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Geohazards due to technologically enhanced natural radioactive wastes

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Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
Human activities can modify naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) into technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) as a result of industrial activities. Most of these industries do not intend to work with radioactive material a priori. However, whenever a uranium- or thorium-bearing mineral is exploited, NORM-containing by-products and TENORM-contaminated wastes are created. The industrial use of NORM can result in non-negligible radiation exposure of workers and members of the public, exceeding by far the radiation exposure from nuclear technologies. For decades, millions of tons of NORM have been released into the environment without adequate control or even with the lack of any control. Various technologies have been developed for the control of NORM wastes. The paper discusses the merits and limitations of different NORM-waste management techniques, such as Containment, Immobilization, Dilution/Dispersion, Natural Attenuation, Separation, and - as an alternative - Cleaner Technologies. Each of these methods requires a comprehensive risk-benefitcost analysis.
Czasopismo
Rocznik
Strony
922--938
Opis fizyczny
Bibliogr. 17 poz.
Twórcy
Bibliografia
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  • British Petroleum (BP), http://www.bp.com/liveassets/bp_internet/globalbp/globalbp_uk_english/reports_and_publications/statistical_energy_review_2008/STAGING/local_assets/downloads/pdf/gas_table_of_natural_gas_production_million_tonnes_2008.pdf (last visited: 2 June 2009).
  • Degrange, J.-P., and S. Lepicard (2004), Evaluation of occupational radiological exposures associated with fly ash from French coal power plants, Proc. Int. Conference “Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials” (NORM IV), 17-21 May 2004, Szczyrk, Poland, IAEA-TECDOC-1472, Vienna, 230-239.
  • IAEA (1996), International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources, International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA Safety Standards, Safety Series 115.
  • IAEA (2003), Extent of environmental contamination by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) and technological options for mitigation, International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA Technical Report Series 49.
  • IAEA (2006), Regulatory and management approaches for the control of environment al residues containing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA-TECDOC-1484.
  • IRPA (2008), Proceedings of the 12th Congress of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA), Buenos Aires, Argentina, October 19-24, 2008.
  • Karangelos, D.J., P.K. Rouni, N.P. Petropoulos, M.J. Anagnostakis, E.P. Hinis, and S.E. Simopoulos (2005), Radioenvironmental survey of the Megalopolis power plants fly ash deposits, Radioactiv. Environm. 7, 1025-1029.
  • NORM II (1998), Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials, Krefeld, Germany, November 10-13, 1998.
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  • NRE VI (1996), Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on the Natural Radiation Environment, Montreal, Canada, June 5-6, 1995, Environ. Int. 22, Suppl. 1
  • Paschoa, A.S., and F. Steinhäusler (2005), Orphan sources of NORM/TENORM throughout the world, Radioactiv. Environm. 7, 1017-1024.
  • Paschoa, A.S, and F. Steinhäusler (2010), Technologically Enhanced Natural Radioactivity, Elsevier.
  • Puch, K.-H., R. Bialucha, and G. Keller (2005), Naturally occurring radioactivity in industrial by-products from coal-fired power plants, from municipal waste incineration and from the iron- and steel-industry, Radioactiv. Environm. 7, 996-1008.
  • TENR II (1999), Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, September 12-17, 1999, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), IAEA-TECDOC-1271 (2002).
  • Trotti, F., S. Bucci, B. Dalzocchio, C. Zampieri, M. Lanciai, C. Innocenti, S. Maggiolo, L. Gaidolfi, and M. Belli (2005), Towards the identification of work activities involving NORM in Italy, Radioactiv. Environm. 7, 973-984.
  • UNSCEAR (2000), Sources and effects of ionizing radiation, UNSCEAR 2000 Report, United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, New York.
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.baztech-article-BSL1-0009-0032
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