Narzędzia help

Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
cannonical link button


Polski Przegląd Kartograficzny

Tytuł artykułu

Rozwój kartografii Litwy od czasów starożytnych do pierwszej połowy XX wieku

Autorzy Cesnulevicius, A. 
Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
EN Development of Lithuanian cartography (since earliest times until the middle of the 20th century)
Języki publikacji PL
PL W artykule omówiono cztery okresy rozwoju kartografii Litwy od czasów antycznych do pierwszej połowy XX wieku, uwzględniając szczególnie powstające w ostatnim okresie mapy tematyczne.
EN The first cartographic views of Lithuanian territory appeared in antique times. Regular mapping of the territory started in 15th century. The long (over 400 years) period until the first half of 20th century can be naturally divided into 4 periods, every of which can be characterized by the specifics of cartographic representations for the period: thematic and contents of maps, ways and means of cartographic visualization, amount and quality of the represented data. The very first period of Lithuanian cartography development can be given a name of the non-professional period. Cartographic issues were created by people without special education. Nevertheless, many informative and quite accurate maps were designed during this period: Sarmatia in terra Europa by Nicolaus Cusanus (1491), Mapa regni Poloniae et Magni Ducatus Lithuaniae by Bernard Wapowski (1526), Magni Ducatus Lithuaniae, Livoniae et Moscoviae descripto by Maciej Strubicz (1589), Poloniae finimarumque locorum descriptio by Wacław Grodecki (1570). The most outstanding map of this period is the Magni Ducatus Lithuaniae, caeterarumque regionum illi adiacentium exacta descriptio by Kristupas Radvila and Tomasz Makowski (1613). The second period relates to the formation of the basics of theoretical cartography. Vilnius Academy (University) was established in 1579 but natural science was not taught in it yet. Only in early 18th century the astronomy and geodesy lecture courses were given. In the second half of 18th century general and physical geography was already taught in Vilnius University (by Karol Wyrwycz), and the astronomic observatory established. At that time first geography manuals were written by the professors of the University (K. Hołowka, 1743, F. Paprocki, 1754, K. Wyrwicz, 1768, 1770). These manuals contains also the basics of geodetic survey and elements of cartography. In 17th and 18th centuries several general maps of Lithuania were designed: Partie de Lithuanie... (1665), La Curlande Duche et Semigale...(1659) by Nicolas Sanson d'Abbeville, Magni Ducatus F. de Wit (1680), Magni Ducatus Lithuania... by J. Nieprzecki (1749). In late 18th century as a result of undertaken local topographical survey, city plants of Vilnius, Taurage, Kedainiai, Svedasai were drawn. At the very end of 18th century the professor of Vilnius university S.B. Jumdzilas compiled the geobotanic map of Gardinas environs, few years later such a map for Vilnius environs was made by professor Emanuel Gilibert. The period of professional topography began in early 19th century and lasted for almost one hundred years. In 1820 the department of Geodesy was founded in Vilnius University. The specialists and postgraduate students of this department took part in building the triangulation network for Lithuania and topographic survey of Lithuanian towns. The university professor Jan Śniadecki prepared the manual of topography that was for long time used in higher educational establishments of the Russian Empire. In early 19th century professor Joachim Lelewel made an abundant collection of old maps and atlases that became the core of the cartographic collection of the university. In the second half of 19th century during the survey of Lithuania the maps st scale 1:84 000, 1:42 000 and 1:21 000 were compiled. The period of thamatic cartography began in the late 19th century and lasted until the middle of 20th century. In 1876 the first map in Lithuanian language was published. The first geological and geomorphological maps were also compiled in 19th century. The first map in Lithuanian language for the territory of Lithuania was compiled by A. Macijauskas in 1900. Before the World War I cities plans were compiled for Vilnius, Kaunas, Siauliai, Panevetys, Ukmerge. During the interwar thematical cartography gained its pace. Geological map (J. Dalinkevicius, 1928, 1935, 1939), maps of natural resources (M. Kaveckis, 1939), geomorphological map (C. Pakuckas, 1939), map of the soils of Southem Lithuania (V. Ruokis, 1936), archaeological map (P. Tarasenka, 1928), historical maps (O. Maksimaitiene, 1936, 1937), and maps for schools (A. Vireliunas, 1930, P. Sinkunas, 1938) were compiled. In 1923 instrumental topographic survey of Lithuanian territory began. Until 1938 the topographic maps at scale 1:100 000 were compiled for the whole territory together with 92 sheets at scale 1:25 000. The intense development of cartography was interrupted by the rage of the Wprld War II.
Słowa kluczowe
PL kartografia   Litwa   historia  
EN cartography   Lithuania   history  
Wydawca Polskie Towarzystwo Geograficzne. Oddział Kartograficzny
Czasopismo Polski Przegląd Kartograficzny
Rocznik 2003
Tom T. 35, nr 3
Strony 185--190
Opis fizyczny Bibliogr. 15 poz., rys.
autor Cesnulevicius, A.
  • Zakład Geografii Ogólnej Uniwersytetu Wileńskiego
Kolekcja BazTech
Identyfikator YADDA bwmeta1.element.baztech-article-BAR5-0001-0445