabym wiatrem (typ 6311 – 5,34%) oraz bardzo mroźne z dużym zachmurzeniem i opadem oraz słabym wiatrem (typ 3311 – 5,03%).
EN
Feb the paper aims to determine the structure of the weather types in Kotelnyj Island (New Sibirian Islands) representing Siberian region of the Arctic adopting the method by J. Ferdynus (2004,2013). In order to define weather types 4 meteorological elements were used: air temperature, cloudiness, precipitation and wind. The data for the Ostrov Kotelnyj synoptic station covering the period of Dec 1999-Nov 2011 were taken from the OGIMET. The data collection is not complete. Gaps exist for 3.35% of the days of the period. For this reason there were classified groups, subgroups, classes and types of weather and their frequency. It was researched that structure of the weather types in Kotelnyj Island is characterized by a large number of types. However, most of the weather types had of low frequency. The 30% of observed types were recognized only once within the analyzed period. The core of structure of weather types is created by 19 weather types recorded a total of two thirds of the year. The type 2201 was the most frequently occurred. Number of types of weather in different decades was as equal. The period of more stable weather conditions observed in the autumn, when the number of types of weather was less than average. Number of classes of weather, characterized by equal cloudy, the amount of rain and wind (NRV) was also high. Dominated days without rain and with light breeze and strong breeze. The range of observed groups weather was very wide. Occurred 9 out of 10 possible groups of weather. Cold weather prevailed (1NRV, 2NRV, 3NRV). The sequences of the same weather type were also analyzed, which showed that the most common were the sequences of 2 or 3 days long. Series of day with the same weather conditions lasting longer than 7 days were observed mainly in the summer months, which indicates a stable atmospheric conditions present at the time. The results were compared with Hornsund (Spitsbergen) data (Ferdynus 2013) typical for the Atlantic sector of the Arctic.
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