Leaf litter diversity leads to non-additivity in stream detritivore colonization dynamics
Resource heterogeneity in the lake littoral zones and streams often takes the form of leaf litter diversity. Since resource quality varies between leaf species, diversity of leaf litter inputs to these systems may alter detritivore dynamics. We challenged the assumption that stream detritivores view their leaf resources independently, and that shredder colonization dynamics were additive. We developed a null model that suggests the temporal coefficient of variation in abundance of detritivores declines as leaf diversity increases. We then conducted an experiment in which leaf composition was manipulated in a stream and shredder abundance was followed. Shredder stability was low on single leaf species, increased at intermediate levels, then declined at maximum levels. The null model did not predict the low stability observed, suggesting other ecological factors influenced shredder abundance. Non-additive patterns in colonization support the notion that leaf diversity leads to emergent properties, altering consumer dynamics in this ecosystem.
Bibliogr. 44 poz., tab., wykr.
- Department of Geography and Environmental Systems, University of Maryland Baltimore County, 211 Social Sciences Building, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, Maryland 21250 USA
- Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 USA
- 1. Alvarado J.L., R. Pinto, P. Marquet, C. Pacheco, R. Guiñez and J.C. Castilla. 2001. Patch recolonization by the tunicate Pyura praeputialis in the rocky intertidal of the Bay of Antofagasta, Chile: evidence for self-facilitation mechanisms. Marine Ecology Progress Series 224:93-101.
- 2. Bärlocher, F. and B. Kendrick. 1975. Leaf-conditioning by microorganisms. Oecologia 20: 359-362.
- 3. Brooks, S.S., M.A. Palmer, B.J. Cardinale, C.M. Swan and S. Ribblett. 2002. Assessing stream ecosystem rehabilitation: limitations of community structure data. Restoration Ecology 10:156-168.
- 4. Campbell, I.C. and L. Fuchshuber, 1995. Polyphenols, condensed tannins, and processing rates of tropical and temperate leaves in an Australian stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 14:174-182.
- 5. Cottingham, K.L., B.L. Brown and J.T Lennon. 2001. Biodiversity may regulate the temporal variability of ecological systems. Ecology Letters 4:72-85.
- 6. Cummins, K.W. 1986. Riparian influence on stream ecosystems. Pages 45-56 in Campbell, I.C. (ed.) Stream protection: The management of rivers for in- stream uses. Water Studies Centre, Chisholm Institute of Technology, Australia.
- 7. Cummins, K.W. and M.J. Klug. 1979. Feeding ecology of stream invertebrates. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 10: 147-172.
- 8. Cummins, K.W., R.C. Petersen, F.O. Howard, J.C. Wuycheck, V.I. Holt. 1973. The utilization of leaf litter by stream detritivores. Ecology 54:336-345.
- 9. Cummins K.W., M.A. Wilzbach, D.M. Gates, J.B. Perry and W.B. Taliaferro. 1989. Shredders and riparian vegetation. BioScience 39:24-30.
- 10. Dieterich, M., N.H. Anderson and T.M. Anderson. 1997. Shredder-collector interactions in temporary streams of western Oregon. Freshwater Biology 38:387-393.
- 11. Doak, D.F., D. Bigger, E.K. Harding, M.A. Marvier, R.E. O’Malley and D. Thompson. 1998. The statistical inevitability of the stability-diversity relationships in community ecology. The American Naturalist 151:64-276.
- 12. Fisher, S.G. and G.E. Likens. 1973. Energy flow in Bear Brook, New Hampshire: An integrative approach to stream ecosystem metabolism. Ecological Monographs 43:421-439.
- 13. Fleming, G.P., P.P. Coulling, D.P. Walton, K.M. McCoy, and M.R. Parrish. 2001. The natural communities of Virginia: classification of ecological community groups. First approximation. Natural Heritage Technical Report 01-1. Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, Richmond, VA. Unpublished report. January 2001. 76 pp.
- 14. Golladay, S.W., J.R. Webster and E.F. Benfield. 1983. Factors affecting food utilization by a leaf shredding aquatic insect: leaf species and conditioning time. Holarctic Ecology 6:157-162.
- 15. Gregory, S.V., F.J. Swanson, W.A. McKee and K.W. Cummins. 1991. An ecosystem perspective of riparian zones: focus on links between land and water. BioScience 41:540-551.
- 16. Haapala A, T. Muotka and A. Markkola. 2001. Breakdown and macroinvertebrate and fungal colonization of alder, birch, and willow leaves in a boreal forest stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20: 395-407.
- 17. Hall, Jr, R.O., G.E. Likens and H.M. Malcom. 2001. Trophic basis of invertebrate production in 2 streams at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20: 432-447.
- 18. Herbst, G.N. 1982. Effects of leaf type on the consumption rates of aquatic detritivores. Hydrobiologia 89:77-87.
- 19. Irons, J.G., III, M.W. Oswood and J.P. Bryant. 1988. Consumption of leaf detritus by a stream shredder: Influence of tree species and nutrient status. Hydrobiologia 160:53-61.
- 20. Kleinbaum, D.G., L.L. Küpper and K.E. Muller. 1988. Regression diagnostics. Chapter 12 in Applied Regression Analysis and Other Multivariable Methods. Duxbury Press, Belmont California, USA. 718 pages.
- 21. Leff, L.G. and J.V. McArthur. 1989. The effect of leaf pack composition on processing: a comparison of mixed and single species packs. Hydrobiologia 182:219-224.
- 22. Linklater, W. 1995. Breakdown and detritivore colonisation of leaves in three New Zealand streams. Hydrobiologia 306:241-250.
- 23. Littell, R.C., G.A. Milliken, W.W. Stroup and R.D. Wolfinger. 1996. Heterogeneous variance models. Chapter 8 in SAS System for Mixed Models. SAS Institute Inc, Cary, North Carolina, USA. 633 pages.
- 24. Malmqvist, B. 1993. Interactions in stream leaf packs: effects of a stonefly predator on detrtivores and organic matter processing. Oikos 66:454-462.
- 25. Motomori, K., H. Mitsuhashi and S. Nakano. 2001. Influence of leaf litter quality on the colonization and consumption of stream invertebrate shredders. Ecological Research 16 (2): 173-182.
- 26. Naiman, R.J. and H. Decamps. 1997. The ecology of interfaces: riparian zones. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28:621-658.
- 27. Oberndorfer, R.Y., J.V. McArthur and J.R. Barnes. 1984. The effect of invertebrate predators on leaf litter processing in an alpine stream. Ecology 65:1325-1331.
- 28. Ostrofsky M.L. 1993. Effect of tannins on leaf processing and conditioning rates in aquatic ecosystems: an empirical approach. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50:1176-1180.
- 29. Ostrofsky M.L. 1997. Relationship between chemical characteristics of autumn- shed leaves and aquatic processing rates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16:750-759.
- 30. Palmer, M.A., C.M. Swan, K. Nelson, P. Silver and R. Alvestad. 1997. Streambed landscapes; evidence that stream invertebrates respond to the type and spatial arrangement of patches. Landscape Ecology 15:563-586.
- 31. Petersen, R.C. and K. W. Cummins. 1974. Leaf processing in a woodland stream. Freshwater Biology 4: 343-368.
- 32. Rosenfeld, J. 2000. Effects of fish predation in erosional and depositional habitats in a temperate stream. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 57:1369-1379.
- 33. Ruetz, C.R., III, R.M. Newman B. Vondracek. 2002. Top-down control in a detritus-based food web: fish, shredders, and leaf breakdown. Oecologia 132:307-315.
- 34. Sheldon, A.L. 1977. Colonization curves: application to stream insects on seminatural substrates. Oikos 28: 256-261.
- 35. Sheldon, A.L. 1984. Colonization dynamics of aquatic insects. Chapter 13 in V.H. Resh and D.M. Rosenberg (eds.) The Ecology of Aquatic Insects. Praeger, New York, USA. 625 pages.
- 36. Short, R.A. and P.E. Maslin. 1977. Processing of leaf litter by a stream detritivore: effect of nutrient availability to collectors. Ecology 58:935-938.
- 37. Smock, L.A. and C.M. MacGregor. 1988. Impact of the American chestnut blight on aquatic shredding macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 7:212-221.
- 38. Swan, C.M., and M.A. Palmer. 2004. Leaf diversity alters litter breakdown in a Piedmont stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 23(1): 15-28.
- 39. Sweeney B.W. 1993. Effects of streamside vegetation on macroinvertebrate communities of White Clay Creek in eastern North America. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 144:291-340.
- 40. Usio, N. 2000. Effects of crayfish on leaf processing and invertebrate colonisation of leaves in a headwater stream: decoupling of a trophic cascade. Oecologia 124:608-614.
- 41. Wallace, J.B., S.L. Eggert, J.L. Meyer and J.R. Webster. 1997. Multiple trophic levels of a forest stream linked to terrestrial litter inputs. Science 277:102-104.
- 42. Wallace J.B., S.L. Eggert, J.L. Meyer and J.R. Webster. 1999. Effects of resource limitation on a detrital-based ecosystem. Ecological Monographs 69:409-442.
- 43. Wallace, J.B., J.R. Webster and T.F. Cuffney. 1982. Stream detritus dynamics: regulation by invertebrate consumers. Oecologia 53:197-200.
- 44. Webster J.R. and E.F. Benfield. 1986. Vascular plant breakdown in freshwater ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17:567-594.