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http://yadda.icm.edu.pl:80/baztech/element/bwmeta1.element.baztech-article-BUJ8-0019-0074

Czasopismo

Journal of KONES

Tytuł artykułu

Selected problems of terrorist threats to the transport infrastructure

Autorzy Nowacki, G. 
Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji EN
Abstrakty
EN The paper presents problems of terrorism threats for transportation infrastructure. The range of transportation infrastructure has spread, and includes railway, inland waterways, road, maritime, air, intermodal transport infrastructure and intelligent transport systems (ITS). ITS means systems in which information and communication technologies are applied in the field of road transport, including infrastructure, vehicles and users, and in traffic management and mobility management, as well as for interfaces with other modes of transport. ITS application means an operational instrument for the application of ITS. ITS service is the provision of an ITS application through a welldefined organisational and operational framework with the aim of contributing to the user safety, efficiency, comfort and/or to facilitate or support transport and travel operations. Terrorism means acts of violence committed by groups that view themselves as victimized by some notable historical wrong. Although these groups have no formal connection with governments, they usually have the financial and moral backing of sympathetic governments. Typically, they stage unexpected attacks on civilian targets, including transport infrastructure, with the aim of sowing fear and confusion. Based on the analyses, transportation infrastructure is potentially threatened with terrorism attacks, especially road and rail infrastructure (about 23 %), and to a smaller degree the maritime and air transport infrastructure (about 2 %). Legal steps to fight terrorism have been taken on the international level; furthermore, some institutions have been established for this purpose at the UN, NATO and UE level as well as Poland too.
Słowa kluczowe
EN intelligent transport systems ITS   transport infrastructure   terrorist threats  
Wydawca Institute of Aviation
Czasopismo Journal of KONES
Rocznik 2012
Tom Vol. 19, No. 2
Strony 365--374
Opis fizyczny Bibliogr. 21 poz., rys.
Twórcy
autor Nowacki, G.
  • Military University of Technology, Cybernetics Faculty Sylwester Kaliski Street 2, 00-908 Warsaw 49, Poland tel.: +48 226839702, fax: +48 226837539, gnowacki@wat.edu.pl
Bibliografia
[1] Aleksandrowicz, T. R., International terrorism, Warsaw 2008.
[2] Commission Implementing Decision 2011/453/EU of 13 July 2011 adopting guidelines for reporting by the Member States under Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council (notified under document C2011/4947). OJ of the EU, L 193/48, 49 of 23/7/2011.
[3] Directive 2010/40/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 July 2010 on the framework for the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems in the field of road transport and for interfaces with other modes of transport. OJ of EU, L 207 , 06/08/2010 P. 0001 – 0013.
[4] Encyclopaedia PWN, PWN, Warsaw 1982.
[5] NATO (2010), Strategic Concept for the Defense and Security of The Members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Adopted by Heads of State and Government in Lisbon, http://www.nato.int/lisbon2010/strategic-concept-2010-eng.pdf, 2010.
[6] Makarski, A., Atiterrrosim Center of ABW. Genesis, activities, rules and experiences after one year functioning, Review of Internal Security, No 2, Warsaw, 2010. http://www.abw.gov.pl/portal/pl/273/642/Przeglad_Bezpieczenstwa_Wewnetrznego_nr_2_2_2010.html.
[7] M/453 EN. Standardization mandate addressed to CEN, CENELEC and ETSI in the field of information and communication technologies to support the interoperability of co-operative systems for Intelligent Transport in the European Community, DG ENTR/D4, Brussels, 6th October 2009.
[8] Mirowski, W., Study on Polish country infrastructure, The equipment areas of social infrastrycture, T. III, PAN Instytut Rozwoju Wsi i Rolnictwa, Warszawa 1996.
[9] Olechów, B., Terrorism in after bipolar Word. Adam Marszałek, Toruń 2002.
[10] Pawłowski, A., Terrorism in Europeof XIX & XX century, Lubuski Komitet Upowszechniania Prasy, Zielona Góra 1994.
[11] Regulation (EEC) No 1108/70 of the Council of 4 June 1970 introducing an accounting system for expenditure on infrastructure in respect of transport by rail, road and inland waterway. OJ L 130, 15.6.1970, pp. 4–14.
[12] Regulation (EEC) No 2598/70 of the Commission of 18 December 1970 specifying the items to be included under the various headings in the forms of accounts shown in Annex I to Council Regulation (EEC) No 1108/70 of 4 June 1970. OJ L 278, 23.12.1970, pp. 1–5.
[13] Commission Regulation (EC) No 851/2006 of 9 June 2006 specifying the items to be included under the various headings in the forms of accounts shown in Annex I to Council Regulation (EEC) No 1108/70. OJ L 158, 10.6.2006, pp. 3–8 .
[14] Rydzkowski, W., Wojewódzka-Król, K. (red.), Transport, PWN, Warszawa 2008.
[15] Schmid, A. P., Political Terrorism: A New Giude to Actors, Authors, Concepts, Data Bases, Theories and Literature, New Brunswich, NJ 1988.
[16] Schmid, A. P., Jongman, A., Political terrorism, SWIDOC, Amsterdam 1988,
[17] Polish language dictionary (Słownik języka polskiego), PWN, Warsaw 1978.
[18] Strategy of National Security for Republic of Poland, Warsaw 2007.
[19] The act from 16 April 2004 on change of the act – Penal Code (Kodeks Karny) and others acts, No. 93, pos. 889, OJ 2004.
[20] The report of Aon Global Risk Consulting, http://forsal.pl/wiadomosci/polska/341600.html; http: //www.aon.com/poland, 2008 and 2009.
[21] The report of UNIC, http://www.unic.un.org.pl/terroryzm/definicje.php, from 10.02.2012.
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