Założenia parkowo-dworskie w krajobrazie kulturowym ziemi częstochowskiej
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Manor-Park Foundations in the Cultural Landscape of the Częstochowa Region
In the cultural landscape of the Częstochowa region there are still noticeable, actions by the 19th and early 20th century owners of the local estates. Apart from the cemeteries, the only old tree groups in the country are former manor-parks and gardens. The influence of landowners is visible in spatial planning, farm plans, tree-lanes etc. The majority of the manor-parks were established in the 19th century. However, the best reconstructed are the changes in the history of the park in Kruszyna. This 17th century geometric park was reshaped in the centuries that followed, but traces of the old formation are still noticeable. A few large landscape-parks were formed in the 19th century. Some of them were designed by the famous green areas designers - Franciszek Szanior and Walerian Kronenberg. Nevertheless, the majority of the parks had the character of large gardens - smaller than 1 ha area. The integral parts of the park set were orchards- presently non-existent. The vital role in the composition of a manor-park was played by water. The rivers Warta and Wiercica were used in the plans of the parks. Ponds were planned not only for serving a purpose but also for aesthetic reasons. Other aspects of landscape planning were tree lanes and rows planted by the roads from manor to farms and other estates. Nowadays, progress of the degradation of the cultural landscape is ever noticeable. The majority of the manor-parks were demolished after 1945. Those parks which have survived are still neglected. Of numerous manor-ponds only few have remained. The rest were drained and the former water system was transformed. In recent years the progression of destroying tree lanes could be observed. Among the many reasons for these processes are: the lack of awareness of the cultural landscape - importance in local society and the lack of strict legal regulations to preserve local landscape.