The comparison of alteration zones in the Sungun porphyry copper deposit, Iran (based on fluid inclusion studies)
The Sungun porphyry copper deposit (PCD) is located in East Azarbaijan, in northwestern Iran. The felsic rocks occur as stocks and dykes ranging in composition from quartz monzodiorite through quartz monzonite. The stocks are classified into porphyry stocks I and II. Porphyry stock II, hosting the copper ore, experienced an intense hydro-fracturing leading to the formation of stockwork-type veinlets and micro-veinlets of quartz, sulphides, carbonates and sulphates. Three distinct types of hydrothermal alteration and sulphide mineralization are recognized at Sungun (1) hypogene, (2) contact metasomatic (skarn), and (3) supergene. Hypogene alteration is developed in four kinds: potassic, phyllic, propylitic and argillic. Three types of fluid inclusions are typically observed at Sungun: (1) vapour-rich, two-phase, (2) liquid-rich two-phase and (3)multi-phase. Halite is the principal solid phase in multiphase inclusions. Primary multiphase inclusions (LVH type fluid inclusions) within the quartz crystals in quartz-sulphide and quartz-molybdenite veinlets (quartz associated with sulphide minerals) were selected for micro-thermometric analyses and considered to be suitable for pressure calculations and estimation of hydrothermal fluid density. Homogenization temperature, salinity, pressure and density were measured and calculated in forty-seven selected samples. None of the variables could distinguish the potassic from phyllic alteration zones clearly. In the potassic alteration zone, the average of homogenization temperature is about 413[degrees]C, while in the phyllic alteration zone its average is about 375[degrees]C. It was expected that the temperature in the potassic alteration zone would be higher than that in the phyllic zone, but the difference found was not very significant The fluid inclusion salinity within both alteration zones obviously relates to their homogenization temperature: the average salinity in the samples from the potassic zone is 46.3 (wt%NaCl equiv.), which is higher than that in the samples from the phyllic zone. Based on the estimated depth of the potassic alteration domain, it is expected that the lithostatic pressure was higher than in the phyllic alteration zone. According to the fluid inclusion studies and pressure calculation, it is estimated that the average pressure for the potassic alteration zone was about 512 (bars) while the average pressure for phyllic zone was about 310 (bars). The average density of fluids in the samples from the potassic alteration zone is 1.124 (g/cm[^3]), which is higher than that in the phyllic alteration zone (1.083 g/cm[^3]).
Bibliogr. 44 poz.,Fot., rys., tab.,
- 1. Ahmad, S.N. and Rose, A.W. 1980. Fluid inclusions in porphyry and skarn ore at Santa Rita, New Mexico. Economic Geology, 75, 229–250.
- 2. Beane, R.E. and Bodnar, R.J. 1995. Hydrothermal fluids and hydrothermal alteration in porphyry copper deposits. In: Wahl, P.W. and Bolm, J.G. (Eds), Porphyry Copper Deposits of the American Cordillera, Tucson, Arizona, Arizona Geological Society, Arizona, pp. 83–93.
- 3. Beane, R.E. and Titley, S.R. 1981. Porphyry copper deposits, alteration and mineralization, part II. Economic Geology, 75, 235–269.
- 4. Berberian, M. 1983, The southern Caspian: A compressional depression floored by a trapped, modified oceanic crust. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 20, 163-183.
- 5. Berberian, M. and King, G.C. 1981. Towards a paleogegraphy and tectonic evolution of Iran. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, 18, 210–265.
- 6. Bloorn, M.S. 1981. Chemistry of inclusion fluids: Stockwork Molybdenum deposits from Questa, New Mexico, and Hudson Bay Mountain and Endako, British Columbia. Economic Geology, 76, 1906–1920.
- 7. Brown, P.E. 1989. FLINCOR: a microcomputer program for the reduction and investigation of fluid inclusion data. American Mineralogist, 74, 1390–1393.
- 8. Brown, P.E. and Lamb, W.M. 1989. P- V-T properties of fluids in the system H,O-CO,-NaCI: New graphical presentations and implications for fluid inclusion studies. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 53, 1209–1221.
- 9. Burnham, C.W. 1979. Magmas and hydrothermal fluids: in Geochemistry of Hydrothermal ore deposits, pp. 71–136. H. L. Barnes, Jon Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- 10. Calagari, A.A. 1997. Geochemical, stable isotope, noble gas, and fluid inclusion studies of mineralization and alteration at Sungun porphyry copper deposit, East Azarbaidjan, Iran: Implication for genesis. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Manchester University, Manchester, p. 537
- 11. Calagari, A.A. 2004. Fluid inclusion studies in quartz veinlets in the porphyry copper deposit at Sungun, East-Azarbaidjan, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 23, 179–189
- 12. Chivas, A.R. and Wilkins, W.T. 1977. Fluid inclusion studies in relation to hydrothermal alteration and mineralization at the Koloula porphyry copper prospect, Guadalcanal. Economic Geology, 72, 153–169.
- 13. Cloke, P.L. and Kesler, S.E. 1979. The halite trend in hydrothermal solutions. Economic Geology, 74, 1823–1831.
- 14. Dilles J.H. and Einaudi M.T. 1992.Wall-rock alteration and hydrothermal flow paths about the Ann-Mason porphyry copper deposits, Nevada—a 6-km vertical reconstruction. Economic Geology, 87, 1963–2001.
- 15. Emami, M.H. and Babakhani, A.R. 1991. Studies of geology, petrology, and litho-geochemistry of Sungun Cu–Mo deposit, Iranian Ministry of Mines and Metals, p. 61.
- 16. Etminan, H. 1977. The discovery of porphyry copper–molybdenum mineralization adjacent to Sungun village in the northwest of Ahar and a proposed program for its detailed exploration. Confidential Report, Geological Report, Geological Survey of Iran, p. 26
- 17. Gustafson, L.B. and Hunt, J.P. 1975. The porphyry copper deposit at El Salvador, Chile. Economic Geology, 70, 875–912.
- 18. Hedenquist J.W. and Richards J.P. 1998, The influence of geochemical techniques on the development of genetic models for porphyry copper deposits. In: Richards JP, Larson P.B. (Eds), Techniques in hydrothermal ore deposits geology. Review of Economic Geology, 10, 235–256
- 19. Heinrich, C.A. 2005. The physical and chemical evolution of low-salinity magmatic fluids at the porphyry to epithermal transition: a thermodynamic study. Mineralium Deposita, 39, 864–889.
- 20. Heinrich C.A., Pettke T., Halter W.E., Aigner-Torres M., Audetat A., Gunther D., Hattendorf B., Bleiner D., Guillong M. and Horn I. 2003, Quantitative multi-element analysis of minerals, fluid and melt inclusions by laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass-spectrometry. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67, 3473–3497.
- 21. Hezarkhani, A. 2006a, Petrology of Intrusive rocks within the Sungun Porphyry Copper Deposit, Azarbaijan, Iran. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 73, 326–340.
- 22. Hezarkhani, A. 2006b. Alteration/Mineralization and Controls of Chalcopyrite Dissolution/Deposition in the Raigan Porphyry System, Bam-Kerman, Iran. Journal of International Geology Review, California, 48, 561–572.
- 23. Hezarkhani, A., Williams-Jones, A.E. and Gammons, C.H. 1999. Factors controlling copper solubility and chalcopyrite deposition in the Sungun porphyry copper deposit, Iran. Mineralium Deposita, 34, 770–783.
- 24. Hezarkhani, A. and Williams-Jones, A.E. 1998. Controls of alteration and mineralization in the Sungun porphyry copper deposit, Iran: Evidence from fluid inclusions and stable isotopes. Economic Geology, 93, 651–670.
- 25. Kehayov R., Bogdanov K., Fanger L., von Quadt A., Pettke T. and Heinrich C.A. 2003. The fluid chemical evolution of the Elatiste porphyry Cu–Au–PGE deposit, Bulgaria. In: Eliopoulos D.G. (Ed.),Mineral exploration and sustainable development, pp. 1173–1176.Millpress; Rotterdam.
- 26. Mehrpartou, M. 1993. Contributions to the geology, geochemistry, ore genesis and fluid inclusion investigations on Sungun Cu-Mo porphyry deposit, northwest of Iran. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of Hamburg, Germany, p. 245
- 27. Nash, J.T. 1976. Fluid inclusion petrology, data from porphyry copper deposits and applications to exploration. United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper, 907-D, p. 16.
- 28. Quan, R.A., Cloke, P.L. and Kesler, S.E. 1987. Chemical analyses of halite trend inclusions from the Granisle porphyry copper deposit, British Columbia. Economic Geology, 82, 1912–1930.
- 29. Redmond P.B., Einaudi M.T., Inan E.E., Landtwing M.R. and Heinrich C.A. 2004. Copper deposition by fluid cooling in intrusion centered systems: new insights from the Bingham porphyry ore deposit, Utah. Geology, 32, 217–220.
- 30. Roedder, E. 1971. Fluid inclusion studies on the porphyry copper-type ore deposits at Bingham (Utah), Butte (Montana), and Climax (Colorado). Economic Geology, 66, 98–120.
- 31. Roedder, E. 1984. Fluid inclusions. Reviews in Mineralogy, 12, p. 644.
- 32. Roedder, E. and Bodnar, R.J. 1980. Geologic pressure determination from fluid inclusion studies. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Science, 8, 263–301.
- 33. Shahabpour, J. and Doorandish, M. 2007. Mine drainage water from the Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mine, Kerman, IR Iran. Environ Monit Assess, Accepted: 4 July 2007.
- 34. Shahabpour, J. 1982. Aspects of alteration and mineralization at the Sar-Cheshmeh copper-molybdenum deposit, Kerman, Iran. Ph.D. thesis, Leeds University, 342 p.
- 35. Sillitoe R.H. and Hedenquist J.W. 2003. Linkages between volcanotectonic settings, ore-fluid compositions and epithermal precious metal deposits. In: Simmons S.F., Graham (Eds), Volcanic, geothermal and ore-forming fluids: rulers and witnesses of processes within the earth. Economic Geology, Special Publication, p. 343.
- 36. Sillitoe R.H. 1997. Characteristics and controls of the largest porphyry copper–gold and epithermal gold deposits in the circum- Pacific region. Austral Journal of Earth Sciences, 44, 373–388.
- 37. Sourirajan, S. and Kennedy, G.C. 1962. The system H2O–NaCl at elevated temperatures and pressures. American Journal of Science, 260, 115–141.
- 38. Sterner, S.M., Hall, D.L. and Bodnar, R.J. 1988.Synthetic fluid inclusions. V. Solubility of the system NaCI-KCIH2O under vapor-saturated conditions. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 52, 989–1005.
- 39. Stocklin, J.O. 1977.Structural correlation of the Alpine ranges between Iran and Central Asia. Memoir Hors Service Societe Geologique France, 8, 333-353.
- 40. Tosdal R.M. and Richards, J.P. 2001.Magmatic and structural controls on the development of porphyry Cu±Mo±Au deposits. In: Richards, J.P. and Tosdal, R.M. (Eds), Structural controls on ore genesis. Reviews in Economic Geology, pp 157–180
- 41. Ulrich, T., Gunther, D. and Heinrich, C.A. 2001. The evolution of a porphyry Cu–Au deposit, based on La-ICP-MS analysis of fluid inclusions, Bajo de la Alumbrera, Argentina. Economic Geology, 96, 1743–1774.
- 42. Urusova, M.A. 1975. Volume properties of aqueous solutions of sodium chloride at elevated temperatures and pressures. Russian Journal of Inorganic Chemistry, 20, 1717–1721.
- 43. Wall, V.L., Clemens, J.D. and Clarke, D.B. 1987.Models for granotoid evolution and source composition. Journal of Geology, 6, 731–749.
- 44. Watmuff, G. 1978. Geology and alteration-mineralization zoning in the central portion of the Yandera porphyry copper prospect, Papua New Guinea. Economic Geology, 73, 829–856.