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http://yadda.icm.edu.pl:80/baztech/element/bwmeta1.element.baztech-8ba6dded-bfe0-4892-8482-ecc34a3ef7c8

Czasopismo

Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Technical Sciences

Tytuł artykułu

Vision-based parking lot occupancy evaluation system using 2D separable discrete wavelet transform

Autorzy Kłosowski, M.  Wójcikowski, M.  Czyżewski, A. 
Treść / Zawartość
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji EN
Abstrakty
EN A simple system for rough estimation of the occupancy of an ad-hoc organized parking lot is presented. A reasonably simple microprocessor hardware with a low resolution monochrome video camera observing the parking lot from the location high above the parking surface is capable of running the proposed 2-D separable discrete wavelet transform (DWT)-based algorithm, reporting the percentage of the observed parking area occupied by cars. A simple calibration is needed – the mask covering all the areas outside the parking lot must be prepared. The proposed system has been tested on the dedicated FPGA-based hardware in real conditions and proven immune to scene and light changes. As it is discussed in the paper, it can be used in low-power wireless sensor networks.
Słowa kluczowe
PL wizja komputerowa   czujnik   dyskretna transformata falkowa  
EN computer vision   discrete wavelet transform   sensor system   sensor application  
Wydawca Polska Akademia Nauk, Wydział IV Nauk Technicznych
Czasopismo Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Technical Sciences
Rocznik 2015
Tom Vol. 63, nr 3
Strony 569--–573
Opis fizyczny Bibliogr. 15 poz., rys., fot.
Twórcy
autor Kłosowski, M.
  • Department of Microelectronic Systems, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland, wujek@ue.eti.pg.gda.pl
autor Wójcikowski, M.
  • Department of Microelectronic Systems, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
autor Czyżewski, A.
  • Multimedia Systems Department, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza St., 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
Bibliografia
[1] M.Y.I. Idris, Y.Y. Leng, E.M. Tamil, N.M. Noor, and Z. Razak, “Car park system: a review of smart parking system and its technology”, Information Technology J. 8 (2), 101–113 (2009).
[2] A. Hampapur, L. Brown, J. Connell, A. Ekin, N. Haas, M. Lu, H. Merkl, and S. Pankanti, “Smart video surveillance: exploring the concept of multiscale spatiotemporal tracking”, IEEE Signal Process. Mag. 22 (2), 38–51 (2005).
[3] M. Casares, S. Velipasalar, and A. Pinto, “Light-weight salient foreground detection for embedded smart cameras”, Computer Vision and Image Understanding 114 (11), 1223–1237 (2010).
[4] J. Wu, X. Zhang, and J. Zhou, “Vehicle detection in static road images with PCA and wavelet-based classifier”, Proc. IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conf. 1, 740–744 (2001).
[5] D.B.L. Bong, K.C. Ting, and K.C. Lai, “Integrated approach in the design of car park”, IAENG Int. J. Comput. Sci. 35 (1), 7–14 (2008).
[6] L. Tsai, J. Hsieh, and K. Fan, “Vehicle detection using normalized color and edge map”, IEEE Trans. Image Process. 16 (3), 850–864 (2007).
[7] C. Huang and S. Wang, “A hierarchical Bayesian generation framework for vacant parking space detection”, IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 20 (12), 1770–1785 (2010).
[8] A. Gardel Vicente, I. Bravo Munoz, P.J. Molina, and J.L.L. Galilea, “Embedded vision modules for tracking and counting people”, IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 58 (9), 3004–3011 (2009).
[9] S. Szczepański, M. Wójcikowski, B. Pankiewicz, M. Kłosowski, and R. Żaglewski, “FPGA and ASIC implementation of the algorithm for traffic monitoring in urban areas”, Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech. 59 (2), 137–140 (2011).
[10] M. Wójcikowski, R. Żaglewski, B. Pankiewicz, M. Kłosowski, and S. Szczepański, “Hardware-software implementation of a sensor network for city traffic monitoring using the FPGA- and ASIC-based sensor nodes”, J. Signal Processing Systems 71 (1), 57–73 (2013).
[11] W. Jendernalik, G. Blakiewicz, A. Handkiewicz, and M. Melosik, “Analogue CMOS ASICS in image processing systems”, Metrol. Meas. Syst. XX (4), 613–622 (2013).
[12] S. Hui and S.H. Żak, “Discrete Fourier transform based pattern classifiers”, Bull. Pol. Ac.: Tech. 62 (1), 15–22 (2014).
[13] Y. Geng and C.G. Cassandras, “A new ‘smart parking’ system based on resource”, IEEE Tran. Intell. Transp. Syst. 14 (3), 1129–1139 (2013).
[14] M. Klosowski, “Hardware accelerated implementation of wavelet transform for machine vision in road traffic monitoring system”, 1st International Conference on Information Technology IT 2008, DOI 10.1109/INFTECH.2008.4621686, 1–4 (2008).
[15] M. Kociołek, A. Materka, M. Strzelecki, and P. Szczypiński, “Discrete wavelet transform - derived features for digital image texture analysis”, Proc. Int. Conf. Signals and Electronic Systems 1, 111–116 (2001).
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