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Linear and Non-linear Creep models for a multi-layered concrete composite

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One- and two-dimensional linear and nonlinear creep models for predicting the time-dependent behavior of a concrete composite under compression are proposed. These models use the analytical and iterative solutions of the Volterra integral equation. The analytical approach is based on the age-adjusted effective modulus method, and the nonlinear technique applies an iterative approach to the system of non-linear equations, implying a generalization of the principle of superposition. Both models are validated in this study. It has been recently found that negative values of the aging coefficient can emerge in early age multi-layered composites when the stress redistribution between the layers is governed by the combination of considerably different creep strains and aging of the layers. In the plane-strain state, the two-dimensional creep analysis of multi-layered composites yields the same vertical stress-time history as that in a one-dimensional case if the Poisson ratios of the layers are equal. This is valid even though the average value of the vertical stress used to calculate the Volterra integral term is dependent on the Poisson ratio of the layers. In particular, the evolution of vertical stress with time is dependent only on the vertical strain and compatibility conditions in a direction parallel to the lamination. A fracture mechanics approach is also introduced to predict the gradual degradation of long-term strength for a multi-layered composite under a sustained compressive load. The results show that the stress redistribution near the crack-tip under the final period of a high level of sustained loading may lead to an additional required compressive stress for complete failure of the composite. Long-term failure primarily begins with the less deformable (stiffer) layers because the more-deformable layers can relieve the initial stresses. Thus, the long-term strength of the composite can exceed its instantaneous strength for early age composites or for composites composed of layers that possess considerably different creep and aging properties.
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