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Emission of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs) and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from Underfiring System of Coke Oven Battery

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Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
A coke oven battery is not considered as a significant source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) emissions; however, due to small amounts of chlorine in coal dioxins, dibenzofurans may be formed. The paper presents the attempts to determine the level of emission of PCDDs/PCDFs from the COB underfiring system and to confront the obtained results with the calculations based on the mass balance of chlorine in the coking process and reactions of both chlorophenols formation and PCDDs and PCDFs formation from mono- and polychlorophenols. There were PCDDs/PCDFs concentrations measured in flue gases from the underfiring system of two COBs at a Polish coking plant. The measurements included both an old and a new battery. The obtained concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs were lower than reported in the literature (0.5-1.7 ng I-TEQ/Mgcoke), while the results for old COB were on average 3 times higher than for the new one. It was found that PCDDs/PCDFs emission from COB underfiring system is insignificant and that PCDDs/PCDFs formation during coal coking should consider the mechanisms of their formation from mono- and polychlorophenols, as well as the influence of process parameters on the synthesis.
Słowa kluczowe
Rocznik
Strony
21--29
Opis fizyczny
Bibliogr. 26 poz., rys., tab.
Twórcy
autor
  • Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal, Zamkowa 1, 41-800 Zabrze, Poland, rbigda@ichpw.pl
  • Silesian University of Technology, Faculty of Chemistry, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Krzywoustego 6, Gliwice, Poland
autor
  • Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal, Zamkowa 1, 41-800 Zabrze, Poland
  • Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal, Zamkowa 1, 41-800 Zabrze, Poland
Bibliografia
  • 1. Alcock, R. E., Jones, K.C.: Dioxins in the Environment: Review of Trend Data, Environmental Science&Technology, 11, 3133-3143, 1996.
  • 2. Bhatkhande B. S., Adhikari M. V., Samant S. D.: Sonochemical chloro-oxidation of phenols using HCl-H2O2, Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, nr 9, 31-35, 2002.
  • 3. BREF – Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for Iron and Steel Production, Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control), 2013.
  • 4. Brzuzy, L.P., Hites, R.A.: Global Mass Balance for Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans, Environmental Science&Technology, 6, 1797-1804, 1996.
  • 5. BS EN 1948–1:2006 Stationary source emissions. Determination of the mass concentration of PCDDs/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs. Sampling of PCDDs/PCDFs.
  • 6. Fiedler, H.: Formation and Sources of PCDD/PCDF, Organohalogen. Compd., 11, 221-228, 1993
  • 7. Griffin R.D.: A new theory of dioxin formation in municipal solid waste combustion, Chemosphere, 1986, 15 (9-12), 1987-1990.
  • 8. Grochowalski, A. Lasa, J.: PCDDs – hazardous poisons for humans and natural environment (in Polish), Problemy ekologiczne Krakowa nr 13, AGH: Polski Klub Ekologiczny, 5-30, 1989
  • 9. M. Hein, Review of Methods Used for Determination of Emissions to Air From Coke Plants in Germany, Essen, 2009, Non-published.
  • 10. Jones, P.H., Pettit, K., Hillmer, M.J.: Perspective on Dioxin Emissions from Incineration Processes, Filtration & Separation, 167-173, 1994.
  • 11. Kajigaeshi S., Shinmasu Y., Fujisaki S., Kakinami T.: Halogenation using quaternary ammonium polyhalides. XXVI [1]. Chlorination of phenols with benzyltrimethylammonium tetrachloroiodate, Chemistry Express, no. 5, 141-144, 1990.
  • 12. Karcz A.: Possibilities of alkali and chlorine reduction in blast furnace coke (in Polish), Karbo, nr 10, 287, 2002.
  • 13. Kashparova V. P., Kagan E. Sh., Zhukova I. Yu., Ivakhnenko E. P.: Use of 1-halo derivatives of the 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine series as oxidants and halogenating agents, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 77, 964-967, 2004.
  • 14. Koini, Eftychia N., Alvonitis N., Calogeropoulou T.: Simple and efficient method for the halogenation of oxygenated aromatic compounds, Synlett, nr 11, 1537-1542, 2011.
  • 15. Kosewska M., Wróbelska K.: Chlorine in coke oven gas at various stages of its purification (in Polish), Karbo, nr 11, 294, 1995.
  • 16. Koszorek A., Mianowski A.: Emission of chlorine compounds during coal coking process (in Polish), Karbo, nr 6, 209, 1999.
  • 17. Mahajan T., Kumar L., Dwivedi, K., Agarwal D.D.: Efficient and Facile Chlorination of Industrially-Important Aromatic Compounds using NaCl/p-TsOH/NCS in Aqueous Media, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 51, 3881-3886, 2012.
  • 18. Regulation (EC) No 166/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18 January 2006 concerning the establishment of a European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) and amending Council Directives 91/689/EEC and 96/61/EC.
  • 19. Report on “Opportunities for Reduction of Dioxin Emissions from the Metallurgical Sector in Poland”, Polish-Danish project financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency from DANCEE resources, 2005.
  • 20. Ryu J., Formation of chlorinated phenols, dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, benzenes, benzoquinnones and perchloroethylenes from phenols in oxidative and copper (II) chloride-catalyzed thermal process, ScienceDirect, 1100-1109, 2008.
  • 21. Saper Noam I., Snider Barry B.: 2,2,6,6-Tetra-methylpiperidine-Catalyzed, Ortho-selective Chlorination of Phenols by Sulfuryl Chloride, Journal of Organic Chemistry, nr 79, 809-813, 2014
  • 22. Sobolewski A. et al., Methodical guide. Release and transfer of pollutants to the environment from coking plants in Poland (in Polish), IChPW, Zabrze, 2010.
  • 23. Sobolewski A., Best Available Techniques in coking industry (in Polish), Ministerstwo Środowiska, Warszawa, 2005.
  • 24. Strugała A.: Mineral matter in coal and its transformation during coking process (in Polish), Gospodarka surowcami mineralnymi, vol. 14, 1, 1998.
  • 25. Świetlik U.: Chlorine in coal – occurrence and behavior in thermal processes (in Polish), Karbo, nr 11, 358, 2000.
  • 26. Wielgosiński G.: Emission of dioxins from thermal processes and methods of their reduction (in Polish), PAN, Łódź 2009.
Uwagi
Opracowanie rekordu w ramach umowy 509/P-DUN/2018 ze środków MNiSW przeznaczonych na działalność upowszechniającą naukę (2018).
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.baztech-51ff94bc-1d14-407d-a7f5-4d9c4be28587
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