Preferencje help
Widoczny [Schowaj] Abstrakt
Liczba wyników
Tytuł artykułu

Multi-dimensional assessment of the second Nagorno-Karabakh war

Wybrane pełne teksty z tego czasopisma
Warianty tytułu
Języki publikacji
This article contains an assessment of the last war in the Southern Caucasus, referring to it as the second Nagorno–Karabakh war. The assessment is concentrated on the military capabilities built up prior to the major escalation of this war and operational features identified during the battles. The assessment uses analytic categories of processed information and initiatives that sovereign actors took during decision cycles and the conduct of military campaigns. Those analytic categories are named dimensions, with the strategic and military dimensions being the most important for this analysis. The key findings of this article suggest that additional dimensions could be used in researching the complex conditions of the war, which might have a continuous impact even outside the Southern Caucasus. The review of initiatives at the strategic dimension suggested that the built-up of two competing security policy fractions in the South Caucasus was an influential factor. The assessment of the military dimension of that war provided insights regarding the tactical choices of both adversaries. That assessment revealed some significant differences in how the campaign was conducted on both sides. Further complex tensions in the region are expected as national political decisions will drive strategic choices and drive the development of military capabilities. Given the fact that both countries were short of a consensus-based peace deal and Russia sent in peacekeeping forces, further developments in the political and strategic dimensions of this war saga should be expected.
Opis fizyczny
Bibliogr. 32 poz.
  • Defense and Security Innovations’ Analysis Group, Baltic Institute of Advanced Technology, Pilies Street 16, 01403, Vilnius, Lithuania
  • 1. Anglim, S. (2021) ‘Azerbaijan’s victory: Initial thoughts and observations (and Caveats for “Innovative”)’, Military Strategy Magazine, 7(3), pp. 10–17.
  • 2. Bekdil B.E. (2020) ‘Azerbaijan to buy armed drones from Turkey’, Defense News, 25 June. Available at: (Accessed: 29 July 2021).
  • 3. Broers, L. (2020) ‘Perspectives. Did Russia win the Karabakh war?’ Eurasianet, 17 November. Available at: (Accessed: 28 July 2021).
  • 4. Broers, L. (2021) ‘Perspectives. The OSCE’s Minsk group: A unipolar artifact in a multipolar world’, Eurasianet 11 May. Available at: (Accessed: 29 July 2021).
  • 5. Clausewitz, C. (1918) On war, vol. 1. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co.
  • 6. Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO) (2019) The Republic of Armenia. Available at: (Accessed: 21 July 2021).
  • 7. Cornell, S., (ed.) (2017) ‘Reversing escalation: The local and international politics of the conflict’, in The international politics of Armenian–Azerbaijani conflict. Washington DC: Springer, pp. 195–208. doi: 10.1057/978-1-137-60006-6_10.
  • 8. Fluri, P. and Bucur-Marcu, H., (eds.) (2007) Partnership action plan for defense institution building: Country profiles and need assessments for Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Moldova. Geneva, Switzerland: Geneva Center for Security Sector Governance.
  • 9. Lithuanian Land Force Command Staff (2020) Nagorno-Karabakh war analysis. Vilnius, Lithuania: G2 Intelligence Analysis Branch.
  • 10. Markedonov, S. (2020) ‘Nagorno-Karabakh: A flare-up, or all-out war?’, Moscow, Russia: Carnegie Moscow Center. Available at: (Accessed: 31 July 2021).
  • 11. McConville, J.C. (2021) ‘Not fighting the last war better’, in Western way of war, Podcast Series, Episode 58, 5 August. Available at: (Accessed: 7 August 2021).
  • 12. Mirza, H. (2021) Presentation of Azerbaijani tactical solutions and aspects of war, conference of the NagornoKarabakh war analysis. Vilnius, Lithuania: Lithuanian Military Academy.
  • 13. Natiqqizi, U. (2021) ‘In Karabakh, Turkish and Azerbaijani leaders cement alliance’, Eurasianet 16 June. Available at: (Accessed: 31 July 2021).
  • 14. Office of Defence Cooperation, US Embassy in Azerbaijan (2021). Available at: (Accessed: 11 July 2021).
  • 15. Osinga, F. (2015) ‘The enemy as a complex adaptive system: John Boyd and airpower in the postmodern era’, in Olsen, A. (ed.), Airpower reborn: The strategic concepts of John Warden and John Boyd. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, pp. 48–54.
  • 16. Radin, A. (2019) The future of the Russian military: Russia’s ground combat capabilities and implications for U.S.-Russia competition. California, US: RAND, pp. 45–60. doi: 10.7249/RR3099.
  • 17. Rayburn, J. and Sobchak, F., (eds.) (2019) The U.S. army in the Iraq war: Surge and withdrawal 2007–2011, vol. 2. Carlisle, PA: US Army War College, pp. 264–292.
  • 18. Remler, P. (2020) ‘OSCE Minsk group: Lessons from the past and tasks for the future’, OSCE In-sights, Issue 6, pp. 85–100. Available at: (Accessed: 29 June 2021).
  • 19. Reynolds, N. and Watling, J. (2020) Your tanks cannot hide. RUSI Defense Systems. Available at: (Accessed: 20 December 2020).
  • 20. Shaikh, S. and Rumbaugh, W. (2020) The air and missile war in Nagorno-Karabakh: Lessons for the future of strike and defense. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies. Available at: (Accessed: 29 July 2021).
  • 21. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (2021a) Importer/exporter trend indicator values tables. Available at: (Accessed: 26 July 2021).
  • 22. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (2021b) Military expenditure database. Available at: (Accessed: 20 December 2021).
  • 23. The New York Times (2020a) ‘Turkey declares major offence against Syrian government’, 2 March, p. 12. Available at: (Accessed: 25 July 2021).
  • 24. The New York Times (2020b) ‘Azerbaijan claims capture of key town in Nagorno-Karabakh’, 9 November. Available at: (Accessed: 25 July 2021).
  • 25. Trenin, D. (2020) ‘Moscow’s New Rules’, Moscow, Russia Carnegie Moscow Center. Available at: (Accessed: 31 July 2021).
  • 26. Waal, T. (2013) Black garden: Armenia and Azerbaijan through peace and war. New York, NY: NY University Press, pp. 12–26.
  • 27. Waal, T. (2020) ‘Europe’s longest-running conflict can’t be ignored’, Moscow, Russia: Carnegie Moscow Center. Available at: (Accessed: 31 July 2021).
  • 28. Waal, T. (2021) ‘Unfinished business in the Armenia–Azerbaijan conflict’, Bruxelles, Belgium: Carnegie Europe. Available at: (Accessed: 30 July 2021).
  • 29. Watling, J. (2020) ‘The key to Armenia’s tank losses: The sensors, not the shooters’, RUSI Defence Systems, Vol. 22. London: Royal United Service Institute. Available at: (Accessed: 20 June 2021).
  • 30. Welt, C. and Bowen A. (2021) Azerbaijan and Armenia: The Nagorno-Karabakh conflict. CRS Report R46651. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, pp. 1–17.
  • 31. Wezeman, P.D., Kuimova, A. and Smith, J. (2021) ‘Arms transfer to conflict zones: The case of NagornoKarabakh’, Commentary, SIPRI Newsletter. Solna, Sweden: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.
  • 32. Available at: (Accessed: 23 July 2021.
Typ dokumentu
Identyfikator YADDA
JavaScript jest wyłączony w Twojej przeglądarce internetowej. Włącz go, a następnie odśwież stronę, aby móc w pełni z niej korzystać.