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Hydrogen as a fuel and as a coolant - from the superconductivity perspective

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Superconductors have a great potential in the future development of transportation and energy supply applications. Although MgB2 superconductors that operate at liquid hydrogen temperatures are not yet commercially available, research indicates that these will be feasible in the future. Novel concepts for transportation and energy supply that would be possible using medium temperature MgB2 superconductors include the non-polluting 'cryoplane', a self contained full electric superconducting ship, and cheaper superconducting MgB2 magnets for the fusion, small energy storage and possibly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. Superconducting conductors based on magnesium borides have been developed in Cambridge that can be fabricated into cables for power transport with minimal losses. Development of liquid hydrogen cooled MgB2 superconducting DC cables are also under consideration. Hydrogen used as a coolant, as well as an energy carrier, may spin off new research and developments in superconducting materials and efficient energy use.
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Bibliogr. 18 poz., tab., rys.
  • Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ, UK Institute of Power Engineering, ul Augustówka 36, 02-981 Warsaw, Poland,
  • [1]
  • [2] GLOWACKI B.A., MAJOROS M., VICKERS M, EVETTS J.E., SHI Y. and MCDOUGALL I., Superconductor Science and Technology, 14 (2001) 193.
  • [3] GLOWACKI B.A., MAJOROS M., VICKERS M., EISTERER M., S. TOENIES S., WEBER H.W., M. FUKUTOMI M., KOMORI K. and TOGANO K. 'Composite Cu/Fe/MgB2superconducting wires and MgB2 tapes for AC and DC applications' Supercond. Sci. Technol. 16 (2003) 297.
  • [4] GLOWACKI B.A. ‘Development of Nb-based Conductors’ in: Frontiers in Superconducting Materials, ed. A. Narlikar, Springer Verlag (2005) 697.
  • [5] YAMADA S., HISHINUMA Y., UEDU T., SHIPPL K., YANAGI N., MITO T. and SATO M., ‘Conceptual Design of 1 GW Class Hybrid Energy Transfer Line of Hydrogen and Electricity’EUCAS 2009, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 234 (2010) 03206; also ‘Design of 1 GW Class Hybrid Energy Transfer Line of Hydrogen and Electricity and Development of its MgB2 Cable’ presented at ICEC 23/ICMC 19-23 July 2010, Wroclaw Poland to be published in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering.
  • [6]
  • [7] NUTTAL W.J., GLOWACKI B.A., and BROMBERG L., Fusion island – latest considerations concerning magnetic fusion, hydrogen cryomagnetics and thermochemical hydrogen production’ Proceedings of Novel Aspects of Surfaces and Materials (NASM 3) Manchester, 11-15 April 2010.
  • [8] NUTTAL W.J. and GLOWACKI B.A., Nuclear Engineering International, Jul (2008) 38
  • [9] NUTTALL W.J.,‘Nuclear Renaissance - Technologies and Policies for the Future of Nuclear Power’, IoP Publishing Bristol 2004 ISBN: 0750309369
  • [10]
  • [11] GLOWACKI B.A. and NUTTALL W.J., ‘Assessment of liquid hydrogen cooled MgB2 conductors for magnetically confined fusion’, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 97 (2008) 012333.
  • [12] GLOWACKI B.A., ‘Hydrogen cryomagnetics: the way forward for superconductivity’ presented at ICEC 23/ICMC 19- 23 July 2010, Wroclaw Poland to be published in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering.
  • [13] CLARKE R. and GLOWACKI B.A., ‘Indirect hydrogen versus helium or nitrogen cooling for fusion cryogenic systems’ presented at ICEC 23/ICMC 19-23 July 2010, Wroclaw Poland to be published in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering.
  • [14] MCDONALD K.T., IAROCCI M., KIRK H.G., MULHOLLAND G.T., TITUS P.H. and WEGGEL R.J ‘Use of He Gas Cooled by Liquid Hydrogen with a 15-T Pulsed Copper Solenoid Magnet’ presented at ICEC 23/ICMC 19-23 July 2010, Wroclaw, Poland; to be published in Advances in Cryogenic Engineering and also
  • [15] NUTTALL W., CLARKE R. and GLOWACKI B.A., ‘Fusion Island’ The Engineer 31 October (2005). p. 16
  • [16] Russian-German Cooperative Venture Study Report, Cryoplane 1992
  • [17] Rolls-Royce and the Cambridge-MIT Institute: ‘Silence plane’
  • [18] PATEL A, PALKA R. and GLOWACKI B.A., ‘New fully superconducting hybrid bearing concept using the difference in irreversibility field of two superconducting components’ Presented at The 7th International Workshop on Processing and Applications of Superconducting (RE)BCO Large Grain Materials, July 29-31, Washington, D.C. USA and to be published in Supercond Sci. and Technology 2011.
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