Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
Tytuł artykułu

Occurrences of damaging earthquakes between the Himachal and Darjeeling Himalayas: Tectonic implications

Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
Detailed analysis of intensity for ten damaging historical earthquakes in the central arcuate belt between the Himachal and Darjeeling Himalayas was carried out in the backdrop of isoseismal eccentricity, source depth and Indian plate obliquity. Results indicate that the elongated axes of the isoseismals and strike of ruptures for shallow earthquakes are almost parallel with strike of the Himalayan arc, and clearly conformable with the obliquity. An empirical power law relationship between eccentricity and focal depth established under the present study illustrates that the deeper events are more influenced by the bending of the penetrating Indian lithosphere, whereas the shallower events are principally controlled by the obliquity. A positive correlation between eccentricities and obliquity obviously supports this inference. The present study further reveals that the constant decrease in Indian plate obliquity from Himachal to Nepal-Bihar Himalaya is well compatible with the graben structures and horizontal shearing along this arcuate segment.
Opis fizyczny
Bibliogr. 131 poz.
  • Department of Applied Geophysics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, India
  • 1.Abrahamson, N.A., and J.J. Litehiser (1989), Attenuation of vertical peak acceleration, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 79, 3, 549-580.
  • 2.Algermissen, S.T. (1969), Seismic risk studies in the United States. In: Proc. 4th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, 14 January 1969, Santiago, Chile, ED030265, 21 pp.
  • 3.Allégre, C.J., V. Courtillot, P. Tapponnier, A. Hirn, M. Mattauer, C. Coulon, J.J. Jaeger, J. Achache, U. Schärer, J. Marcoux, J.P. Burg, J. Girardeau, R. Armijo, C. Gariépy, C. Göpel, T. Li, X. Xiao, C. Chang, G. Li, B. Lin, J. Teng, N. Wang, G. Chen, T. Han, X. Wang, W. Den, H. Sheng, Y. Cao, J. Zhou, H. Qiu, P. Bao, S. Wang, B. Wang, Y. Zhou, and R. Xu (1984), Structure and evolution of the Himalaya–Tibet orogenic belt, Nature 307, 5946, 17-22, DOI: 10.1038/307017a0.
  • 4.Ambraseys, N., and R. Bilham (2003), Reevaluated intensities evaluated for the great Assam Earthquake of 12 June 1897, Shillong, India, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 93, 2, 655-673, DOI: 10.1785/0120020093.
  • 5.Ambraseys, N.N., and J. Douglas (2004), Magnitude calibration of north Indian earthquakes, Geophys. J. Int. 159, 1, 165-206, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X. 2004.02323.x.
  • 6.Ambraseys, N., and D. Jackson (2003), A note on early earthquakes in northern India and southern Tibet, Curr. Sci. 84, 4, 570-582.
  • 7.Anderson, J.G. (1978), On the attenuation of Modified Mercalli Intensity with distance in the United States, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 68, 4, 1147-1179.
  • 8.Armijo, R., P. Tapponnier, J.L. Mercier, and T.-L. Han (1986), Quaternary extension in southern Tibet: Field observations and tectonic implications, J. Geophys. Res. 91, B14, 13803-13872, DOI: 10.1029/JB091iB14p13803.
  • 9.Arora, B.R., M.J. Unsworth, and G. Rawat (2007), Deep resistivity structure of the northwest Indian Himalaya and its tectonic implications, Geophys. Res. Lett. 34, 4, L04307, DOI: 10.1029/2006GL029165.
  • 10.Banerjee, P., and R. Bürgmann (2002), Convergence across the northwest Himalaya from GPS measurements, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 13, 31-34, DOI: 10.1029/ 2002GL015184.
  • 11.Baranowski, J., J. Armbruster, L. Seeber, and P. Molnar (1984), Focal depths and fault plane solutions of earthquakes and active tectonics of the Himalaya, J. Geophys. Res. 89, B8, 6918-6928, DOI: 10.1029/JB089iB08p06918.
  • 12.Bendick, R., and R. Bilham (2001), How perfect is the Himalayan Arc? Geology 29,
  • 9, 791-794, DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(2001)029<0791:HPITHA>2.0.CO;2.
  • 13.Bilham, R. (1995), Location and magnitude of the 1833 Nepal earthquake and its relation to the rupture zones of contiguous Great Himalayan earthquakes, Curr. Sci. 69, 2, 101-128.
  • 14.Bilham, R., K. Larson, J. Freymueller, and Project Idylhim members (1997), GPS measurements of present-day convergence across the Nepal Himalaya, Nature 386, 6620, 61-64, DOI: 10.1038/386061a0.
  • 15.Bollinger, G.A. (1977), Reinterpretation of the intensity data for the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake, A preliminary report, US Geological Survey Prof. Paper, 1028-B, 17-32.
  • 16.Bollinger, L., P. Henry, and J.P. Avouac (2006), Mountain building in the Nepal Himalaya: Thermal and kinematic model, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 244, 1-2, 58-71, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2006.01.045.
  • 17.Burchfiel, B.C., Z. Chen, K.V. Hodges, Y. Liu, L.H. Royden, C. Deng, and J. Xu (1992), The South Tibetan Detachment System, Himalayan orogen: Extension contemporaneous with and parallel to shortening in a collisional mountain belt, Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper 269, 1-41, DOI: 10.1130/SPE269-p1.
  • 18.Burg, J.P., A. Leyreloup, J. Marchand, and P. Matte (1984), Inverted metamorphic zonation and large-scale thrusting in the Variscan Belt: an example in the French Massif Central, Geol. Soc. London. Spec. Publ. 14, 47-61, DOI:10.1144/GSL.SP.1984.014.01.05.
  • 19.Campbell, K.W., and C.M. Duke (1974), Bedrock intensity attenuation and site factors from San Fernando earthquake records, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 64, 1, 173-185.
  • 20.Cattin, R., and J.P. Avouac (2000), Modeling mountain building and the seismic cycle in the Himalaya of Nepal, J. Geophys. Res. 105, B6, 13389-13407, DOI: 10.1029/2000JB900032.
  • 21.Cattin, R., G. Martelet, P. Henry, J.P. Avouac, M. Diament, and T.R. Shakya (2001), Gravity anomalies, crustal structure and thermo-mechanical support of the Himalaya of Central Nepal, Geophys. J. Int. 147, 2, 381-392, DOI: 10.1046/j.0956-540x.2001.01541.x.
  • 22.Chandra, B., S. Basu, D.K. Paul, H.R. Wason, A. Kumar, M.L. Sharma, J.P. Narayan, D.C. Rai, R.N. Dubey, M. Shrikhande, and J.D. Das (2000), A report on Chamoli earthquake of March 29, 1999, Department of Earthquake Engineering, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, India, 89 pp.
  • 23.Chandra, U., J.G. McWhorter, and A.A. Nowroozi (1979), Attenuation of intensities in Iran, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 69, 1, 237-250.
  • 24.Chen, W.-P., and P. Molnar (1977), Seismic moments of major earthquakes and the average rate of slip in central Asia, J. Geophys. Res. 82, 20, 2945-2969, DOI: 10.1029/JB082i020p02945.
  • 25.Chiao, L.-Y., H. Kao, S. Lallemand, and C.-S. Liu (2001), An alternative interpretation for slip vector residuals of subduction interface earthquakes: a case study in the westernmost Ryukyu slab, Tectonophysics 333, 1-2, 123-134, DOI: 10.1016/S0040-1951(00)00271-7.
  • 26.Dasgupta, S. (1993), Bihar-Nepal earthquake, August 20, 1988, Geol. Surv. India Spec. Publ. 31. Dasgupta, S., P. Pande, D. Ganguly, Z. Iqbal, K. Sanyal, N.V. Venkatraman, B. Sural, L. Harendranath, K. Mazumdar, S. Sanyal, A. Roy, L.K. Das, P.S. Misra, and H.K. Gupta (2000), Seismotectonic atlas of India and its environs, Geological Survey of India.
  • 27.Davis, D., J. Suppe, and F.A. Dahlen (1983), Mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges, J. Geophys. Res. 88, B2, 1153-1172, DOI: 10.1029/JB088iB02p01153.
  • 28.DeMets, C., R.G. Gordon, D.F. Argus, and S. Stein (1994), Effect of recent revisions to the geomagnetic reversal time scale on estimates of current plate motions, Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 20, 2191-2194, DOI: 10.1029/94GL02118.
  • 29.Dewey, J.F., and J.M. Bird (1970), Mountain belts and the new global tectonics, J. Geophys. Res. 75, 14, 2625-2647, DOI: 10.1029/JB075i014p02625.
  • 30.Dobrin, M.B., and C.H. Savit (1988), Introduction to Geophysical Prospecting, 4th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
  • 31.Ellis, M., and A.J. Watkinson (1987), Orogen-parallel extension and oblique tectonics: The relation between stretching lineations and relative plate motions, Geology 15, 11, 1022-1026, DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(1987)15<1022: OEAOTT>2.0.CO;2.
  • 32.Fielding, E.J. (1996), Tibet uplift and erosion, Tectonophysics 260, 1-3, 55-84, DOI: 10.1016/0040-1951(96)00076-5.
  • 33.Fitch, T.J. (1972), Plate convergence, transcurrent faults, and internal deformation adjacent to Southeast Asia and the western Pacific, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 23, 4432-4460, DOI: 10.1029/JB077i023p04432.
  • 34.Gahalaut, V.K., S. Rajput, and B. Kundu (2011), Low seismicity in the Bhutan Himalaya and the stress shadow of the 1897 Shillong Plateau earthquake, Phys. Earth Planet. In. 186, 3-4, 97-102, DOI: 10.1016/j.pepi.2011.04.009.
  • 35.Gansser, A. (1964), Geology of the Himalayas, Interscience Publishers, London, 289 pp.
  • 36.Gansser, A. (1981), The geodynamic history of the Himalaya. In: F.M. Delany and H.K. Gupta (eds.), Zagros, Hindu Kush, Himalaya, Geodynamic Evolution, Geodynamic Series, Vol. 3, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 111-121, DOI: 10.1029/GD003p0111.
  • 37.Gapais, D., A. Pêcher, E. Gilbert, and M. Ballèvre (1992), Synconvergence spreading of the higher Himalaya crystalline in Ladakh, Tectonics 11, 5, 1045-1056, DOI: 10.1029/92TC00819.
  • 38.Ghosh, G.K., and A.K. Mahajan (2011), Interpretation of intensity attenuation relation of 1905 Kangra earthquake with epicentral distance and magnitude in the Northwest Himalayan region, J. Geol. Soc. India 77, 6, 511-520, DOI: 10.1007/s12594-011-0058-8.
  • 39.Gokarn, S.G., G. Gupta, C.K. Rao, and C. Selvaraj (2002), Electrical structure across the Indus Tsangpo suture and Shyok suture zones in NW Himalaya using magnetotelluric studies, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29, 8, 921-924, DOI: 10.1029/2001GL014325.
  • 40.Grasemann, B., H. Fritz, and J.-C. Vannay (1999), Quantitative kinematic flow analysis from the Main Central Thrust Zone (NW-Himalaya, India): implications for a decelerating strain path and the extrusion of orogenic wedges,
  • 41.J. Struct. Geol. 21, 7, 837-853, DOI: 10.1016/S0191-8141(99)00077-2.
  • 42.Grujic, D., M. Casey, C. Davidson, L.S. Hollister, R. Kündig, T. Pavlis, and S. Schmid (1996), Ductile extrusion of the Higher Himalayan Crystalline in Bhutan: evidence from quartz microfabrics, Tectonophysics 260, 1-3, 21-43, DOI: 10.1016/0040-1951(96)00074-1.
  • 43.Grujic, D., L.S. Hollister, and R.R. Parrish (2002), Himalayan metamorphic sequence as an orogenic channel: insight from Bhutan, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 198, 1-2, 177-191, DOI: 10.1016/S0012-821X(02)00482-X.
  • 44.Gupta, I.N., and O.W. Nuttli (1976), Spatial attenuation of intensities for central U.S. earthquakes, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 66, 3, 743-751.
  • 45.Haq, S.S.B., and D.M. Davis (1997), Oblique convergence and the lobate mountain belts of western Pakistan, Geology 25, 1, 23-26, DOI: 10.1130/0091- 7613(1997)025<0023:OCATLM>2.3.CO;2.
  • 46.Hirn, A., G. Jobert, G. Wittlinger, Z.-X. Xu, and E.-Y. Gao (1984), Main features of the upper lithosphere in the unit between the High Himalayas and the Yarlung Zangbo Jiang suture, Ann. Geophys. 2, 2, 113-117.
  • 47.Hodges, K.V., R.R. Parrish, T.B. Housh, D.R. Lux, B.C. Burchfiel, L.H. Royden, and Z. Chen (1992), Simultaneous Miocene extension and shortening in the Himalayan orogen, Science 258, 5087, 1466-1470, DOI: 10.1126/science. 258.5087.1466.
  • 48.Hodges, K.V., R.R. Parrish, and M.P. Searle (1996), Tectonic evolution of the central Annapurna Range, Nepalese Himalayas, Tectonics 15, 6, 1264-1291, DOI: 10.1029/96TC01791.
  • 49.Hough, S.E., and R. Bilham (2008), Site response of the Ganges basin inferred from re-evaluated macroseismic observations from the 1897 Shillong, 1905 Kangra, and 1934 Nepal earthquakes, J. Earth Syst. Sci. 117, 2 Suppl., 773-782, DOI: 10.1007/s12040-008-0068-0.
  • 50.Hough, S.E., R. Bilham, N. Ambraseys, and N. Feldl (2005), Revisiting the 1897 Shillong and 1905 Kangra earthquakes in northern India: Site response, Moho reflections and a triggered earthquake, Curr. Sci. 88, 10.
  • 51.Howell, B.F. Jr. (1974), Seismic regionalization in North America based on Average Regional Seismic Hazard Index, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 64, 5, 1509-1528.
  • 52.Howell, B.F. Jr., and T.R. Schultz (1975), Attenuation of Modified Mercalli intensity with distance from the epicenter, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 65, 3, 651-665.
  • 53.Jackson, M., and R. Bilham (1994), Constraints on Himalayan deformation inferred from vertical velocity fields in Nepal and Tibet, J. Geophys. Res. 99, B7, 13897-13912, DOI: 10.1029/94JB00714.
  • 54.Jarrard, R.D. (1986), Terrane motion by strike-slip faulting of forearc slivers, Geology 14, 9, 780-783, DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(1986)14<780:TMBSFO>2.0.CO;2.
  • 55.Jin, Y., M.K. McNutt, and Y.-S. Zhu (1994), Evidence from gravity and topography data for folding of Tibet, Nature 371, 6499, 669-674, DOI: 10.1038/371669a0.
  • 56.Jin, Y., M.K. McNutt, and Y.-S. Zhu (1996), Mapping the descent of Indian and Eurasian plates beneath the Tibetan Plateau from gravity anomalies, J. Geophys. Res. 101, B5, 11275-11290, DOI: 10.1029/96JB00531.
  • 57.Johnson, M.R.W. (2002), Shortening budgets and the role of continental subduction during the India–Asia collision, Earth-Sci. Rev. 59, 1-4, 101-123, DOI: 10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00071-5.
  • 58.Jouanne, F., J.L. Mugnier, J.F. Gamond, P. Le Fort, M.R. Pandey, L. Bollinger, M. Flouzat, and J.P. Avouac (2004), Current shortening across the Himalayas of Nepal, Geophys. J. Int. 157, 1, 1-14, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X. 2004.02180.x.
  • 59.Joyner, W.B., and D.M. Boore (1981), Peak horizontal acceleration and velocity from strong-motion records including records from the 1979 Imperial Valley, California, earthquake, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 71, 6, 2011-2038.
  • 60.Kao, H., S.J. Shen, and K.-F. Ma (1998), Transition from oblique subduction to collision: Earthquakes in the southernmost Ryukyu arc-Taiwan region, J. Geophys. Res. 103, B4, 7211-7229, DOI: 10.1029/97JB03510.
  • 61.Kayal, J.R. (2010), Himalayan tectonic model and the great earthquakes: an appraisal, Geomatics Nat. Hazards Risk 1, 1, 51-67, DOI: 10.1080/ 19475701003625752.
  • 62.Khan, P.K., and P.P. Chakraborty (2005), Two-phase opening of Andaman Sea: A new seismotectonic insight, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 229, 3-4, 259-271, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2004.11.010.
  • 63.Khan, P.K., S. Mohanty, and M. Mohanty (2010), Geodynamic implications for the 8 October 2005 North Pakistan earthquake, Surv. Geophys. 31, 1, 85-106, DOI: 10.1007/s10712-009-9083-1.
  • 64.Khan, P.K., M. Mohanty, and S. Kumar (2011), Present seismotectonic status of the central Himalaya. In: M.L. Sharma (ed.), 14th Symposium on Earthquake Engineering 2010, Department of Earthquake Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee, India, 26-35.
  • 65.Khattri, K., K. Rai, A.K. Jain, H. Sinvhal, V.K. Gaur, and R.S. Mithal (1978), The Kinnaur earthquake, Himachal Pradesh, India, of 19 January, 1975, Tectonophysics 49, 1-2, 1-21, DOI: 10.1016/0040-1951(78)90095-1.
  • 66.Kumar, D., S.S. Teotia, and K.N. Khattri (1997), The representability of attenuation characteristics of strong ground motions observed in 1986 Dharmasala and 1991 Uttarkashi earthquakes by available empirical relations, Curr. Sci. 73, 6, 543-548.
  • 67.Kumar, D., K.N. Khattri, S.S. Teotia, and S.S. Rai (1999), Modelling of accelerograms of two Himalayan earthquakes using a novel semi-empirical method and estimation of accelerogram for a hypothetical great earthquake in the Himalaya, Curr. Sci. 76, 6, 819-830.
  • 68.Kumar, N., I.A. Parvez, and H.S. Virk (2005), Estimation of coda wave attenuation for NW Himalayan region using local earthquakes, Phys. Earth Planet. In. 151, 3-4, 243-258, DOI: 10.1016/j.pepi.2005.03.010.
  • 69.Kumar, S., and A. K. Mahajan (1990), Studies of intensities of 26th April, 1986 Dharamshala earthquake (Himachal Pradesh) and associated tectonics, J. Geol. Soc. India 35, 2, 213-219.
  • 70.Larson, K.M., R. Bürgmann, R. Bilham, and J.T. Freymueller (1999), Kinematics of the India-Eurasia collision zone from GPS measurements, J. Geophys. Res. 104, B1, 1077-1093, DOI: 10.1029/1998JB900043.
  • 71.Le Fort, P. (1975), Himalayas: the collided range. Present knowledge of the continental arc, Am. J. Sci. 275-A, 1-44.
  • 72.Liu, X., K.C. McNally, and Z.-K. Shen (1995), Evidence for a role of the downgoing slab in earthquake slip partitioning at oblique subduction zones, J. Geophys. Res. 100, B8, 15351-15372, DOI: 10.1029/95JB00870.
  • 73.Lowrie, W. (2007), Fundamentals of Geophysics, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • 74.Lu, C.-Y., and J. Malavieille (1994), Oblique convergence, indentation and rotation tectonics in the Taiwan Mountain Belt: Insights from experimental modelling, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 121, 3-4, 477-494, DOI: 10.1016/0012-821X(94)90085-X.
  • 75.Lyon-Caen, H., and P. Molnar (1983), Constraints on the structure of the Himalaya from an analysis of gravity anomalies and a flexural model of the lithosphere, J. Geophys. Res. 88, B10, 8171-8192, DOI: 10.1029/JB088iB10p08171.
  • 76.Lyon-Caen, H., and P. Molnar (1985), Gravity anomalies, flexure of the Indian Plate, and the structure, support and evolution of the Himalaya and Ganga Basin, Tectonics 4, 6, 513-538, DOI: 10.1029/TC004i006p00513.
  • 77.Mahajan, A.K., and N.S. Virdi (2001), Macroseismic field generated by 29 March, 1999 Chamoli earthquake and its seismotectonics, J. Asian Earth Sci. 19, 4, 507-516, DOI: 10.1016/S1367-9120(00)00049-3.
  • 78.McCaffrey, R. (1992), Oblique plate convergence, slip vectors, and forearc deformation, J. Geophys. Res. 97, B6, 8905-8915, DOI: 10.1029/92JB00483.
  • 79.McCaffrey, R., and J. Nabelek (1998), Role of oblique convergence in the active deformation of the Himalayas and southern Tibet plateau, Geology 26, 8, 691-694, DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(1998)026<0691:ROOCIT>2.3.CO;2.
  • 80.Meade, B.J. (2007), Present-day kinematics at the India-Asia collision zone, Geology 35, 1, 81-84, DOI: 10.1130/G22924A.1.
  • 81.Meigs, A.J., D.W. Burbank, and R.A. Beck (1995), Middle-late Miocene (>10 Ma) formation of the Main Boundary thrust in the western Himalaya, Geology 23, 5, 423-426, DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(1995)023<0423:MLMMFO>2.3.CO;2.
  • 82.Middlemiss, C.S. (1910), The Kangra earthquake of 4th April 1905, Mem. Geol. Surv. India 38, 405.
  • 83.Milne, W.G., and A.G. Davenport (1969), Distribution of earthquake risk in Canada, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 59, 2, 729-754.
  • 84.Molas, G.L., and F. Yamazaki (1995), Attenuation of earthquake ground motion in Japan including deep focus events, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 85, 5, 1343-1358.
  • 85.Molnar, P. (1984), Structure and tectonics of the Himalaya: Constraints and implications of geophysical data, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. 12, 1, 489-518, DOI: 10.1146/annurev.ea.12.050184.002421.
  • 86.Molnar, P. (1988), Continental tectonics in the aftermath of plate tectonics, Nature 335, 6186, 131-137, DOI: 10.1038/335131a0.
  • 87.Molnar, P., and H. Lyon-Caen (1989), Fault plane solutions of earthquakes and active tectonics of the Tibetan Plateau and its margins, Geophys. J. Int. 99, 1, 123-153, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.1989.tb02020.x.
  • 88.Mukhopadhyay, S., and C. Tyagi (2008), Variation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation with depth in NW Himalayas, Geophys. J. Int. 172, 3, 1055-1065, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2007.03688.x.
  • 89.Nakata, T. (1989), Active faults of the Himalaya of India and Nepal, Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Paper 232, 243-264, DOI: 10.1130/SPE232-p243.
  • 90.Nakata, T., K. Otsuki, and S.H. Khan (1990), Active faults, stress field and plate motion along the Indo-Eurasian plate boundary, Tectonophysics 181, 1-4, 83-95, DOI: 10.1016/0040-1951(90)90009-W.
  • 91.Narula, P.L., S.K. Shome, S. Kumar, and P. Pande (1995), Damage patterns and delineation of isoseismals of Uttarkashi earthquake of 20th October 1991, Mem. Geol. Soc. India 30, 1-18.
  • 92.Nelson, M.T., W. Humphrey, A. Gursoy, A. Dalke, L.V. Kalé, R.D. Skeel, and K. Schulten (1996), NAMD: A parallel, object-oriented molecular dynamics program, Int. J. High Perform. Comput. Appl. 10, 4, 251-268, DOI: 10.1177/109434209601000401.
  • 93.Ni, J., and M. Barazangi (1984), Seismotectonics of the Himalayan collision zone: geometry of the underthrusting Indian Plate beneath the Himalaya, J. Geophys. Res. 89, B2, 1147-1163, DOI: 10.1029/JB089iB02p01147.
  • 94.Ni, J., and M. Barazangi (1985), Active tectonics of the western Tethyan Himalaya above the underthrusting Indian Plate: the Upper Sutlej River Basin as a pull-apart structure, Tectonophysics 112, 1-4, 277-295, DOI: 10.1016/0040-1951(85)90183-0.
  • 95.Pandey, M.R., and P. Molnar (1988), The distribution of intensity of the Bihar- Nepal earthquake of 15 January 1934 and bounds on the extent of the rupture zone, J. Nepal Geol. Soc. 5, 1, 22-44.
  • 96.Patro, P.K., and T. Harinarayana (2009), Deep geoelectric structure of the Sikkim Himalayas (NE India) using magnetotelluric studies, Phys. Earth Planet. In. 73, 1-2, 171-176, DOI: 10.1016/j.pepi.2008.10.011.
  • 97.Raiverman, V. (2002), Foreland sedimentation in Himalayan tectonic regime: a relook at the orogenic process, Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India, 378.
  • 98.Rajendran, C.P., and K. Rajendran (2005), The status of central seismic gap: a perspective based on the spatial and temporal aspects of the large Himalayan earthquakes, Tectonophysics 395, 1-2, 19-39, DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2004. 09.009.
  • 99.Rajendran, K., and C.P. Rajendran (2011), Revisiting the earthquake sources in the Himalaya: Perspectives on past seismicity, Tectonophysics 504, 1-4, 75-88, DOI: 10.1016/j.tecto.2011.03.001.
  • 100.Rana, Maj. Gen. Braham Shumsher J.B. (1935), The Great Earthquake of Nepal, 2nd ed., Kathmandu (in Hindi).
  • 101.Raper, F.V. (1810), Narratives of a survey for the purpose of discovering the sources of the Ganges, Asiat. Res. 11, 446-563.
  • 102.Robert, X., P. van der Beek, J. Braun, C. Perry, M. Dubille, and J.-L. Mugnier (2009), Assessing Quaternary reactivation of the Main Central thrust zone (central Nepal Himalaya): New thermochronologic data and numerical modeling, Geology 37, 8, 731-734, DOI: 10.1130/G25736A.1.
  • 103.Sbar, L.M., and M.S. Dubois (1984), Attenuation of intensity for the 1887 Northern Sonara, Mexico earthquake, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 74, 6, 2613-2628.
  • 104.Seeber, L., and J.G. Armbruster (1981), Great detachment earthquakes along the Himalayan arc and long-term forecasting. In: D.W. Simpson and P.G. Richards (eds.), Earthquake Prediction, An International Review, Maurice Ewing Series, Vol. 4, 215-242, AGU, Washington, D.C.
  • 105.Seeber, L., and J.G. Armbruster (1984), Some elements of continental subduction along the Himalayan front, Tectonophysics 105, 1-4, 263-278, DOI: 10.1016/0040-1951(84)90207-5.
  • 106.Seeber, L., and A. Pêcher (1998), Strain partitioning along the Himalayan arc and the Nanga Parbat antiform, Geology 26, 9, 791-794, DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(1998)026<0791:SPATHA>2.3.CO;2.
  • 107.Seeber, L., J.G. Armbruster, and R.C. Quittmeyer (1981), Seismicity and continental subduction in the Himalayan arc. In: F.M. Delany and H.K. Gupta (eds.), Zagros, Hindu Kush, Himalaya, Geodynamic Evolution, Geodynamic Series, Vol. 3, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 215-242, DOI: 10.1029/GD003p0215.
  • 108.Seeber, L., J.G. Armbruster, and G.A. Bellinger (1982), Large-scale patterns of seismicity before and after the 1886 South Carolina earthquake, Geology 10, 7, 382-386, DOI: 10.1130/0091-7613(1982)10<382:LPOSBA>2.0. CO;2.
  • 109.Sharma, M.L., and R.N. Dubey (2000), Seismological aspects. In: B. Chandra, S. Basu, D.K. Paul, H.R. Wason, A. Kumar, M.L. Sharma, J.P. Narayan, D.C. Rai, R.N. Dubey, M. Shrikhande and J.D. Das (eds.), A report on Chamoli earthquake of March 29, 1999, Department of Earthquake Engineering, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, India, 1-12.
  • 110.Singh, S., P. Sinha, A.K. Jain, V.N. Singh, and L.S. Srivastava (1975), Preliminary report on the January 19, 1975, Kinnaur earthquake in Himachal Pradesh, Earthq. Eng. Stud. 75, 4, 1-32.
  • 111.Soofi, M.A., and S.D. King (2002), Oblique convergence between India and Eurasia, J. Geophys. Res. 107, B5, ETG 3.1-3.8, DOI: 10.1029/2001JB000636.
  • 112.Spratt, J.E., A.G. Jones, K.D. Nelson, M.J. Unsworth, and INDEPTH MT Team 3 (2005), Crustal structure of the India–Asia collision zone, southern Tibet, from INDEPTH MT investigations, Phys. Earth Planet. In. 150, 1-3, 227-237, DOI: 10.1016/j.pepi.2004.08.035.
  • 113.Telford, W.M., L.P. Geldart, and R.E. Sheriff (1990), Applied Geophysics, 2nd ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • 114.Thakur, V.C. (1992), Geology of Western Himalaya, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 363 pp.
  • 115.Thiede, R.C., B. Bookhagen, J.R. Arrowsmith, E.R. Sobel, and M.R. Strecker (2004), Climatic control on rapid exhumation along the Southern Himalayan Front, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 222, 3-4, 791-806, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2004.03.015.
  • 116.Tilford, N.R., U. Chandra, D.C. Amick, R. Moran, and F. Snider (1985), Attenuation of intensities and effect of local site conditions on observed intensities during the Corinth, Greece, earthquakes of 24 and 25 February and 4 March 1981, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 75, 4, 923-937.
  • 117.Tiwari, V.M., M.B.S.V. Rao, D.C. Misra, and B. Singh (2006), Crustal structure across Sikkim, NE Himalaya from new gravity and magnetic data, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 247, 1-2, 61-69, DOI: 10.1016/j.epsl.2006.03.037.
  • 118.Unsworth, M.J., A.G. Jones, W. Wei, G. Marquis, S.G. Gokarn, J.E. Spratt, and INDEPTH MT Team (2005), Crustal rheology of the Himalaya and Southern Tibet inferred from magnetotelluric data, Nature 438, 7064, 78-81, DOI: 10.1038/nature04154.
  • 119.Valdiya, K.S. (1976), Himalayan transverse faults and folds and their parallelism with subsurface structures of North Indian plains, Tectonophysics 32, 3-4, 353-386, DOI: 10.1016/0040-1951(76)90069-X.
  • 120.Valdiya, K.S. (1981), Tectonics of the central sector of the Himalaya. In: F.M. Delany and H.K. Gupta (eds.), Zagros, Hindu Kush, Himalaya, Geodynamic Evolution, Geodynamic Series, Vol. 3, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 87-110, DOI: 10.1029/ GD003p0087.
  • 121.Valdiya, K.S. (1988), Tectonics and evolution of the central sector of the Himalaya, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 326, 1589, 151-175, DOI: 10.1098/rsta. 1988.0083. Wallace, K., R. Bendick, R. Bilham, F. Blume, V. Gahalaut, and V. Gaur (2002), Geodetic constraint of the Kangra 1905 Ms = 7.8 rupture. In: American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2002, Abstract S12C-07.
  • 122.Wason, H.R., and P.K. Khan (2001), Seismotectonics of the Garhwal-Kumaun Himalaya region based on local observations and teleseismic data. In: O.P. Verma (ed.), Seismicity, Spec. Publ., Indian Science Congress, Dept. Sci. Technol., New Delhi, 75-84.
  • 123.Wason, H.R., M.L. Sharma, P.K. Khan, K. Kapoor, D. Nandini, and V. Kara (2002), Analysis of aftershocks of the Chamoli Earthquake of March 29, 1999 using broadband seismic data, J. Himalayan Geol. 23, 7-18.
  • 124.Wesnousky, S.G., S. Kumar, R. Mohindra, and V.C. Thakur (1999), Uplift and convergence along the Himalayan Frontal Thrust of India, Tectonics 18, 6, 967-976, DOI: 10.1029/1999TC900026.
  • 125.Yeats, R.S., T. Nakata, A. Farah, M. Fort, M.A. Mirza, M.R. Pandey, and R.S. Stein (1992), The Himalayan frontal fault system, Ann. Tectonic. 6, Suppl., 85-98.
  • 126.Yin, A. (2006), Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Himalayan orogen as constrained by along-strike variation of structural geometry, exhumation history, and foreland sedimentation, Earth Sci. Rev. 76, 1-2, 1-131, DOI: 10.1016/ j.earscirev.2005.05.004.
  • 127.Yu, G., K.N. Khattri, J.G. Anderson, J.N. Brune, and Y. Zeng (1995), Strong ground motion from the Uttarkashi, Himalaya, India, earthquake: comparison of observations with synthetics using the composite source model, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 85, 1, 31-50.
  • 128.Zhang, P.-Z., Z. Shen, M. Wang, W. Gan, R. Bürgmann, P. Molnar, Q. Wang, Z. Niu, J. Sun, J. Wu, H. Sun, and X. You (2004), Continuous deformation of the Tibetan Plateau from global positioning system data, Geology 32, 9, 809-812, DOI: 10.1130/G20554.1.
  • 129.Zhang, Z., and S. Klemperer (2010), Crustal structure of the Tethyan Himalaya, southern Tibet: new constraints from old wide-angle seismic data, Geophys. J. Int. 181, 3, 1247-1260, DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2010.04578.x.
  • 130.Zhao, W.-J., K.D. Nelson, and Project INDEPTH Team (1993), Deep seismic reflection evidence for continental underthrusting beneath southern Tibet, Nature 366, 6455, 557-559, DOI: 10.1038/366557a0.
  • 131.Zoback, M.L. (1992), Stress field constraints on intraplate seismicity in eastern North America, J. Geophys. Res. 97, B8, 11761-11782, DOI: 10.1029/92JB00221.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.