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Gender effect on underwater undulatory swimming technique of young competitive swimmers

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Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
EN
Abstrakty
EN
The study aim was determining gender-related differences of underwater undulatory swimming (UUS) kinematic indicators and their impact on UUS velocity. Methods: The study included 18 girls (F: age 16.71 ± 0.64 years, FINA points 551 ± 68) and 23 boys (M: age 16.79 ± 0.57 years, FINA points 533 ± 66) training swimming. After marking characteristic anatomical points, subjects performed approximately 7 meters of UUS. A filming device placed behind the underwater window registered the trial. Recordings were analysed using the SkillSpector programme. Results: Boys swam faster (F: 1.24 m/s, M: 1.35 m/s), overcame a greater distance during one cycle (F: 0.67 m, M: 0.74 m), performed movements with higher toes amplitude (F: 0.58 m, M: 0.63 m), obtained higher amplitude and frequency product (F: 1.05, M: 1.15) and smaller ankle joint range of motion (F: 64°, M: 57°). In both groups, relationships between velocity and: maximal ankle joint extension, distance covered during one cycle and backward toes shift during downward movement were found. The results were statistically significant ( p < 0.05). Conclusions: Girls and boys differed in kinematic indicator level, but UUS velocity depends on identical kinematic variables, meaning UUS technical training can be performed without gender-division.
Rocznik
Strony
3--11
Opis fizyczny
Bibliogr. 26 poz., tab.
Twórcy
  • Department of Biomechanics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Physical Education in Kraków, Poland, wadrzyk504@gmail.com
  • Department of Biomechanics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Physical Education in Kraków, Poland
  • Department of Anthropology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Physical Education in Kraków, Poland
  • Department of Anthropology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of Physical Education in Kraków, Poland
Bibliografia
  • [1] ALTER M.J., Science of flexibility, Human Kinetics, 2004.
  • [2] ARELLANO R., PARDILLO S., GAVILAN A., Underwater undulatory swimming: kinematic characteristics, vortex generation and application during the start, turn and swimming strokes, [in:] K.E. Gianikellis (Ed.), Proceedings of the XXth International Symposium on Biomechanics in Sports, University of Extremadura, 2002.
  • [3] ATKISON R.R., NOLTE V., Kinematic comparison of the underwater dolphin kick between swimmers with different levels of competitive ability, [in:] The Proceedings of the 16th Biannual Conference of The Canadian Society for Biomechanics, Queen’s University, 2010, 149.
  • [4] ATKISON R.R., DICKEY J.P., DRAGUNAS A., NOLTE V., Importance of sagittal kick symmetry for underwater dolphin kick performance, Hum. Mov. Sci., 2014, 33, 298–311, DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2013.08.013.
  • [5] BERNARDINA G.R., CERVERI P., BARROS R.M., MARINS J.C., SILVATTI A.P., Action sport cameras as an instrument to perform a 3D underwater motion analysis, PLoS One, 2016, 11(8), 1–14, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160490.
  • [6] BEUNEN G., MALINA R., Growth and biologic maturation: relevance to athletic performance, [in:] H. Hebestreit, O. Bar-Or (Eds.), The young athlete: 3–17, Blackwell Publishing, Ltd., 2008.
  • [7] COHEN R.C., CLEARY P.W., MASON B.R., Simulations of dolphin kick swimming using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, Hum. Mov. Sci., 2012, 31(3), 604–619, DOI: 10.1016/j.humov.2011.06.008.
  • [8] GORGOULIS V., ANTONIOU P., AGGELOUSSIS N., MAVRIDIS G., KASIMATIS P., VEZOS N., BOLI A., MAVROMATIS G., Kinematic characteristics of the stroke and orientation of the hand during front crawl resisted swimming, J. Sports Sci., 2010, 11, 1165–1173, DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2010.50725.
  • [9] HIGGS A.J., PEASE D.L., SANDERS R., Kinematic differences between upkick and downkick in undulatory underwater swimming, [in:] F. Colloud, M. Domalain, T. Monnet (Eds.), Proceedings of the 33rd Conference of the International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, International Society of Biomechanics in Sports, 2015, 960–963.
  • [10] HIGGS A.J., PEASE D.L., SANDERS R., Relationships between kinematics and undulatory underwater swimming performance, J. Sports Sci., 2017, 35(10), 995–1003, DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1208836.
  • [11] KENNEY W.L., WILMORE J.H., COSTILL D.L., Physiology of sport and exercise, sixth ed., Human Kinetics, 2015.
  • [12] KJENDLIE P.L., STALLMAN R., Morphology and swimming performance, [in:] L. Seifert, D. Chollet, I. Mujika (Eds.), World book of swimming: from science to performance, Nova Science Publishers Inc, 2011, 203–221.
  • [13] MOONEY R., CORLEY G., GODFREY A., OSBOROUGH C., QUINLAN L., ÒLAIGHIN G., Application of video-based methods for competitive swimming analysis: a systematic review, Sport Exerc. Med. Open J., 2015, 1(5), 133–150, DOI:10.17140/SEMOJ-1-121.
  • [14] NEVILL A.M., WHYTE G.P., HOLDER L.R., PEYREBRUNE M., Are there limits to swimming world records?, Int. J. Sports Med., 2007, 28(12), 1012–1017.
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  • [16] PELAYO P., ALBERTY M., The history of swimming research, [in:] L. Seifert, D. Chollet, I. Mujika (Eds.), World book of swimming: from science to performance: XIX–XVI, Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2011.
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  • [18] STAROSTA W., Term of “water feeling”, its significance, structure, changeability, formation and conditions in opinion of athletes of different water sports and its coaches, [in:] W. Starosta (Ed.), Kinestesis – new method of development highest quality of movements, International Association of Sports Kinetics, 2015, 229–268 (in Polish).
  • [19] STRZAŁA M., KRĘŻAŁEK P., KACA M., GŁĄB G., OSTROWSKI A., STANULA A., TYKA A., Swimming speed of the breaststroke kick, J. Hum. Kinet., 2012, 35, 133–139, DOI: 10.2478/v10078-012-0087-4.
  • [20] UNGERECHTS B., ARELLANO R., Hydrodynamics in swimming, [in:] L. Seifert, D. Chollet, I. Mujika (Eds.), World book of swimming: from science to performance, Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2011, 21–41,
  • [21] WĄDRZYK Ł., NOSIADEK L., STASZKIEWICZ R., Underwater dolphin kicks of young swimmers – evaluation of effectiveness based on kinematic analysis, Hum. Mov., 2017, 18(4), 23–29, DOI: 10.1515/humo-2017-0030.
  • [22] WILLEMS T.M., CORNELIS J.A. DE DEURWAERDER L.E., ROELANDT F., DE MITS S., The effect of ankle muscle strength and flexibility on dolphin kick performance in competitive swimmers, Hum. Mov. Sci., 2015, 36, 167–176, DOI:10.1016/j.humov.2014.05.004.
  • [23] WOLAŃSKI N., Human biological development. Basics of auxology, gerontology and health promotion, Eighth Ed., Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 2012 (in Polish).
  • [24] WOLFRUM M., RUST C.A., ROSEMANN T., LEPERS R., KNECHTLE B., Changes in breaststroke swimming performances in national and international athletes competing between 1994 and 2011 – a comparison with freestyle swimming performances, BMC Sports Sci. Med. Rehabil., 2014, 6 (18), DOI: 10.1186/2052-1847-6-18.
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  • [26] ZATOŃ K., SZCZEPAN S., KAZIMIERÓW R., REJMAN M., Advisability on the shift from standard front crawl swimming technique to the “kayaking” and “loping” variants, Hum. Mov., 2012, 13 (3), 225–235, DOI: 10.2478/v10038-012-0026-1.
Uwagi
Opracowanie rekordu ze środków MNiSW, umowa Nr 461252 w ramach programu "Społeczna odpowiedzialność nauki" - moduł: Popularyzacja nauki i promocja sportu (2020).
Typ dokumentu
Bibliografia
Identyfikator YADDA
bwmeta1.element.baztech-16bb8ca6-ff0c-499b-9775-7f133741ee86
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