Narzędzia help

Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
first last
cannonical link button

http://yadda.icm.edu.pl:80/baztech/element/bwmeta1.element.baztech-article-LOD9-0026-0024

Czasopismo

Silniki Spalinowe

Tytuł artykułu

Effect of EGR on nanoprticles at Common-rail diesel engines exhaust

Autorzy Merola, S. S.  Tornatore, C.  Vaglieco, B. M. 
Treść / Zawartość http://www.combustion-engines.eu/
Warianty tytułu
Konferencja Kongres Silników Spalinowych (20-23.05.2007; Kraków, Poland)
Języki publikacji EN
Abstrakty
EN In the last years, diesel emission control strategies based on engine design and after-treatment devices, have been very successful in the reduction of the total particulate mass and gaseous emissions. Nevertheless they have been significantly less effective in reducing the total number of particles. Thus, when EURO 5 will be introduced, it will be difficult to meet the emission standards with the present technologies. Nowadays diesel engines are equipped with the Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system that allows the reduction of thermal-Nitrogen Oxides but it could also influence particles emissions. For this reason, the aim of the present work is to evaluate the effect of EGR on the balance between the primary particles and the aggregates at the exhaust of diesel engines. The idea is to find out a relation between EGR percentage and the size of the emitted particles for every speed and load. Two different methodologies for detection, sizing and counting nanoparticles were used. Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) measured the particle size distributions in the range 7 nm-10 μm, without distinction between primary particles and aggregates. Laser Induced Incandescence (LII) allowed to determine soot primary particles diameter. ELPI measurements pointed out the increasing of number concentration and size of particles with the EGR. The size distributions showed a maximum in the range of 54-91nm with negligible number of particles larger than 300 nm. For alt the conditions, an increase of number concentration of particles bigger than 54 nm and a reduction of smaller ones was measured. This was due to the agglomeration effect caused by the reintroduction of particles contained in the exhaust gases into the cylinder during the EGR. LII measurements showed that at fixed engine speed and for alt EGR values, the diameters of primary particles increased with engine load. Moreover smaller primary particles were formed at higher speed. With respect to EGR variation, for every condition the primary particles diameters increased due to the partial oxidation of soot recirculated in the combustion chamber ad the successive superficial growth. Taking into account the proposed results, for each engine operating condition, the best EGR value could be chosen taking into account the size distribution of the produced particles and not only the NOx-soot trade-off.
Słowa kluczowe
PL silnik wysokoprężny common rail   silnik Diesla   EGR   nanocząstki   żarzenie wywołane laserem  
EN EGR   Common Rail Diesel Engine   nanoparticles   ELPI   Laser Induced Incandescence  
Wydawca Polskie Towarzystwo Naukowe Silników Spalinowych
Czasopismo Silniki Spalinowe
Rocznik 2007
Tom R. 46, nr SC3
Strony 206--217
Opis fizyczny Bibliogr. 33 poz.
Twórcy
autor Merola, S. S.
autor Tornatore, C.
autor Vaglieco, B. M.
  • Instituto Motori - CNR Italy
Bibliografia
[1] Lahaye J. and Prado G., "Morphology and Internal Structure of Soot and Carbon Blacks, in Particulate Carbon", ed. Siegla D. and Smith G., Plenum Press, New York, 1981.
[2] Dolan D.F., Kittelson D.B., Whitby K.T., "Measurement of Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions." Paper No. 75-WA/APC-5, ed. American Society of Mechanical Engineers: New York, 1975.
[3] Seinfeld I.H., Pandis N.P., "From Air Pollution to Climate Change.", Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, ed. John Wiley & Sons: USA, 1999.
[4] Kihong P., Kittelson D., McMurry P., "Structural Properties of Diesel Exhaust Particles Measured by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM): Relationships to Particle Mass and Mobility," Aerosol Science and Technology, v.38-n.9, pp. 881-889(9), 2004.
[5] Metz N., Resch G., Steinparzer F., "Size distribution and characteristics of soot particles from modem diesel engines", MTZ 61 (2000) H.1, Vieweg U. Sohn- Verlag, Wiesbaden, 2000.
[6] Nygaard U.C., Samuelsen M., Aase A., Lovik M. "The Capacity of Particles to Increase Allergic Sensitization Is Predicted by Particle Number and Surface Area, Not by Particle Mass" Toxicol. Sci., 82(2): pp.515 - 524, December 1, 2004.
[7] Heywood I.B., "Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals", McGraw-Hill, 1988.
[8] Canale S. and Scotton R., "Calcolo della percentuale di EGR - Motori - Sistemi Diesel ed Emissioni", Orbassano, January, 1992.
[9] Morsch o. and Sorsche P., (DaimlerChrysler AG) "Investigation of Alternative Methods to Determine Particulate Mass Emissions" http://www.oica.net/htdocs/Main.htm
[10] Maricq M., Xu N., Chase E., "Measuring particulate mass Emissions with the Electrical Low Pressure Impactor", Aerosol Science and Technology, v. 40, pp.68 - 79, 2006.
[11] Zhao H. and Ladommatos N., "Engine combustion instrumentation an diagnostics", SAE International, 2001.
[12] Virtanen A., Ristimaki J., Marjamaki M., Vaaraslahti K., Keskinen J., Lappi M., "Effective Density of Diesel Exhaust Particles as a Function of Size", SAE Technical paper n. 2002-01-0056, 2002.
[13] Maricq M., Podsiadlik D. and Chase R., Examination of the Size-Resolved and Transient Nature of Motor Vehicle Particle Emissions, Environ. Sci. Technol. v. 33: 1618-1626, 1999.
[14] Melton L.A., "Soot Diagnostics Based on Laser Heating", Applied Optics, v. 23, pp. 2201-2208, 1984.
[15] Schraml S., Will S., Leipertz A, "Simultaneous Measurement of Soot Mass Concentration and Primary Particle Size in the Exhaust of a DI Diesel Engine by Time-Resolved Laser-Induced Incandescence (TIRE-LII)", SAE Technical paper n. 1999-01-0146, 1999.
[16] De Iuliis S., Cignoli F., Benecchi S., Zizak G., "Determination of soot parameters by a two-angle scattering-extinction technique in an ethylene diffusion flame", Applied Optics, v. 37, pp. 7865-7874, 1998.
[17] McCoy B.J. and Cha C.Y., "Transport Phenomena in the Rarefied Gas Transition Regime", Chemical Engineering Science, v. 29, pp. 381-388, 1974.
[18] Snelling D.R., Smallwood G.J., Gulder O.L., Bachalo W.D., Sankar S., "Soot Volume Fraction Characterization Using the Laser-Induced Incandescence Detection Method", Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Applications of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon - Portugal, July, 2000.
[19] Bachalo W.D., Sankar S.V., Smallwood G.J. Snelling D.R., "Development of the Laser-Induced Incandescence Method for the Reliable Characterization of Particulate Emissions", 11th International Symposium on Application of Laser Techniques to Fluid Mechanics, Lisbon - Portugal, July, 2002.
[20] Merola S.S., Vaglieco B.M., Tornatore C., "Characterization of Nanoparticles at the Exhaust of a Common Rail Diesel Engine by Optical Techniques and Conventional Method", SAE Technical paper n. 2005-01-2155, 2005.
[21] Di Iorio S., Merola S.S., Vaglieco B.M., Tornatore C., "Diesel Exhaust Nanoparticles Characterization by Multiwavelength Techniques, Laser Induced Incandescence and ELPI", SAE Technical paper n. 2005-24-021, 2005.
[22] Vander Wal R.L., "Development and Characterization of Laser-Induced Incandescence Towards Nanoparticle (Soot) Detection", NASA/CR, 2000-209309, 2000.
[23] Lundquist O., Smedler G., Stalhammar P., "A comparison between different EGR systems for HD diesel engines and their effects on performance, fuel consumption and emissions.", SAE technical paper n. 2000-01-0226, 2000.
[24] Ladommatos N., Abdelhalim S., Zhao H., "The Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Diesel Combustion and Emissions", International Journal of Engine Research, v.1-n.1, pp. 107-126, 28 February, 2000.
[25] Agrawal AK., Singh S.K., Sinha S., Shukla M.K., "Effect of EGR on the exhaust gas temperature and exhaust opacity in compression ignition engines", Sadhana, v. 29, Part 3, June 2004, pp. 275-284, 2004.
[26] Sluder C.S., Wagner R.M., Storey J.M.E., Lewis S.A., "Implications of Particulate and Precursor Compounds Formed During High-Efficiency Clean Combustion in a Diesel Engine", SAE Technical paper n. 2005-01-3844, 2005.
[27] Zhu I., Lee K., Panov A, Akers I, Habeger C., "An Investigation of Particle Morphology, Microstructure, and Fractal Geometry for a Diesel Engine-Simulating Combustor", SAE Technical paper n. 2004-01-3044, pp. 1-8, 2004.
[28] Tennison P.J. and Reitz R., "An Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Common-Rail Injection System Parameters on Emissions and Performance in a High-Speed Direct-Injection Diesel Engine", Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power, v. 123, Issue 1, pp. 167-174, January, 2001.
[29] Flaig D., "Common Rail System (Cr-System) for Passenger Car DI Diesel Engines-Experiences With Applications for Series Production Projects", SAE Technical paper n. 1999-01-0191, 1999.
[30] Stotz M, Schommers I, Duvinage F., Peters A, Ellwanger S., Koyanagi K., Gildein H., Potential of Common-Rail Injection System for Passenger Car DI Diesel Engines, SAE Technical paper n. 2000-01-0944, 2000.
[31] Nagle I, Strickland-Constable R.F., "Fifth Carbon Conference", v. 1, p.154, Pergamon, Oxford, 1962.
[32] Frenklach M. and Wang H., "Detailed modeling of soot particle nucleation and growth", Twenty-Third Symposium (International) on Combustion, The Combustion Institute, pp. 1559-1566, 1990.
[33] Frenklach M. and Wang H. - "Detailed mechanism and modeling of soot particle formation" - Soot Formation in Combustion, Springer- Verlag, pp. 165-192, 1994.
Kolekcja BazTech
Identyfikator YADDA bwmeta1.element.baztech-article-LOD9-0026-0024
Identyfikatory