Uncertainties with assessment of the safety atmosphere in vessel cargo tanks and enclosed spaces
Treść / Zawartość
This paper discusses the problem of atmosphere composition assessment related to entrance and inspection of a vessel cargo tank after washing, gas-freeing and ventilation. A correct assessment of the atmosphere before an entrance into the cargo tank or other enclosed spaces is a basic condition for the possibility of safe crew working. An assessment of the flammability hazard, presence of toxic or dangerous gases for human, and the oxygen concentration should be completed. In this regard, the ship-owner should prepare adequate procedures before an entrance, during work, and in emergency situations. The officers responsible should perform an assessment onboard the vessel their decisions are crucial for the safety of successive operations. A proper assessment of oxygen concentration in the air into the cargo tank or an enclosed space after the measurement is one of the primary problems which should be properly interpreted. This concerns such situations when the measured oxygen concentration into the tank reaches the value over 22% and below 20.6% of volume (mole) contribution (v/v). Air temperature in the 5–25°C range may create additional threats. This manuscript clarifies the controversial information included in manuals concerning the safety of entrance into enclosed spaces on vessels and the ship-owners procedures concerning the safety precautions for preparing, entrance, protection, and work inside the cargo tanks.
Bibliogr. 20 poz., rys., tab.
- 1. Bugbee, B. & Blonquist, M. (2016) Absolute and Relative Gas Concentration: Understanding Oxygen in the Air. ICT, Available from: https://www.apogeeinstruments.com/content/AbsoluteandRelativeGasConcentration.pdf [Accessed: March 20, 2020].
- 2. CCNR/OCIMF (2010) International Safety Guide for Inland Navigation, Tank-barges and Terminals. Chapter 10. Enclosed Spaces. CCNR/OCIMF. Available from: https:// www.isgintt.org/files/documents/Chapter_10en_isgintt.pdf [Accessed: March 20, 2020].
- 3. CSBP (2017) Confined Spaces, CSBP-GM-11-031-52, version 14.0.0, CSBP.
- 4. Draeger (2019) Internet main page of Draeger. [Online] Available from: https://www.draeger.com [Accessed: June 10, 2019].
- 5. EI (2018) HM 40. Guidelines for the crude oil washing of ship’s tanks and the heating of crude oil being transported by sea. London: Energy Institute.
- 6. EIGA (2018) Hazards of oxygen-deficient atmosphere. Doc 44/18. European Industrial Gases Association AISBL.
- 7. H&SA (2012) Code of Practice for Working in Confined Spaces. Health & Safety Authority.
- 8. IHSA (2019) Construction Health & Safety Manual. Chapter 33. Confined Spaces. Available from: www.ihsa.ca/rtf/ health_safety_manual/Confined_Spaces.pdf [Accessed: March 20, 2020].
- 9. IMO (2014) MSC.1/Circ.1477. Guidelines to facilitate the selection of portable atmosphere testing instruments for enclosed spaces as required by SOLAS Regulation XI-1/7.
- 10. IMO (2017) International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code – IMDG code. London: IMO.
- 11. M&CA (2018) Code of Safe Working Practices for Merchant Seamen. Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA), 2010 (consolidated edition), changes 2018. Available from: www.tso.co.uk [Accessed: March 20, 2020].
- 12. Mackenzie, F.T. & Mackenzie, J.A. (1995) Our changing planet. New York: Prentice-Hall.
- 13. Marine Online YouTube (2017) Cargo Tank Cleaning and Slops Disposal. [Online] 21 July. Available from: https:// marineonlineyou.blogspot.com/2017/07/cargo-tank-cleaning-and-slops-disposal.html [Accessed: March 20, 2020].
- 14. Matheson (2019) Lower and Upper Explosive Limits for Flammable Gases and Vapors (LEL/UEL). Reference Information [Online] Available from: https://www.mathesongas. com/pdfs/products/Lower-(LEL)-&-Upper-(UEL)-Explosive-Limits.pdf [Accessed: March 20, 2020].
- 15. Mou, N., Xie, Y., Yang, T., Zang, H. & Kim, Y.R. (2019) The Impact of Slumping Oil Price on the Situation on Tanker Shipping along the Maritime Silk Road. Sustainability 11 (17), 4796.
- 16. Portal (2019) Polish portal of work safety and hygiene. [Online] Available from:https://www.portalbhp.pl [Accessed: June 10, 2019].
- 17. PRS (2016) Wytyczne dotyczące bezpiecznego wejścia do przestrzeni zamkniętych. Polish Register of Shipping (Polski Rejestr Statków), Publikacja Informacyjna Nr 28/I, July 2016 (in Polish).
- 18. REACH (2015) Commission Regulation (EU) 2015/830. Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restrictions of Chemicals (REACH).
- 19. Standard Club (2017) A master’s guide to Enclosed Space Entrance. Available from: www.standard-club.com [Accessed: March 20, 2020].
- 20. TCF (2017) Density Corrections for Moist Air and Other Gases. Tween City Fan (TCF), Information and Recommendations for the Engineers FE-1700 [Online] Available from: https://www.tcf.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/DensityCorrections-for-Moist-Air-Other-Gases-FE-1700.pdf [Accessed: March 20, 2020].
Opracowanie rekordu ze środków MNiSW, umowa Nr 461252 w ramach programu "Społeczna odpowiedzialność nauki" - moduł: Popularyzacja nauki i promocja sportu (2021).