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http://yadda.icm.edu.pl:80/baztech/element/bwmeta1.element.baztech-880f756f-e8f5-45b0-a041-79ce18989317

Czasopismo

Rocznik Ochrona Środowiska

Tytuł artykułu

Mikrozanieczyszczenia w środowisku – występowanie, interakcje, usuwanie

Autorzy Miksch, K.  Felis, E.  Kalka, J.  Sochacki, A.  Drzymała, J. 
Treść / Zawartość http://ros.edu.pl/
Warianty tytułu
EN Micropollutants in the Environment: Occurrence, Interactions and Elimination
Języki publikacji PL
Abstrakty
PL W artykule przedstawiono szeroki zakres zagadnień dotyczących mikrozanieczyszczeń w środowisku naturalnym i antropogenicznym. Do omówionych zagadnień należą: źródła i występowanie mikrozanieczyszczeń w środowisku (w wodzie, glebie i powietrzu), ich los w środowisku, ekotoksyczność, sposoby ograniczania powstawania mikrozanieczyszczeń, szlaki przemian i produkty transformacji w środowisku, problematyka oczyszczania ścieków zawierających mikrozanieczyszczenia, prace badawcze dotyczące omawianej problematyki i przegląd wybranych rozwiązań w skali technicznej. Usuwanie mikrozanieczyszczeń stanowi aktualnie wiodący problem inżynierii środowiska. Wiedza o występowaniu tych zanieczyszczeń w środowisku jest już dość bogata, rozpoznano też częściowo jakie są ich losy w obiektach gospodarki wodnej i odpadami, także znaczny postęp nastąpił w zakresie znajomości efektywności technologii możliwych do zastosowania dla ich eliminacji ze środowiska. Rozwój technologii oczyszczania ścieków, a w mniejszym stopniu gospodarki odpadami, doprowadził już do usunięcia lub zmniejszenia zagrożenia spowodowanego znacznymi ilościami zanieczyszczeń, jednak aktualnie najbardziej palącym zagadnieniem jest występowanie mikrozanieczyszczeń, których działanie na środowisko przyrodnicze i człowieka nie można jeszcze oszacować. Ze względu na fakt, że występujące w środowisku mikrozanieczyszczenia antropogeniczne są bardzo zróżnicowane pod względem struktury chemicznej, a co się z tym wiąże – charakteryzują się innymi właściwościami fizyko-chemicznymi i w inny sposób działają na organizmy żywe obecne w środowisku, nie można wyróżnić jednego szlaku transformacji tych zanieczyszczeń. Mikrozanieczyszczenia antropogeniczne najczęściej nie są całkowicie rozkładane biologicznie, a ich transformacja związana jest ze zjawiskiem kometabolizmu oraz współdziałaniu określonych konsorcjów mikroorganizmów. Poszukiwaniu nowych, bardziej skutecznych, metod usuwania mikrozanieczyszczeń z środowiska powinna zawsze towarzyszyć ewaluacja toksyczności powstałych produktów. Produkty transformacji niektórych zanieczyszczeń były bardziej toksyczne w stosunku do organizmów wskaźnikowych niż substancje macierzyste. Głównym źródłem mikrozanieczyszczeń przedostających się do środowiska wodnego w krajach rozwiniętych (w przypadku terenów skanalizowanych) są komunalne oczyszczalnie ścieków. Z tego względu w artykule szczegółowo omówiono problematykę usuwania mikrozanieczyszczeń ze ścieków komunalnych w układach oczyszczania i doczyszczania ścieków. W artykule przedstawiono wyniki dotyczące usuwania wybranych mikrozanieczyszczeń (benzotriazol, mekoprop, diklofenak, sulfametoksazol i karbamazpina) w 11 rodzajach układów oczyszczania ścieków opartych zarówno na procesach biologicznych (oczyszczalnie hydrofitowe, stawy stabilizacyjne i układy z osadem czynnym), jak i fizyko-chemicznych (koagulacja, sorpcja na węglu aktywnym, zaawansowane procesy utleniania, fotoliza i ozonoliza) oraz różniących się zapotrzebowaniem powierzchni (co wynika z jednostkowej szybkości procesu) i konsumpcją energii (te dwa czynniki uznano za podstawę podziału na procesy intensywne i ekstensywne). Przedstawione w artykule zagadnienia stanowią podstawę do kreowania projektów badawczych, pozwalających przybliżyć moment w którym oczyszczalnie ścieków posiadać będą (czwarty) stopień, który zapewni likwidację zagrożeń wynikających z obecności w oczyszczonych ściekach substancji priorytetowych nawet w bardzo niskim stężeniu (co powodować może odległe w czasie skutki).
EN The article presents a broad range of issues concerning micropollutants in the natural and anthropogenic environment. The issues discussed are: the source and occurrence of micropollutants in the environment (water, soil and air), their environmental fate, ecotoxicity, measures to reduce the produced amount of micropollutants, transformation pathways and transformation products in the environment, treatment of wastewater containg micropollutants, research projects dedicated to the discussed issues and a review of selected solutions on an industrial scale. Removal of micropollutants is currently a pressing problem of environmental engineering. Knowledge of the presence of these pollutants in the environment is already quite advanced, with partial understandingof their fate in waste and wastewater treatment processes. Also, significant progress has been made in the understanding of the applicability of various treatment methods and their effectiveness in the removal of micropollutants from waste streams. Development of wastewater treatment technology, and to a lesser extent, waste management, has already led to elimination or reduction of the risk posed by the significant amounts of pollution, but currently the most pressing issue is the presence of micropollutants whose effect on natural environment and humanrequires further studies. There is no single transformation pathway of micropollutants, due to the fact that they are diverse in terms of chemical structure, subsequently have various physico-chemical properties, and affect the organisms present in the environment in various manner. Anthropogenic micropollutants usually are not completely degraded biologically, and their transformation is associated with the phenomenon of co-metabolism and cooperation of certain consortia of microorganisms. The search for new, more effective, methods for removing micropollutants from the environment should always be accompanied by evaluation of the toxicity of the resulting products. Transformation products of certain micropollutants were more toxic to indicator organisms than the parent compounds. The main source of micropollutants entering the water environment in developed countries (in the case of sewered areas) are municipal wastewater treatment plants. For this reason, the article discussed in detail the issue of the removal of micropollutants from municipal wastewaterin the secondary and tertiary (post-treatment)treatment steps. The article presents the results for the abatement of selected micropollutants (benzotriazole, mecoprop, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole and karbamazpina) in 11 types of wastewater treatment based on both biological processes (constructed wetlands, stabilization ponds and activated sludge systems) and physicochemical methods (coagulation, sorption on activated carbon, advanced oxidation, photolysis and ozonolysis), and the area requirements (due to the process rate) and the energy consumption (the two factors are the basis for the distinction between the intensive and extensive technologies). The issues presented in the article the basis for new research projects, allowing accelerating the moment in which the waste water treatment plants, will have a quaternary treatment step, which will significantly reduce of the risks of the presence of priority substances in the treated wastewatereven at very low concentrations (which may cause long-time effects).
Słowa kluczowe
PL mikrozanieczyszczenia   farmaceutyki   ekotoksyczność   inhibitory korozji   benzotriazol   diklofenak   fotoliza   karbamazepina   mekoprop   oczyszczalnie hydrofitowe   osad czynny   ozonoliza   koagulacja   sorpcja   sulfametoksazol   transformacja   zaawansowane procesy utleniania  
EN micropollutants   pharmaceutuicals   corrosion inhibitors   advanced oxidation processes   activated sludge   benzotriazole   carbamazepine   constructed wetlands   diclofenac   ecotoxicity   mecoprop   ozonolysis   photolysis   sorption   sulfamethoxazole   transformation  
Wydawca Środkowo-Pomorskie Towarzystwo Naukowe Ochrony Środowiska
Czasopismo Rocznik Ochrona Środowiska
Rocznik 2016
Tom Tom 18, cz. 3
Strony 1--84
Opis fizyczny Bibliogr. 209 poz., tab., rys.
Twórcy
autor Miksch, K.
  • Katedra Biotechnologii Środowiskowej, Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska i Energetyki, Politechnika Śląska, Gliwice, Polska
  • Centrum Biotechnologii, Politechnika Śląska, Gliwice, Polska
autor Felis, E.
  • Katedra Biotechnologii Środowiskowej, Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska i Energetyki, Politechnika Śląska, Gliwice, Polska
  • Centrum Biotechnologii, Politechnika Śląska, Gliwice, Polska
autor Kalka, J.
  • Katedra Biotechnologii Środowiskowej, Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska i Energetyki, Politechnika Śląska, Gliwice, Polska
  • Centrum Biotechnologii, Politechnika Śląska, Gliwice, Polska
autor Sochacki, A.
  • Katedra Biotechnologii Środowiskowej, Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska i Energetyki, Politechnika Śląska, Gliwice, Polska
  • Centrum Biotechnologii, Politechnika Śląska, Gliwice, Polska
  • Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Czech Republic
autor Drzymała, J.
  • Katedra Biotechnologii Środowiskowej, Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska i Energetyki, Politechnika Śląska, Gliwice, Polska
  • Centrum Biotechnologii, Politechnika Śląska, Gliwice, Polska
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Strony internetowe
www.1 http://extoxnet.orst.edu/ghindex.html
www.2 www.env.go.jp/en/chemi/chemicals/profile_erac/profile9/pf2-06.pdf
www.3 webcode/20160309_002
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